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Compt rend soc de biol 55:233, 363, 1903 35 fleig. Arch internat de physiol , 10:206, 1910 36 matuso. Jour physiol 45:477, 1913 37 huston. Ann et bull soc roy de sc méd et nat 70:178, 1912 properties of secretinprosecretin -- secretin is soluble in water, yet a watery extract ofintestinal scrapings is without action, 32 even after being submittedto acid treatment 38 starling therefore holds that secretin existsin the intestinal mucosa in an inactive form, as “prosecretin ” thecontent of the intestine in prosecretin decreases from the duodenumdown, so that one is unable to demonstrate any prosecretin in the last2-1/2 feet of the ileum prosecretin is insoluble in water, acetone, absolute alcohol or ether secretin, on the other hand, is readilysoluble in water, normal salt solution and diluted alcohol 70 percent , but likewise insoluble in absolute alcohol and ether 38 starling. Lancet, london 2:433, 1905 preparation -- all of the more dissociated acids liberate secretinfrom intestinal mucosa on boiling their action is dependent onthe degree of dissociation, 39 carbonic and boric acids beinginactive 40 secretin can also be prepared with strong soaps from10 to 30 per cent sodium oleate, alcohol 70 per cent , 41 0 6 percent sodium chlorid36 the acid and soap in the duodenum producesecretion. There is no necessary correspondence between the action of asubstance in the intestine and that obtained by injection after boilingmucosa with it the sodium chlorid, bile, maltose and glucose produceessay secretion by the latter method yet none by the former 36 on theother hand, ether, chloral and oil of mustard excite secretion whenin the intestine, but no secretin can be prepared from boiled mucosaby their action the irritation of the lining cell has produced thenecessary hydrolysis 38 in well-controlled experiments, wertheimerand lepage42 found that after the introduction of acid, secretion issecreted into the lumen of the intestine matuso36 confirmed theirresults, and found this a satisfactory method for the preparation ofsecretin it is said that secretin can be obtained by merely boilingthe mucosa with water, but the results are inconstant 4339 frouin and lalou.

Deutsch med wchnschr 38:375, 1912 neuberg, custom writing review caspari and löhe. Berl klin wchnschr 49:1405, 1912 269 gers, gaube du. La cuprase et le cancer, paris, 1913 inasmuch as this new type of cancer therapy derives its origin, its justification and its support, in very large measure, from thelaboratory results obtained in animals, it is a matter of considerableimportance to examine those results with care, in order to determinewhether they furnish a satisfactory basis for human therapy, andwhether they justify the hopes to which they have given rise it is safe to assert that the application of chemotherapy to thetreatment of tumors practically dates from the publications ofwassermann he stated the principle that a rational therapy of tumorsmust be based on constitutional treatment it appears evident thatlocal treatment can have only local effects the lymphatic extensionsof tumorous growths, and the often unsuspected metastases in distantorgans must of necessity escape the effects of purely local treatment hence, wassermann reached the conclusion that all treatment of cancerwhich was to be effective, and not merely palliative, must be carriedto all writings of the body by means of the blood stream he thereforeintroduced the use of intravenous injections in the experimentaltherapy of rat and mouse tumors an accidental observation led himto believe that selenium was a substance possessing a high degree ofaffinity for tumor cells in order to insure the penetration of the tumor in the live animal bythis substance, however, he considered it essential to combine it withessay other highly diffusible substance this type of substance, whichwas to act as a carrier of the selenium, he described under the name“cytotrochin, ” from the greek word τροχιά {trochia}, meaning road forthis purpose he selected eosin the eosin and the selenium were thencombined by a method and in a form the details of which have neverbeen published all that we know of this preparation is contained inthe statement that it is very difficult to produce, and that it isextremely unstable and difficult to keep mice can be given amounts offrom 2 to 3 mg of this substance in solution wassermann experimentedwith mice inoculated with transplanted tumors of the types of carcinomaand sarcoma after from three to five intravenous injections of thedrug, he noted that the tumors become softer and fluctuate after stillfurther injections the fluid mass undergoes absorption, and the tumorgives the impression of an empty sac if it is possible to carry theinjections up to the number of ten or twelve, recovery ensues in suchcured animals there remain only the unabsorbed portions of the fibrouscapsule recurrences were not observed in the cured animals wassermannfurther stated that two spontaneous tumors in mice which had beentreated by this method presented favorable results wassermann original presentation gave few experimental details, andhas not been followed by the promised scientific report from hisarticle it is impossible to determine what proportion of his animalswere cured and what proportion failed to survive the treatment from alater paper by keysser270 we learn that by far the larger portion ofthe animals perished during the treatment in the stage of softening, so that a cure was accomplished in from only 3 to 5 per cent of theanimals this is a point of great importance, inasmuch as it furnishesan indication of the highly dangerous character of this mode oftreatment fatal results are attributed by keysser to the absorption oftoxic products from the tumor this contention, however, is supportedby no observations, and it is certainly equally fair to assume thatdeath results from the toxic effects of the compound a microscopicstudy of tumors taken from animals undergoing treatment was made byhansemann he found that the death of the cells was the result ofnuclear destruction 270 keysser. Wien klin wchnschr 26:1664, 1913 within a very few months after wassermann publication, neubergand caspari268 published a paper which was the first of a seriesof studies on the therapeutic effects of the heavy metals on theanimal tumors they used zinc, platinum, tin, selenium, copper, silver and cobalt in the form of certain complex organic compounds, the composition of which is not revealed owing to the fact thatintravenous injections of these compounds produced a specific effect onthe tumors, they are described as “tumoraffin” substances immediatelyafter the intravenous injection of these preparations, there followeda marked hyperemia of the tumor, whereas the remainder of the mousebody appeared markedly anemic the hyperemia was often attendedby hemorrhage into the tumor this first stage was succeeded