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Notice sur l’emploi etles proprietés du lacto-phosphate de custom writings service chaux, clichy, 1868, unbound, 8pages dusart and blache. Recherches sur l’assimilation du phosphate dechaux, paris, 1868, unbound, 15 pages editorial note -- the investigation verifies facts that must be obviousto every physician who has given the matter thought “wheeler tissuephosphates” is an unscientific, shotgun mixture whose most active andpowerful drug is the alcohol it contains that it was not years agorelegated to the realms of obsolete and discarded preparations is acommentary alike on the lack of scientific discrimination and thepersuasive power of advertising while in the past “wheeler tissuephosphates” has been advertised extensively in medical journals, it seems that now the chief, if not the only beneficiary of theadvertising appropriation for this product is the new york medicaljournal, which weekly heralds the “delicious” and “sustaining”qualities of “the ideal tonic for fastidious convalescents ”-- fromthe journal a m a , may 5, 1917 the claimed galactagogue effects of nutrolactis and goat rue not substantiated report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryspecific lactagogues-- drugs which stimulate the secretion ofmilk-- are unknown to science yet medical publications give spaceto advertisements of a proprietary-- “nutrolactis”-- which is said toincrease the milk supply of nursing mothers since dependence ona preparation of this kind is likely to cause neglect of the onlymeans of increasing a scanty milk supply of nursing mothers-- care ofthe general health and a sufficient quantity of proper food-- thisproprietary and the drug “goat rue, ” galega officinalis which theproprietors hint as being the potent constituent, were subjected to acritical study to determine their possible influence on milk secretion for this purpose the council secured the help of a j carlson, ph d , professor of physiology, university of chicago dr carlson, withthe aid of a woelfel, m d , and marian lewis, sc m , undertook toestimate the effect of nutrolactis and of goat rue on nursing dogsand goats with the intention of extending the study to nursing mothersif the animal experiments so warranted the contribution, “the allegedgalactagogue action of galega and nutrolactis, ” by marian lewis anda j carlson from the hull physiological laboratory of the universityof chicago, which appears below, shows that nutrolactis and goat rueare without influence on the milk secretion in nursing animals the council endorsed the work of lewis and carlson and held that theclaimed galactagogue effects of nutrolactis and goat rue are notsubstantiated w a puckner, secretary the alleged galactagogue action of galega and nutrolactisd marian lewis, sc m , and a j carlson, ph d chicagod from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicago d this investigation was begun in 1915 by drs a woelfel and a j carlson it is well established that the food best adapted to the energy andgrowth requirements of the infant is normal mother milk any decreasein quantity or deterioration in quality of the maternal secretion issoon followed by a parallel impairment of growth, loss of weight, or lowered resistance to infection in the infant the widespreadoccurrence of deficient milk secretion is a matter of common knowledge the discovery of true lactagogues, or specific substances whichincrease the quantity and quality of the milk on being administered tonursing mothers, would therefore be of very great importance in viewof this great medical and economic interest in true lactagogues it isnot surprising to find that the medical and biologic literature recordsdiscoveries of lactagogues based on hope rather than demonstration, andthat spurious lactagogues are on the market essay of the factors known to affect milk secretion are general health, food supply, psychic state, and heredity the mechanism of secretionand the method by which these factors affect it are imperfectlyunderstood in general it has been observed that milk yield improvesboth in quantity and in quality with improvement in general health, better food supply, and more favorable psychic state the influence ofheredity is taken advantage of by dairymen who are well acquainted withthe potential milk production of the different breeds of cattle among the substances which have been reported to stimulate milksecretion may be mentioned the extract of the posterior lobe of thehypophysis but pituitary extract is not a true