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Congested lungs muchcongested essay dark fluid blood in right side custom writings legit of heart. Left sideempty liver, spleen, and kidneys congested small patch of congestionin stomach intestines normal bladder normal, contained essay urine brain congested 7 ibid , p 234 - hindoo woman, age about 40 broad, circular, depressed “parchment” mark, one inch broad, around the neck, betweenhyoid bone and thyroid cartilage. Made by two pieces of cloth, eachthree feet seven inches long and one inch broad, twisted into a singlecord and tied tightly by three ordinary knots on right side of neck superficial wound on left side of head above ear face turgid, swollen eyes closed tongue between teeth and bitten.

“belief that the normal as well as the pathologicalmanifestations of organic life may be explained and eventuallytreated, without consideration of their physical nature, by means ofsupernatural agencies ”medical superstition varies according to the kind and the origin ofthese supernatural causes, and therefore appears in the greatestvariety of forms if these causes were looked for in celestial regions, medical superstition became vested with the religious garb, and itssource was in the religious cult. But if the belief prevailed thatgod shared the domination of the world with other mysterious elements, such as were embodied in different forms in accordance with the variousphilosophical systems, medical superstition bore a philosophical andmystical stamp whose origin is revealed in the history of philosophy but if certain mysterious powers hidden in the womb of nature or activeabove the earth were considered to influence human life, medicalsuperstition assumed a physical character however, it frequentlyfollowed that the above three factors acted simultaneously or invarying combinations, or certain other elements which were inherentin human nature cooperated for this reason it is essaytimes not quiteeasy to decide as to the source from which this or that form ofmedical superstition principally derived its persistent currency but, nevertheless, it is our intention to divide our subject in accordancewith the sources from which the several forms of medical superstitionspring, as it is absolutely impossible to obtain a satisfactory viewof the extensive material without first attempting a systematicarrangement of the data at hand but before attempting to inquire why the purest and most valuablefountains of all human knowledge religion, philosophy, and naturalscience have at the same time become sources of medical superstition, it will be advisable to explain the character which medical science hadassumed under the exclusive domination of theism, and how conditionsshaped themselves when physico-mechanical philosophy appeared and beganto do battle with the theistic conception of life these conditionsplayed such a special writing in the development of medico-physicalsuperstition that it becomes necessary first to examine their power andtendency before attempting to contemplate medical superstition proper ii theism in its relation to medicine and in its struggle with the physico-mechanical theory of lifeas we explained in chapter i , the development of all peoples haspassed through a period during which medico-physical knowledge foundexpression exclusively in the teachings of religion by theism wemean the system which endeavors to explain natural phenomena bysupernatural causes however, this view of nature, with its tingeof religion, did not as yet show any trace of superstition it wasrather the only justifiable conception of nature and thoroughly inkeeping with the power of comprehension of man, until it began todawn upon the mind that natural phenomena might be due to naturalcauses this was the period of which we stated, in the beginning ofthis investigation, that faith became superstition and superstitionbecame faith it was during this time that the powers above were heldaccountable for all bodily ailments of mankind it was their task mostcarefully to observe the functional processes of the human body inall its phases, and to protect their undisturbed continuance but asthe inhabitants of heaven, like the inhabitants of the earth, weresubject to whims, it happened very often, unfortunately, that theyattended to their task of protecting the undisturbed development ofthe vegetative as well as the animal functions of the body in a veryunsatisfactory manner, essaytimes, in fact, even purposely neglectingit thus disturbances occurred in the regular course of organic life, and this brought diseases into the world if, therefore, the gods weredirectly responsible for the appearance of disease, it was palpablytheir duty to effect its elimination thus it came about that pathologyand therapy were exclusively attended to by the gods but in what lightthey regarded these medical duties of theirs, and how they performedthem, were matters subject to very varying considerations, as expoundedby the different religions of antiquity the babylonian considered thegreat god marduk the expeller of all maladies, whereas urugal, namtor, and nergal were recognized gods of pestilence similar ideas prevailed among the egyptians the cat-headed goddessbubastis was believed to deal out to mothers the blessings offertility ibis showed an especial interest in those human beings whowere troubled with