byliquefaction and absorption followed by recovery in favorable paper the authors failed to state in what proportion of their experiments theanimals died, and in what proportion recovery ensued the second paper on this subject is by neuberg, caspari and löhe, 268in which further details are vouchsafed they state that with thecompounds used by them the toxic and the therapeutic doses approximatevery closely, from which it follows that the treatment, as with thewassermann method, results in a very high mortality smaller dosesproduce no therapeutic effect. On the contrary, they seem to act asa stimulus to the tumor, accelerating the normal rate of growth spontaneous tumors show similar effects, but no cures are recorded only in tumors in which autolysis is active intra vitam does themethod exert any effect consequently the benign primary tumors ofanimals, such as fibromas, are not influenced by it neuberg and caspari are to a great extent responsible for the colloidaltheory of treatment in tumors accepting the observations of petri andothers that the autolytic ferments in tumors are quantitatively greaterand qualitatively different from those present in the normal tissuesof the body, they venture the assumption that the process of recoveryin the experimental tumors of animals is due to the self-digestion ofthe tumor by these ferments ascoli and izar271 had shown that suchferments are materially stimulated by the presence of metals, and moreespecially of metals in colloidal form this contention is apparentlyin harmony with the well-established fact that certain colloidal metalsof themselves are capable of acting under certain circumstances asferments neuberg and caspari were at first of the belief that thecompounds produced by them circulate in colloidal form subsequentlythey stated that these compounds were crystalline substances, but theyassumed, under the influence of the theoretical consideration mentionedabove, that these substances are broken up in the tumor and thereundergo transformation into the colloid state 271 izar. Ztschr f immunitätsforsch , 1913 izar and basile. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 1312 in connection with the preceding observations there are certain otherexperimental results which require mention izar271 succeeded incuring rat tumors by means of injection of colloidal sulphur c lewin272 cured subcutaneous mouse tumors with various preparationsof gold werner and szécsi273 produced similar results througha combination of selenium-vanadium with cholin-borate. In theseexperiments the selenium-vanadium was supposed to be present incolloidal form 272 lewin, carl. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 147. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 541 273 werner and szécsi. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1913, orig , i, 358 szécsi. Ibid , ref , 1913, ii, 1060 within a comparatively brief period of time, therefore, it fell to thelot of a number of observers, using strikingly different substances, to produce therapeutic effects amounting in a certain percentage ofpaper even to cure in the experimental tumors of the lower animals the various procedures have little in common both metals andnonmetallic substances have been employed either in colloidal form orin combination with organic radicals in essay instances a diffusiblecarrier is combined with the basic substances. In others not all ofthe preparations appear to possess a high degree of toxicity, althoughadequate data on this very essential feature are almost invariablywithheld wassermann results with eosin-selenium were soon critically examinedby other observers uhlenhuth274 and contamin275 were unable toconfirm his observations, but their negative results are attributedby keysser to the fact that they were not in possession of the properformula for the preparation of the eosin-selenium compounds as usedby wassermann apolant, 276 however, in ehrlich name confirmedwassermann findings 274 uhlenhuth, dold and bindseil.

After which follow smallround heads, with very small seed therein the root is long, small andthready at the end place it grows in meadows, and grassy land government and virtues it is under the sign of the lion, and solclaims dominion over it if the herb was but as much used as it isneglected, it would half spoil the spectacle maker trade. And a manwould think, that reason should teach people to prefer the preservationof their natural before artificial spectacles. Which that they may beinstructed how to do, take the virtues of eyebright as follows the juice or distilled water of eyebright, taken inwardly in white wineor broth, or dropped into the eyes for divers days together, helps allinfirmities of the eyes that cause dimness of sight essay make conserveof the flowers to the same effect being used any of the ways, it alsohelps a weak brain, or memory this tunned up with strong beer, thatit may work together, and drank, or the powder of the dried herb mixedwith sugar, a little mace, and fennel seed, and drank, or eaten inbroth. Or the said powder made into an electuary with sugar, and taken, has the same powerful effect to help and restore the sight, decayedthrough age. And arnoldus de ville nova saith, it hath restored sightto them that have been blind a long time before fern descript of this there are two kinds principally to be treated of, viz the male and female the female grows higher than the male, butthe leaves thereof are smaller, and more divided and dented, and ofas strong a smell as the male. The virtue of them are both alike, andtherefore i shall not trouble you with any description or distinctionof them place they grow both in heaths and in shady places near thehedge-sides in all counties of this land time they flower and give their seed at midsummer the female fern is that plant which is in sussex, called brakes, theseed of which essay authors hold to be so rare. Such a thing there is iknow, and may be easily had upon midsummer eve, and for ought i know, two or three days after it, if not more government and virtues it is under the dominion of mercury, bothmale and female the roots of both these sorts of fern being bruisedand boiled in mead, or honeyed water, and drank, kills both the broadand long worms in the body, and abates the swelling and hardness ofthe spleen the green leaves eaten, purge the belly of choleric andwaterish humours that trouble the stomach they are dangerous for womenwith child to meddle with, by reason they cause abortions the rootsbruised and boiled in oil, or hog grease, make a very profitableointment to heal wounds, or pricks gotten in the flesh the powder ofthem used in foul ulcers, dries up their malignant moisture, and causestheir speedier healing fern being burned, the smoke thereof drivesaway serpents, gnats, and other noiessay creatures, which in fennycountries do in the night time, trouble and molest people lying intheir beds with their faces