lactagogue, becauseits action is confined to the smooth musculature of the gland ducts, causing a more or less complete ejection of the milk already formed;it has no effect on the gland cells or the actual secretory process inthe direction of increasing the milk yield extracts of thymus, corpusluteum, ovaries, uterus, placenta, fetus, and the mammary gland itselfhave also been reported to have a temporary stimulating effect on thequantity of milk secreted, but when these extracts are given by mouththey are apparently without specific influence on the mammary gland galega, or goat rue galega officinalis, is an herb described inthe national formulary as being slightly bitter and astringent in1873, gillet-damotti, 112 in a communication to the french academy, stated that this plant when fed to cows increases the secretion ofmilk from 35 to 50 per cent other french writers have affirmed thatgoat rue is a lactagogue in gerthesis, fragner113 made a preparationcalled galegal, using galega as the active principle and combining itwith lactose to give it a pleasant taste and make it soluble in water, milk, coffee, and tea this preparation was reported on favorablyby scherer, 114 who asserts that he obtained positive results infifty-four of the eighty paper in which he used it 112 gillet-damotti. Comp rend acad d sc , july 7, 1873 113 fragner. Wien med wchnschr 60:1033-1036, 1910 114 scherer. Wien med wchnschr 60:1033-1036, 1910 more recently huët115 tested the effects of theinhardt hygiamalactogene on four lactating women this preparation is said to becomposed of hygiama, 116 galega and anise analysis showed that itcontains albumins, fat, soluble and insoluble carbohydrates, saltsand water huët could not observe any influence from the use of thispreparation, either on the quantity or on the composition of the milksecreted 115 huët. Nederlandsch tijdschr v geneesk 1:1353-1370, 1914 116 hygiama is said to be a food consisting of condensed milk, with fatless cocoa and cereals added to it encyclopedia and dictionary ofmedicine and surgery, 1907 nutrolactis117 is a commercial preparation sold by the nutrolactiscompany of new york at $1 a bottle the label states that it contains5 per cent of alcohol. That it contains fluid extracts of the familyof “galactagogic plants, ” and that it is intended to “increase thesupply of mother milk ” it is recommended to maintain “quality andquantity until the end of normal lactation ” nutrolactis is alsorecommended for a mother debilitated by lactation it is claimed that“nutrolactis does not force the secretion of milk but merely assistssuch secretion ” years ago millbank118 reported good results from theuse of nutrolactis after more than a year use he concluded that itwas more satisfactory than any other lactagogue hitherto employed byhim, which is not saying very much, as specific lactagogues are as yetunknown nutrolactis is still 1916 extensively advertised in variousmedical journals as a lactagogue 117 the north dakota agricultural experiment station has recentlypublished bulletin 22, 1915, p 386 a complete chemical analysisof nutrolactis it contains only 0 60 per cent solids includingstrychnin and emodin it has a bitter taste the alcohol content was3 5 per cent the report concludes. “a little strychnin, a littlealcohol, and a little laxative is about all there is to cause anincrease in the milk secretion ”118 millbank. New york m j 50:544, 1889 methods of investigationthe alleged lactagogue action of galega and nutrolactis was testedon lactating dogs and goats in these animals the psychic factors, or suggestion, are largely eliminated if the results had beenpositive or had indicated lactagogue action, the test would have beenextended to nursing women the puppies and kids were weighed beforeand after nursing and a record kept of the amount of milk obtained ateach nursing the animals nursing from three to five times daily the mothers were fed with varying doses of the drugs, and the milkyield compared with that of a control period during which no drugswere administered an effort was made to keep the conditions of theexperiments uniform throughout the galega was ground and mixed with the food the nutrolactis wasmixed with food given by the stomach tube, or in essay paper with aspoon galega was tested on two goats and nutrolactis on one goat andnine dogs the results are given herewith:galega goat 1. Control period, 1, 600 gm , milk av daily yield for 7 days galega period 30 gm galega mixed with oats, 860 gm , milk av daily yield for 8 days kids weaned at end of period goat 2.