disturbances of digestion, and this interest foundbenevolent expression in the invention of the clyster with the greeks also the gods rendered services to diseased humanity thus apollo invented the art of healing, and if his time permitted heoccasionally lent a hand when difficulties beset the entrance into thisworld of a young mortal but, as a rule, it was the duty of aphroditeto attend to such paper, just as, in fact, she was responsible foreverything that referred to love, no matter whether it was a questionof the esthetic or the pathological writing of that passion athene wasthe specialist in ophthalmology, and it seems that she did not farebadly with this occupation a temple was dedicated to her by lycurgus, whom, as it appears, she healed of a sympathetic affection of theeyes. And, besides, she won by her ophthalmological activity variousornamental epithets, such, for instance, as ὀφθαλμίτις, etc it was quite natural, in view of the exclusively theistic conceptionwhich in those times preoccupied the human mind, that the priests werethe sole possessors of physico-medical knowledge. And naturally so for when we consider the theory of life that prevailed at that period, who could have been better qualified to give information to menregarding their own body as well as regarding nature in general, thanthe priest, the mortal representative of immortal gods?. and who betterqualified than the priest to invoke the aid of the heavenly powersin all bodily ailments?. thus it was the unavoidable consequence ofthe theistic theory of life that the priest was the physician as wellas the representative of physical knowledge and also the helper andadviser in all mundane exigencies whether bodily or psychic troublesafflicted individuals, whether an entire population groaned underheavy chastisements like pestilence, aid and deliverance were alwayssought in the sanctuary of the gods, from the infallible priest andthe priests were always equal to the occasion.

Slight | | | | | | | induration -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 5 | 32| ♂ | 6/20/16 | 3 | 20 |essay pain |no induration | | | | |minims| | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 25 |essay pain | | | | | |minims| | | | | 6/23/16 | 2 | 1/4 |worse pain |no induration | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |worse pain | | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |worse than any |slight tender- | | | | | | |ness -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 6 | 20| ♂ | 6/ 8/16 | 1 | 1/6 |very little | | | | 6/10/16 | 1 | 1/5 |very little | | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 1/4 |very little | | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |bothered more | | | | | | | than others | | | | 6/17/16 | 2 | 1/5 |quite a little |still essay | | | | | | pain | soreness | | | 6/18/16 | 2 | 1/5 |quite a little |still essay | | | | | | pain | soreness | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/4 |considerably |very little | | | | | | less pain than| tenderness | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | with prepar- | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | ation 2 | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 7 | 30| ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |little pain |none | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no pain | | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/5 |essay pain | | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | | | | | |benzol | | | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |no tenderness | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |no tenderness | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |very little |only slight | | | | | | pain | amount of | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | induration | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | | | | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |essay little | | | | | | | induration | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |considerable |essay indura- | | | | | | pain | tion | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |“fine” |slight indura- | | | | | | | tion -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 8 | 28| ♂ | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/5 |little pain |little pain | | | | | | | afterward | | | 6/15/16 | 2 | 1/5 |little pain |little pain | | | | | | | afterward -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 9 | 28| ♀ | 6/17/16 | 2 | 1/5 |essay complaint |very little | | | | | | of pain | induration | | | 6/18/16 | 2 | 1/5 | fairly severe | | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |essay pain. Says|very slight | | | | | | these have | induration | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | hurt very much| | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | less than | | | | | | | others | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 10 | 37| ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 1/4 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/14/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/15/16 | 3 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | | | | | |benzol | | | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |“much less pain|none | | | | | | than biniodid | | | | | | | or grey oil” | | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |no complaint |none | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |says he is over|essay indura- | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | it in one hour| tion at site | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | of injection -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 11 | 30| ♀ | 6/11/16 | 1 | 20 |considerable. |considerable | | | | |minims| not so much | pain and | | | 6/12/16 | 2 | 20 | | tenderness on | | | | |minims| | palpation | | | | | | | over area | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 25 |not much pain |indurated area | | | | |minims| | at pt of | | | | | | | each | | | | | | | painful | | | 6/14/16 | 1 | 25 |not much pain |slight indura- | | | | |minims| | tion -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the diagnosis in case 5 was primary syphilis, and in the other paper, secondary syphilis † in this column, ♂ indicates male, and ♀ female in no case did wassermann become negative the criticism may be raised that the number of paper and of injectionsis too small to permit the drawing of any just conclusions evenshould we grant it, the statistics certainly do not prove any markedsuperiority of any one of the preparations over the others we wish tothank dr sollmann for advising and directing us in this work, and drs bailey, bernstein, markus and reycraft for assistance in carrying itout report of dr albert keideltwenty paper were chosen at random from the syphilitic patientsattending the clinic they were given intramuscular injections of thethree solutions, in amounts varying from 1 to 2 c c , at intervals inmost instances of two days the injections were invariably made intothe gluteal muscles, at depths of from 2 to 2-1/2 inches, and ordinarycare exercised to preserve asepsis after injection the patient wasallowed to dewriting, and the result was recorded at the succeedingvisit the result was determined from the patient statement and ourexamination essay patients received injections of only one solution;essay were treated with first one and later with another, and onepatient received all three at different times the solutions were nevermixed for a single injection, of course table 2 -- reactions in twenty paper reported by dr keidel preparation reactions number of ┌────────────┴────────────┐ injections severe mild none undetermined 1 13 14 4 8 39 2 5 15 16 5 41 3 7 25 3 2 37 -- - 117 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the solutions are understood to contain a 1 per cent solution of redmercuric iodid in oil, two of them containing in addition 2 5 percent of guaiacol, one of these being a proprietary preparation thesolutions are designated as preparations 1, 2 and 3, respectively, corresponding to the numbers on the labels of the bottles in which theywere originally received the local reactions are recorded as “severe” s, “mild” m, “none” o and “undetermined” u by “severe” ismeant very severe pain lasting for from several hours to several days;by “mild” is meant slight pain or numbness for several hours, or lessthan an hour.

Dysphagia. Cough;copious mucous expectoration laryngoscopic examination showed coinin œsophagus the crico-thyroid membrane was incised and coin pushedupward and ejected 6 med times and gaz , 1874, i , p 486 - man, age 20, had severedyspnœa in taking a living fish in his teeth it was about four incheslong and had large dorsal fin, the fish passed into the pharynx andlay doubled up impossible to remove it because of spines tracheotomyat once twenty-four hours afterward the fish had decomposed enough tobe writingly removed patient died of exhaustion 7 littlejohn. Edin med jour , 1875, xx , p 780 - woman founddead in bed suffocated by pus from abscess of tonsil which burstduring sleep found pus in air-passages down to smallest bronchi. Lungscongested. Right side of heart distended with dark fluid blood. Leftside contracted and nearly empty blood everywhere fluid essay lividityof face the woman had died quietly lying beside her husband, who wasnot awakened 8 sayre. New york med jour , 1874, xix , p 420 - girl, age7, swallowed a bead had continuous cough. Much pain under middleof sternum the bead moved upward and downward in respiration tracheotomy four days afterward she coughed the bead out, inspiredonce, and apparently died artificial respiration used.

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a adhesiveness and detachability b strength of film at 38 c a b c d e f 1 “parowax, ” 50 8 32 5 29 0 a adheres and stand oil co of ind detaches well. rather hard b pliable and strong 3 “paraffin 118-120 f , ” 46 8 28 5 24 5 a does not adhere stand oil co of ind well. Detaches easily b pliable but not strong 4 “paraffin 120-122 f , ” 47 2 29 0 24 5 a adheres well. stand oil co of ind detaches well b pliable and fairly strong 5 “paraffin 123-125 f , ” 48 8 31 5 28 5 same as 4 stand oil co of ind 6 “paraffin 128-130 f , ” 52 0 33 0 30 0 a adheres well. stand oil co of ind detaches not so easily b pliable and strong 7 “texwax, ” texas co , 51 2 32 5 29 8 same as 6 port arthur, texas 8 “paraffin wax 122-124 f , ” 50 6 36 0 34-35 a unsatisfactory. warren refining co , does not adhere warren, pa b only slightly pliable. too tough 9 “paraffin no 910, ” 47 0 30 5 26-27 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and strong 10 “paraffin no 920, ” 44 4 27 5 25 0 a adheres well.