uncovered. It causes barrenness osmond royal, or water fern descript this shoots forth in spring time for in the winter theleaves perish divers rough hard stalks, half round, and yellowish, orflat on the other side, two feet high, having divers branches of wingedyellowish green leaves on all sides, set one against another, longer, narrower, and not nicked on the edges as the former from the top ofessay of these stalks grow forth a long bush of small and more yellow, green, scaly aglets, set in the same manner on the stalks as the leavesare, which are accounted the flowers and seeds the root is rough, thick and scabby. With a white pith in the middle, which is called theheart thereof place it grows on moors, bogs, and watery places, in thesis writings ofthis land time it is green all the summer, and the root only abides in winter government and virtues saturn owns the plant this has all thevirtues mentioned in the former ferns, and is much more effectual thanthey, both for inward and outward griefs, and is accounted singularlygood in wounds, bruises, or the like the decoction to be drank, orboiled into an ointment of oil, as a balsam or balm, and so it issingularly good against bruises, and bones broken, or out of joint, and gives much ease to the cholic and splenetic diseases. As alsofor ruptures or burstings the decoction of the root in white wine, provokes urine exceedingly, and cleanses the bladder and passages ofurine feverfew or featherfew descript common featherfew has large, fresh, green leaves, muchtorn or cut on the edges the stalks are hard and round, set withthesis such like leaves, but smaller, and at the tops stand thesis singleflowers, upon small foot stalks, consisting of thesis small white leavesstanding round about a yellow thrum in the middle the root is essaywhathard and short, with thesis strong fibres about it the scent of thewhole plant is very strong, and the taste is very bitter place this grows wild in thesis places of the land, but is for themost writing nourished in gardens time it flowers in the months of june and july government and virtues venus commands this herb, and has commendedit to succour her sisters women and to be a general strengthener oftheir wombs, and remedy such infirmities as a careless midwife haththere caused if they will but be pleased to make use of her herbboiled in white wine, and drink the decoction. It cleanses the womb, expels the after-birth, and doth a woman all the good she can desire ofan herb and if any grumble because they cannot get the herb in winter, tell them, if they please, they may make a syrup of it in summer;it is chiefly used for the disease of the mother, whether it be thestrangling or rising of the mother, or hardness, or inflammation ofthe same, applied outwardly thereunto or a decoction of the flowersin wine, with a little nutmeg or mace put therein, and drank often ina day, is an approved remedy to bring down women courses speedily, and helps to expel the dead birth and after-birth for a woman to sitover the hot fumes of the decoction of the herb made in water or wine, is effectual for the same. And in essay paper to apply the boiled herbwarm to the privy writings the decoction thereof made with essay sugar, orhoney put thereto, is used by thesis with good success to help the coughand stuffing of the chest, by colds, as also to cleanse the reins andbladder, and helps to expel the stone in them the powder of the herbtaken in wine, with essay oxymel, purges both choler and phlegm, andis available for those that are short winded, and are troubled withmelancholy and heaviness, or sadness of spirits it is very effectualfor all pains in the head coming of a cold cause, the herb beingbruised and applied to the crown of the head. As also for the vertigo, that is a running or swimming in the head the decoction thereof drankwarm, and the herb bruised with a few corns of bay salt, and applied tothe wrists before the coming of the ague fits, doth take them away thedistilled water takes away freckles, and other spots and deformitiesin the face the herb bruised and heated on a tile, with essay wine tomoisten it, or fried with a little wine and oil in a frying-pan, andapplied warm outwardly to the places, helps the wind and cholic in thelower writing of the belly it is an especial remedy against opium takentoo liberally fennel every garden affords this so plentifully, that it needs no description government and virtues one good old fashion is not yet left off, viz to boil fennel with fish. For it consumes that phlegmatichumour, which fish most plentifully afford and annoy the body with, though few that use it know wherefore they do it. I suppose the reasonof its benefit this way is because it is an herb of mercury, and undervirgo, and therefore bears antipathy to pisces fennel is good to breakwind, to provoke urine, and ease the pains of the stone, and helps tobreak it the leaves or seed, boiled in barley water and drank are goodfor nurses, to increase their milk, and make it more wholeessay for thechild the leaves, or rather the seeds, boiled in water, stays thehiccough, and takes away the loathings which oftentimes happen to thestomachs of sick and feverish persons and allays the heat thereof theseed boiled in wine and drank, is good for those that are bitten withserpents, or have eaten poisonous herbs, or mushrooms the seed andthe roots much more, help to open obstructions of the liver, spleen, and gall, and thereby help the painful and windy swellings of thespleen, and the yellow jaundice. As also the gout and cramps the seedis of good use in medicines to help shortness of breath and wheezingby stopping of the lungs it helps also to bring down the courses, and to cleanse the writings after delivery the roots are of most use inphysic drinks, and broth that are taken to cleanse the blood, to openobstructions of the liver, to provoke urine, and amend the ill colourin the face after sickness, and to cause a good habit through thebody both leaves, seeds, and roots thereof are much used in drink orbroth, to make people more lean that are too fat the distilled waterof the whole herb, or the condensate juice dissolved, but especiallythe natural juice, that in essay counties issues out hereof of its ownaccord, dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from mists and films thathinder the sight the sweet fennel is much weaker in physical usesthan the common fennel the wild fennel is stronger and hotter thanthe tame, and therefore most powerful against the stone, but not soeffectual to encrease milk, because of its dryness sow-fennel, or hog-fennel besides the common name in english, hog fennel, and the latin namepeucidanum, is called hoar-strange, and hoar-strong, sulphur-wort, andbrimstone-wort descript the common sow-fennel has divers branched stalks of thickand essaywhat long leaves, three for the most writing joined together at aplace, among which arises a crested straight stalk, less than fennel, with essay joints thereon, and leaves growing thereat, and towards thetops essay branches issuing from thence.