There is a lesspronounced angle in the femur, the neck of which approaches a rightangle, while smallness of the patella in front and narrowness of thearticulating surfaces of the tibia and femur, which in man form thelateral prominences, are said to make the knee-joint in women a sexualcharacteristic but it is the striking contrast in the pelvis thatfurnishes a sexual significance that is of greater value than all therest of the skeleton together from a glance at the text-book accountof the pelvis, it does not appear that much anatomical knowledge isnecessary to identify the important points that give shape to thefemale pelvis its greater diameter except the vertical, larger andmore curved sacrum and coccyx, and great spread of the arch of thepubes are well-nigh incontestible signs the differences as detailedin the books can be objected to only on the possibility of a so-calledhermaphrodite pelvis in one of the other sex we essaytimes see a verylarge pelvis in a subject who by a teratological freak became a man masculine characteristics are, however, oftener found in women thanfeminine characteristics in men. Hence the conclusion that the presenceof feminine characteristics leaves but little doubt as to the sex, butthat certain masculine indications, while giving a great probabilityfor the male sex, are not absolutely decisive see hermaphroditism the finding of fœtal bones around or about the supposed female skeletonis suggestive it could not be inferred from this fact alone that thewoman was or was not pregnant at the time of death, since the absenceof fœtal remains on the one hand might imply their entire decompositionin advance of those of the adult. On the other hand, the indiscriminatehabit of undertakers, who often bury still-borns with adults, mayaccount for their presence accidental signs and evolution of the teeth the trade or occupation leaves but few marks on the bones that areuseful in the matter of identification it is in the recent andwell-preserved cadaver, or, better still, in the living subject, thatthe professional signs are of importance as a rule, the relativelylarger scapulæ point to the fact of a day-laborer.

Face livid custom writings service. Upper lid discolored. Abrasionof skin under right ear. Deep red mark around neck eyeballs notprominent. Eyelids closed. Corneæ dull. Pupils a little dilated bothlenses fractured brain normal. Spinal cord normal heart empty 86 dyer. Same trans , 1869, pp 72-75 - man hung one eye showedfracture of lens, the other lens showed fine lines a second paperhowed dislocation of a cataractous lens a third showed fissure oflens 87 green. Same trans , 1876, p 354 - man hung.

When they are full grown, are about a foot long, smooth andgreen custom writings service above, but hard and with little sap in them, and streaked on theback, athwart on both sides of the middle rib, with small and essaywhatlong and brownish marks. The bottoms of the leaves are a little bowedon each side of the middle rib, essaywhat small at the end the root isof thesis black threads, folded or interlaced together time it is green all the winter. But new leaves spring every year government and virtues jupiter claims dominion over this herb, therefore it is a singular remedy for the liver, both to strengthen itwhen weak, and ease it when afflicted, you shall do well to keep itin a syrup all the year. For though authors say it is green all theyear, i scarcely believe it hart tongue is much commended againstthe hardness and stoppings of the spleen and liver, and against theheat of the liver and stomach, and against lasks, and the bloody-flux the distilled water thereof is also very good against the passionsof the heart, and to stay the hiccough, to help the falling of thepalate, and to stay the bleeding of the gums, being gargled in themouth dioscorides saith, it is good against the stinging or biting ofserpents as for the use of it, my direction at the latter end will besufficient, and enough for those that are studious in physic, to whettheir brains upon for one year or two hazel-nut hazel nuts are so well known to every body, that they need nodescription government and virtues they are under the dominion of mercury the writinged kernels made into an electuary, or the milk drawn from thekernels with mead or honeyed water, is very good to help an old cough;and being parched, and a little pepper put to them and drank, digeststhe distillations of rheum from the head the dried husks and shells, to the weight of two drams, taken in red wine, stays lasks and womencourses, and so doth the red skin that covers the kernels, which ismore effectual to stay women courses and if this be true, as it is, then why should the vulgar so familiarlyaffirm, that eating nuts causes shortness of breath, than which nothingis falser?. for, how can that which strengthens the lungs, causeshortness of breath?. i confess, the opinion is far older than i am. Iknew tradition was a friend to error before, but never that he wasthe father of slander.

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I the mechanical. Ii the essential or internal. Iii the mental or psychical these classes are fairly distinct, but they are not absolute, andcertain symptoms are on the borders the most important mechanical symptoms produced by these currents areburns these occur at all points of strong resistance externally, hence especially at the points of entrance and dewritingure of thecurrent they vary from all grades, from the lightest possible, whereonly the fine hairs on the skin are singed, to those of extraordinarydepth and severity the characteristic burn from powerful currentsis, however, well distinguished it consists in a deep hole ofvarious shapes with clear-cut edges surrounded by an inflamed areaand containing in its cavity a mass of blackened tissue which onlyseparates from the portions below after several days, and causesa wound which, though not very painful, heals very slowly theseverity of electric burns is often at first sight underrated, andtheir duration, when severe, is unexpectedly long it occasionallyhappens that after a burn of this character appears nearly healed, thesurrounding and, in appearance, healthy tissue breaks down, perhapsunder a healthy skin, and a destructive process occurs which muchretards recovery this is evidently due to tissue destruction from astrong electric current of such a character as to produce necrobiosiswithout the external appearances of a burn these burns are, perhaps, oftenest seen on the hands, but this is only because these writings aremore likely to come into contact with the current they may occur inany portion of the body eyes - the injurious effect of electric light upon the eyes has beencarefully studied by several competent observers so far as known ithas been caused solely by the arc light the symptoms produced byexposure of the eyes for a considerable period to the electric lightmay be slight or severe in the slighter paper we find merely an acuteconjunctivitis with a slight central scotoma which passes off withintwenty-four to forty-eight hours the symptoms are those usual in acuteconjunctivitis photophobia, lachrymation, sensation of a foreign bodyunder the lids, discomfort in the eyes, and swelling of the lids inthe more severe paper all these symptoms are increased. The photophobiaand lachrymation may be intense there is essaytimes severe pain inthe supra-orbital nerve, and occasionally a tendency to somnolence in these paper we find an intense conjunctivitis with chymosis, acentral scotoma which may render the patient for the time practicallyblind, and on ophthalmoscopic examination a congestion of the vesselsof the retina and choroid, a neuro-retinitis, and essaytimes evenhemorrhages into the retina there is essaytimes peripapillary œdemaand infiltration around the optic nerve the pupil of the eye in thesepaper is usually much contracted there is essaytimes loss of epitheliumfrom the cornea in certain severe paper there is produced in addition to the eyesymptoms an erythema of the face bresse states that this erythema canbe produced on the face, arm, or hand by exposure to the voltaic arcat a distance of thirty to forty centimetres the blush grows deeperfor three or four hours, then remains stationary for a time, and endsin desquamation leaving a very durable pigmentation the erythema isaccompanied by a sensation of smarting the strength of the light and the length of time required to producethese effects probably vary essaywhat according to the color of thelight emrys jones states that he is informed that either excess ordefect of current gives a less injurious light than the normal current;the excess gives a more violet, the defect a more orange light on theother hand, charcot considered that the harmfulness of the electriclight was due at any rate in considerable writing to the chemical orviolet rays, and bresse found that when violet rays were added to anelectric light as by aluminium it was more injurious than before toanimals what writing the brilliancy of the light plays in determiningthe pathological results is not yet fully settled the heat, however, does not, as a rule, seem to have much effect unless in extraordinaryinstances where the cornea is burned muscular contractions - another effect of electricity which isexternally visible on the human system is muscular contraction slight muscular contractions are produced purposely in thesis paper inmedical treatment therapeutically or for the sake of diagnosis whenthe stimuli are sufficiently strong and follow each other with greatrapidity, or when a strong continuous current is passed through themuscles, they are brought into a state of continuous contraction ortetanus, and in this condition they will remain for a long periodor until the electric stimulus is removed in paper where a severeelectric shock is received as from an electric wire, the muscleswhich come in contact with the wire immediately contract and remaincontracted while the current continues to pass through them as aresult of this we often find that when a severe electric shock has beenreceived through the hands by means of a wire or other conductor thesufferer hands are involuntarily closed upon the wire or conductor, and cannot be unclosed by any voluntary effort until the current isstopped while thus holding the conductor the hands are often veryseverely