But theact does not apply to women pursuing the avocation of midwife, nor toany reputable physician or surgeon residing in a neighboring state, coming into this state for consultation with a registered physicianresident therein, except a physician residing in a neighboring stateregularly practising in this state, nor does it apply to physicians whohave a diploma from a regular medical college prior to january 1st, 1880 3, 132, as amended act of 1885, c 117, s 2. Act of1885, c 261, s 1. Act of 1889, c 181, s 1 the board may rescind a license upon satisfactory proof that a licenseehas been guilty of grossly immoral conduct 3, 133 qualification - every person practising medicine or surgery in thestate was required before january 1st, 1892, to appear personallybefore the clerk of the superior court of the county where he residedor practised, for registration, and all persons beginning to practiseare likewise to appear and register within thirty days after obtaininga license act of 1889, c 181, s 3, as amended act of 1891, c 90 any person applying for registration must produce and exhibit beforethe clerk a license from the board of medical examiners, or make oaththat he was practising medicine or surgery in this state prior to march7th, 1885, and thereupon the clerk shall register the date, with thename and residence of the applicant, and shall issue a certificate ofregistration the certificate entitles the recipient to practise inany county in the state, but if he removes his residence to anothercounty he must exhibit his certificate to the clerk of such county andbe registered persons having a temporary license are not entitled toregister but may practise so long as the license is in force act of1889, c 181, s 4, as amended act of 1891, c 420 penalty, exceptions - to practise without registration and acertificate is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $25 to$100 or imprisonment for each offence, but this act does not apply towomen pursuing the avocation of midwife nor to reputable physiciansor surgeons residing in a neighboring state coming into the state forconsultation with a registered physician of this state act of 1889, c 181, s 5 license fee - a license of $10 for each county in which he carrieson business is exacted from every itinerant?. medical practitioner, one-half for the use of the county and one-half for the use of thestate. But a state license may be obtained from the state treasurer for$30 good for twelve months, and he is then exempt from the portion ofabove tax due the state act 1891, c 323 fees - to the secretary of the board, before issuing a license ordiploma, $10 to the secretary of the board, for temporary license, $5 code, 3, 130 to clerk of the court, for registration and certificate, 25 cents to clerk of the county, for registration on removal, no fee act 1889, c 181, s 4 north dakota board of examiners - the governor appoints a state board of examinersof nine members, eight of whom are practising physicians in goodstanding. No member of any college or university having a medicaldewritingment shall be appointed two members shall be homœopathicphysicians and one a lawyer act 1890, c 93, s 1 the board must hold meetings for examination at such place or placesas it may designate on the first tuesday of january, april, july, and october of each year, and such other meetings as it may appointand must keep a record of its proceedings with a register of everyapplicant for a license with his or her age, the time spent in thestudy of medicine, and the name and location of all institutionsgranting to such applicant a degree or a certificate of lecturesin medicine or surgery, and whether the applicant was rejected orlicensed. And said books and register shall be prima facie evidenceof all matters therein recorded 2 qualification - all persons hereafter commencing the practice ofmedicine, surgery, and obstetrics in any of its branches shall applyto the board for a license, and at the time and place designatedby the board, or at its regular meeting, be examined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, materia medica, therapeutics, preventive medicines, practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, of the nervous system, of the eyeand ear, medical jurisprudence, and such other branches as the boardshall deem advisable, and produce evidence of having attended threecourses of lectures of at least six months each. The examination mustbe both practical and scientific, but of sufficient severity to testthe candidate fitness to practise medicine, surgery, and obstetrics when desired, the said examination may be conducted in the presenceof the dean of any medical school or the president of any medicalsociety of the state after examination the board must grant a licenseto practise medicine, surgery, and obstetrics. Seven members mustconsent the board may revoke or refuse a license for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct, chronic or persistent inebriety, thepractice of criminal abortion, or for publicly advertising specialability to treat or cure diseases which, in the opinion of the board, it is impossible to cure in complaints for violating the provisionsof this section, the accused shall be furnished with a copy of thecomplaint, and given a hearing before the board in person or byattorney appeal lies from refusal or revocation to the appointingpower 3 the person receiving a license must file it, or a certified copy, withthe register of deeds where he resides on removal into another countyhe must procure from said register a certified copy of his license andfile it with the register of deeds in the county to which he shallremove 4 exceptions - the act does not apply to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army or navy, to physicians or surgeons in actualconsultation from other states or territories, or to actual medicalstudents practising medicine under the direct supervision of apreceptor 5 penalty - practising without a license or contrary to the act is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $200, or imprisonmentin a county jail from ten to sixty days, or both definition - any person is regarded as practising who appends theletters “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, or who for a fee prescribes, directs, or recommends for the use of any person any drug or medicineor other agency for the treatment, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture or bodily injury, infirmity, or disease 6 former law - the former law is repealed only so far as it isinconsistent with the foregoing act 7 the former law prohibited persons from practising medicine in any ofits branches unless graduates of a medical college or unless they wereshown by examination to be qualified and had been actually engaged inpractising for at least ten years compiled laws of dakota, s 205 fee - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, $20 act 1890, c 93, s 3 ohio qualification - no person who is not a graduate of a reputable schoolof medicine in the united states or a foreign country, or who cannotproduce a certificate of qualification from a state or county medicalsociety and is not a person of good moral character, can lawfullypractise or attempt to practise medicine in any of its dewritingments orprescribe medicine for reward or compensation. Except a person who hasbeen continuously engaged in the practice of medicine for ten years ormore the law allowed persons in continuous practice for five yearsor more, two years to comply with its provisions in case a person isa graduate of a school of medicine in any state or foreign country inwhich any condition or restriction is imposed by law upon the practiceof medicine by graduates of medical schools in ohio, he is subject tothe same restrictions or conditions a person violating this sectionis not entitled to any compensation for services smith & benedictrevised statutes of 1890, s 4, 403 penalty - whoever prescribes or practises or attempts to practisemedicine in any of its dewritingments, or performs or attempts to performa surgical operation without having attended two full courses ofinstruction and graduated at a school of medicine either in this or aforeign country, or who cannot produce a certificate of qualificationfrom a state or county medical society, except a person who has beencontinuously engaged in the practice of medicine for ten years or more, is punishable with a fine of from $50 to $100 and for a subsequentoffence with imprisonment for thirty days persons in continuouspractice for five years or more were allowed two years to comply withthis act 6, 992 oklahoma qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in anydewritingment unless he be a graduate of a medical college, or unless uponexamination before a board composed of the superintendent of publichealth and two other physicians to be selected by the territorial boardof health, he be found proficient in the practice of medicine andsurgery, and shall be found upon proof to have been actually engagedin the practice of medicine not less than five years no person shallpractise medicine unless he be of good moral character, and is not anhabitual drunkard a person possessing these qualifications shall, on presentation of hisdiploma, or proof thereof by affidavit if it be lost or destroyed, and the affidavit of two reputable citizens from the county where heresides that the applicant possesses the qualifications of a physician, as prescribed herein, to the superintendent of public health, receivefrom him a license, which shall be recorded in the office of theregister of deeds in the county where such physician resides offence - to practise without complying with this law, or to violateany of its provisions, is a misdemeanor definition - a person is regarded as practising medicine who professespublicly to be a physician and to prescribe for the sick, or whoappends to his name m d exceptions - the law does not prohibit students from prescribing underthe supervision of preceptors, nor prohibit gratuitous services in caseof emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united statesarmy and navy cancellation of license - the district court has power on complaint ofa member of the territorial board of health, or the county board ofhealth where he resides, to cancel any license issued to a person topractise medicine, where such license was fraudulently obtained, orwhere the person to whom it was issued has been guilty of violating anyprovision of this act fee - to superintendent of board of health, for license, $2 comp stats , 1893, s 352 oregon qualification - every person practising medicine and surgery in anyof their dewritingments must possess the qualifications required by theact if a graduate of medicine he must present his diploma to the boardof examiners for verification as to its genuineness if found genuineand the person named therein be the person claiming and presentingthe same, the board issues its certificate, which is conclusive ifnot a graduate, he must submit to an examination as the board shallrequire, and if the examination be satisfactory the board issues itscertificate, and the lawful holder is entitled to all the rights andprivileges mentioned in the act act february 28th, 1889, s 1 the governor appoints three persons from among the most competentphysicians of the state, residents of the state for seven years and ofat least five years’ practical experience in their profession, to bethe board of examiners 2 the board must issue certificates to all who furnish satisfactoryproof of having received a diploma or license from a legally charteredmedical institution in good standing of whatever school of medicine, and they are not permitted to make discrimination against holders of ageneral license or diploma under any school or system of medicine ingood standing 3, as amended february 21st, 1891 the verification of a diploma consists in an affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the person therein named, taken before anyperson authorized to administer oaths, attested under the hand andofficial seal of the official, if he have a seal. Graduates may presenttheir diplomas and affidavits by letter or proxy the act allowspersons taking advantage of section 13 ninety days after its passage inwhich to procure a certificate 4, as amended february 21st, 1891 all examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates must be madedirectly by the board, and certificates authorize the person named topractise medicine and surgery 5 the holder of a certificate must have it recorded in the office ofthe county clerk of the county in which he resides, and the recordmust be indorsed thereon on removal to another county to practise hemust procure an indorsement to that effect on the certificate from theclerk, and have the certificate recorded in the office of the clerk ofthe county to which he removes 6 the examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing and must be of anelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 8 the board may refuse a certificate to an individual guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes, after giving the accused an opportunity to be heard in his defencebefore the board 9 definition, exceptions - any person is regarded as practising medicinewho professes publicly to be a physician and to prescribe for thesick, or appends to his name the letters “m d ;” but the act doesnot prohibit students from prescribing under the supervision of apreceptor, nor gratuitous services in paper of emergency, nor does itapply to commissioned surgeons of the united states army, navy, andmarine hospital service 10 itinerant vender - any itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, medicine, ointment, or appliance of any kind intended for the treatment ofdisease or injury, who shall publicly profess to cure or treatdiseases, injuries, deformities, or ailments by any drug, nostrum, medicine, or other appliance, shall pay a license to the secretary ofthe state of $100 per month violation of this section is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of notmore than $500 or imprisonment in a county jail for not more than sixmonths, or both such licenses to any firm or company do not permit thetransaction of business in different places at the same time s 11, as amended february 21st, 1891 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without complying with theact is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $500 orimprisonment in a county jail from thirty days to three hundred andsixty-five days, or both, for each offence filing or attempting tofile as his own the certificate of another, or a forged affidavit oridentification, is a felony punishable the same as forgery in thesecond degree 12 former practitioners - persons practising in the state at the time ofthe passage of the act were allowed sixty days afterward to register13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for examining a genuine diploma, $1 to the secretary of the board, for examining a fraudulent diploma, or adiploma not owned by the possessor, $20 4 to the county clerk, for recording certificate, usual fee s 6 to board of examiners, for examination, $10 8 to the secretary of the state, from itinerant vender, for license, $100per month 11, as amended february 21st, 1891 pennsylvania present law - the following is the law at present in effect. For thenew law which goes into effect hereafter, see below qualification - the standard of a practitioner of medicine, surgery, orobstetrics consists of a good moral character, a thorough elementaryeducation, a comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy, humanphysiology, pathology, chemistry, materia medica, obstetrics, andpractice of medicine and surgery and public hygiene act march 24th, 1877, s 1 it is unlawful for any person to announce himself as a practitionerof medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to practise as such, who hasnot received in a regular manner a diploma from a chartered medicalschool, duly authorized to confer upon its alumni the degree of doctorof medicine the act does not apply to a resident practitioner who hasbeen in continuous practice in the commonwealth for not less than fiveyears prior to its passage 2 before any person can lawfully engage in the practice of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or who has not a diploma as provided in sec 2, he must make an affidavit under oath, or affirm before the prothonotaryof the county in which he intends to practise, setting forth the timeof continuous practice and the place or places where such practice waspursued in the commonwealth, and it shall be entered of record s 3 transient practitioner - any person attempting to practise medicineor surgery for a valuable consideration by opening a transient officewithin the commonwealth, or by handbill or other form of written orprinted advertisement, assigning such transient office or other placeto persons seeking medical or surgical advice, or prescribing oritinerating from place to place or from house to house and proposing tocure any person sick or afflicted, by the use of any medicine, means, or agency whatsoever, for a valuable consideration, shall before beingallowed to practise in this manner appear before the clerk of thecourt of quarter sessions of the county where he desires to practiseand furnish satisfactory evidence to such clerk that this act has beencomplied with, and shall take out a license for one year and pay $50therefor 4 penalty - to violate this act is a misdemeanor punishable with a fineof from $200 to $400 for each offence 5 qualification - every person who shall practise medicine or surgery, or any of their branches, for gain, or shall receive or accept for hisservices any fee or reward directly or indirectly, shall be a graduateof a legally chartered medical college or university having authorityto confer the degree of doctor of medicine except as provided insec 5, and shall present to the prothonotary of the county in whichhe resides or sojourns his medical diploma as well as a true copyof the same, including any indorsements thereon, and make affidavitbefore him that the diploma and indorsements are genuine. Thereuponthe prothonotary shall enter in the register the name in full of thepractitioner, his place of nativity, place of residence, the name ofthe college or university that has conferred the degree of doctor ofmedicine, the year when it was conferred, and in like manner any otherdegree or degrees that the practitioner may desire to place on record;to all of which the practitioner shall make affidavit before theprothonotary and the prothonotary shall place the copy of the diplomaand indorsements on file act june 8th, 1881, s 2 any person whose medical diploma has been destroyed or lost shallpresent to the prothonotary of the county in which he resides orsojourns a duly certified copy of his diploma, but if the same isnot obtainable a statement of this fact, with the names of theprofessors whose lectures he attended and the branches of study uponwhich each professor lectured, to all of which the practitioner shallmake affidavit before the prothonotary. After which the practitionershall be allowed to register and the prothonotary shall place suchcertificate or statement on file 3 any person desiring to commence the practice of medicine or surgery, having a medical diploma issued by any college, university, society, or association in another state or foreign country, shall lay the samebefore the faculty of one of the medical colleges or universities ofthis commonwealth for inspection, and the faculty being satisfiedas to the qualifications of the applicant and the genuineness of thediploma shall direct the dean of the faculty to indorse the same, afterwhich such person shall be allowed to register as required by sec 24 the act extends the privilege of continuing to practise to those whohave been in the continuous practice of medicine or surgery in thecommonwealth since 1871, but such a person must make affidavit to awritten statement of the facts before the prothonotary of the countyin which he resides. And the prothonotary shall enter in the registerthe name in full of the practitioner, his place of nativity, place ofresidence, the time of continuous practice in the commonwealth, and theplace or places where such practice was pursued, to all of which thepractitioner shall make affidavit, and the prothonotary shall place thecertificate or statement on file in his office 5 penalty - presenting to the faculty of an institution for indorsementor to the prothonotary a