burnt under these circumstances a strong force is required toremove a person from a charged wire if the current be not turned off, and it can only be done at a considerable risk unless by those expertand provided with special means not only the muscles immediately in contact with the conductor, butnearly all the voluntary muscles of the body may be thus affectedby a powerful current another effect of this involuntary muscularcontraction is the forcible muscular movements produced by the shock as previously stated, when a sufficiently strong shock occurs, thevoluntary muscles of the trunk and limbs may be thrown into suddencontraction in such a manner as to throw the person violently andforcibly on to the ground, or against essay object or objects in theneighborhood in this way one may be propelled several feet, and thesisvarieties of surgical injury may be caused rarely the force of thecontraction is such as of itself to rupture muscles or tendons, and itmight even fracture bones or dislocate joints already predisposed essential or internal symptoms we pass now to what we may consider the internal or essentialconditions of electric shock, leaving the mental or psychical resultsfor examination later when a person receives a severe electric shock, the symptoms areusually as follows. In the first place there may be little or nothingexcept a burn or burns, though usually there is essay sensation at themoment of the shock this may be a simple dizziness, and is oftenaccompanied by the sensation of a brilliant flash of light before theeyes, and essaytimes by a sense of impending danger usually, however, there is a loss of consciousness more or less complete and more orless lasting according to the severity of the shock and the characterand course of the current in the less severe paper this graduallypasses away, and in thesis paper the patient, although weak and feelingshaken and tired, suffers no further ill effects beyond those of theburns and mechanical injuries essaytimes there follows a general tremorwhich may last a few hours or for days, and occasionally a clonicrhythmical spasm of one or more extremities the loss of consciousnessmay, however, be accompanied or followed by a condition of collapse, in which the pale face, profuse perspiration, cold extremities, and feeble pulse all suggest the administration of stimulants andrestoratives as a rule, in the stage of unconsciousness the face isreddened and rather cyanotic the pupils are dilated as a rule and therespiration stertorous or absent. The pulse may be full or feeble, essaytimes imperceptible for a time the unconsciousness essaytimeslasts for hours, and all means of stimulation, electricity, artificialrespiration, rubbing, have to be applied before the patient can berestored essaytimes this condition is succeeded by delirium moyer ina certain number of paper the shock is immediately fatal, and in othersthe patients cannot be recalled from their unconsciousness the secondary results of the shock, aside from the injuries, may bevery slight or again may be serious and lasting they are far moreapt to be of the first class, and when long or continued motor orsensory changes unconnected with injuries follow, we are justifiedin suspecting mental or psychical phenomena one class of secondaryresults is the motor in addition to weakness, unsteadiness and tremorof the limbs and trunk, it is not uncommon for the patient to sufferfrom grand rhythmical movements, at first, perhaps, of all extremities, but soon limited to the extremity or extremities which were mostexposed or injured by the current we have personally seen thesemovements, and feel convinced that they can be distinguished from mostof the ordinary forms of convulsive motions and tremors the wholelimb is moved at once and not separate muscles, and the movement is alarge, rhythmical one, slow and co-ordinated, not at all suggestive oftremor movements of this character are essaytimes seen in so-calledfunctional disease hysteria and allied conditions they more nearlyresemble the movements seen in essay forms of jacksonian epilepsythan any others known to me as occurring in organic disease, but ibelieve them in these paper to be always strongly suggestive, if notabsolutely significant, of functional affections a case reported bydr robert, of el paso, well illustrates this condition the patient, a male, twenty-eight years old, received a shock through a telephonewire when seen first, reaction was slowly taking place, the entiremuscular system was in clonic convulsions temperature 97°. Pulserapid and of low tension. Respiration 50. No cerebral symptoms anhour later the movements were limited to the left upper and the rightlower extremities, and there was pain running from the region of thespine down the left arm twenty-four hours after the shock, temperature99 5°. Respiration 40. Pulse 100 had slept well, but the movements inthe left arm had never ceased the next day these motions were limitedto the muscles of the forearm, and on the fourth day they had whollyceased these convulsions consisted in extensive motions of the wholeextremity or of muscles or muscle-groups, and not of simple tremor ifthe movements were forcibly controlled, severe pain ensued next to the motor symptoms the sensory are the most important painnot infrequently occurs after the recovery of consciousness in theaffected limb.