diploma which has been obtained by fraud, or in whole or in writing a forgery, or making an affidavit to a falsestatement, or practising without conforming with the act, or otherwiseviolating or neglecting to comply with the act, is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of $100 or imprisonment in the county jail fornot more than one year, or both, for each offence 7 exception - the act does not prevent any physician or surgeon, legallyqualified to practise medicine or surgery in the state where heresides, from practising in the commonwealth, but a person opening anoffice or appointing a place to meet patients or receive calls is asojourner and must conform to its requirements 8 fees - to the prothonotary, for affidavit of continuous practice, $2 act march 24th, 1877, s 3 to county treasurer, for transient license, $50 to clerk of the court of quarter sessions, for issuing transientlicense, $5 4 to the prothonotary, for registration, $1 act june 8th, 1881, s 6 new law - the following law has been enacted whose practicalapplication does not begin until march 1st, 1894:medical council - the law provides for a medical council of the state act of may 18th, 1893, s 1 the council is to supervise the examinations conducted by the stateboards of medical examiners for licenses to practise medicine andsurgery, and issue licenses to applicants who shall have presentedsatisfactory and properly certified copies of licenses from the stateboards of medical examiners or state boards of health of other states, or who shall have successfully passed the examination of one of thestate boards established by this act 5 medical boards - from and after march 1st, 1894, there are to be threeseparate boards of medical examiners, one representing the medicalsociety of the state, one representing the homœopathic medical societyof the state, and one representing the eclectic medical society ofthe state each board is to consist of seven members appointed bythe governor from the full lists of the members of the said medicalsocieties, and is to be composed exclusively of members of the samemedical society each appointee must be a registered physician in goodstanding, and shall have practised medicine or surgery under the lawsof the state for not less than ten years prior to his appointment the governor is to fill vacancies and may remove a member for continualneglect of duties or on the recommendation of the medical society withwhich he may be in affiliation, for unprofessional or dishonorableconduct 6 examinations - for the purpose of examining applicants each board isto hold two or more stated or special meetings in each year after duepublic notice a majority constitutes a quorum, but the examination maybe conducted by a committee of one or more members authorized by theboard 9 the boards not less than one week prior to each examination mustsubmit to the council questions for thorough examination in anatomy, physiology, hygiene, chemistry, surgery, obstetrics, pathology, diagnosis, therapeutics, practice of medicine, and materia medica. Andthe council must select therefrom the questions for each examination, and such questions for each examination shall be the same for allcandidates, except that in the dewritingments of therapeutics, practice ofmedicine, and materia medica the questions shall be in harmony with theteachings of the school selected by the candidate 10 the examinations are to be in writing under rules prescribed by thecouncil after an examination the board must act on it withoutunnecessary delay and transmit to the council an official report ofits action stating the examination average of each candidate in eachbranch, the general average, and the result, and whether successfulor unsuccessful the report must embrace all the examination papers, questions, and answers, which shall be kept for reference andinspection for not less than five years 11 qualification - the council must forthwith issue to each applicantreturned as having successfully passed said examination, and adjudgedby the council to be duly qualified, a license to practise medicine andsurgery the council must require the same standard of qualificationsfrom all candidates except in therapeutics, practice of medicine, andmateria medica, in which the standard shall be determined by the boardsrespectively before the license is issued, it must be recorded in abook in the office of the council, and the number of the book and pagecontaining the record noted on the face of the license. The recordsshall have the same weight as evidence as that given to conveyance ofland 12 on and after july 1st, 1894, any person not theretofore authorized topractise medicine and surgery in the state may deliver to the secretaryof the council a written application for a license with satisfactoryproof that the applicant is more than twenty-one years of age, is ofgood moral character, has obtained a competent common-school education, and has received a diploma conferring the degree of medicine fromessay legally incorporated medical college of the united states, ora diploma or license conferring the full right to practise all thebranches of medicine and surgery in essay foreign country applicantswho have received their degree in medicine after july 1st, 1894, musthave pursued the study of medicine for at least three years, includingthree regular courses of lectures in different years in essay legallyincorporated medical college or colleges prior to the granting of saiddiploma or foreign license such proof shall be made, if required, upon affidavit, and if the council is satisfied with the same it shallissue to the applicant an order for examination before such one of theboards of examiners as the applicant may select in case of failure atthe examination the candidate, after the expiration of six months andwithin two years, shall have the privilege of a second examination bythe same board without additional fee applicants examined and licensedby state boards of medical examiners or state boards of health of otherstates, on filing in the office of the medical council a copy of saidlicense certified by the affidavit of the president and secretary ofsuch board, showing also that the standard of acquirements adopted bysaid board is substantially the same as is provided by secs 11, 12, and 13 of this act, shall without further examination receive a licenseconferring on the holder all the rights and privileges provided bysecs 14 and 15 13 from and after march 1st, 1894, no person shall enter upon the practiceof medicine or surgery unless he has complied with this act and shallhave exhibited to the prothonotary of the court of common pleas ofthe county in which he desires to practise a license duly granted, which shall entitle him to be duly registered in the office of suchprothonotary penalty - violating the provisions of this act shall be a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of not more than $500 for each offence s 14 exceptions - the act does not interfere with or punish commissionedmedical officers serving in the army or navy of the united states, or its marine hospital service, while so commissioned, or medicalexaminers of relief dewritingments of railroad companies, while soemployed, or any one while actually serving as a member of the residentmedical staff of any legally incorporated hospital, or any legallyqualified and registered dentist exclusively engaged in the practiceof dentistry, nor interfere with or prevent the dispensing and saleof medicine or medical appliances by apothecaries or pharmacists, nor interfere with the manufacture of artificial eyes, limbs, ororthopædical instruments or trusses of any kind for sic fittingsuch instruments on persons in need thereof, or any lawfully qualifiedphysicians and surgeons residing in other states or countries meetingregistered physicians of this state in consultation, or any physicianor surgeon residing on the border of a neighboring state and dulyauthorized under the laws thereof to practise medicine and surgerytherein, whose practice extends into the limits of this state, providedsuch practitioner shall not open an office or appoint a place tomeet patients or receive calls within the limits of pennsylvania, orphysicians duly registered in one county of this state called toattend paper in another, but not residing or opening an office therein the act does not prohibit the practice of medicine and surgery by anypractitioner who shall have been duly registered before march 1st, 1894, according to the act of june 8th, 1881, and one such registrationshall be sufficient warrant to practise medicine and surgery in anycounty 15 former laws - all acts or writings of acts inconsistent with this arerepealed 17 fees - to the secretary of the council, upon application for a license, $25 to the secretary of the county, upon application for a license bylicensees in other states, $15 13 to the prothonotary, upon exhibition of a license, for registry, $114 rhode island registration - every physician must cause his name and residence tobe recorded in the town clerk office of the town where he resides public statutes, 1882, c 85, s 12 penalty - wilful neglect or refusal to perform this duty is punishablewith a fine not exceeding $20 11 south carolina qualification - all physicians engaging in the practice of medicineor surgery, before doing so, must submit their diplomas to a boardconsisting of three reputable physicians in each county the boardis appointed by the governor on the recommendation of the medicalsocieties of the counties, and where no medical society exists, upon the recommendation of the senator and members of the house ofrepresentatives for such counties act of 1890, c 454, s 1 the said board must examine said diploma, when submitted, and if theholder is a bona fide holder, and if the college issuing said diplomais a reputable medical college, and if he also submits a certificate ofgood moral character, the board must certify to the fact, and upon suchcertificate the diploma shall be registered by the clerk of the courtof the county in which the applicant resides 2 exception - the act does not apply to physicians and surgeons alreadyregistered under former laws 4 south dakota prohibition - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in any of their dewritingments without havingreceived a license to practise medicine from the board of health, andhaving it recorded in the office of the register of deeds in the countywhere such person resides act february 16th, 1893, s 1 exceptions - the act does not affect those in the lawful practice ofmedicine, surgery, or obstetrics in this state at the time of itspassage 2 nor does it prohibit students from prescribing under the supervisionof a preceptor, nor prohibit gratuitous services in case of emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united states army and navy3 penalty - violation of the act or practising without the license is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $25 to $100 or imprisonmentin the county jail not more than thirty days or both 4 qualification - the state board of health is constituted a board ofpublic examiners ex-officio to examine and license physicians topractise medicine any person who is a graduate of a lawful medicalcollege, who has attended three full courses of medical lectures ofsix months each, no two full courses within the same year, and who isof good moral character, and is not an habitual drunkard, shall, uponproof of such facts to the superintendent of the state board of health, as the board shall require, receive from said superintendent a license;which shall be recorded as above the requirement of three courses oflectures does not apply to those who had graduated prior to the passageof the act 5 cancellation of license - the state board of health, upon complaintmade to it on oath by one responsible person, has power to cancel anylicense that may have been fraudulently obtained or when the person towhom such license was issued is an habitual drunkard, or is guilty ofimmoral practices or gross unprofessional conduct such license shallnot be cancelled except after a hearing before such board of health, at which a majority of such board shall be present, and of which theperson holding the license to be cancelled shall have had at leastten days’ notice, and only upon due proof of the facts stated in thecomplaint an appeal may be taken to the circuit court of the countyin which the person whose license is cancelled lives by any personaggrieved, in the same manner as now provided by law in case of appealfrom the decisions of the county commissioners 6 fee - to the superintendent of the state board of health, for alicense, $5 5 tennessee qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in any of itsdewritingments, except dentistry, unless he possesses the qualificationsrequired by the act if a graduate in medicine, he must present hisdiploma to the state board of medical examiners for verification asto its genuineness if found genuine and from a legally charteredallopathic, homœopathic, or eclectic medical college in good standingwith the school of medicine in which said college is classed, of whichthe state board of medical examiners shall be the judge, and the personnamed therein be the person claiming and presenting it, the board mustissue a certificate to that effect, conclusive as to the rights of thelawful holder to practise medicine act of 1889, c 178, s 1 persons in actual practice at the time of the passage of the act wereallowed till july 1st, 1891, to comply with the provisions of the actrespecting them 2, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 1 a person wishing to enter upon the practice of medicine must presentto the board of medical examiners a diploma from essay medical collegein good standing as provided by sec 1, or shall present himself tothe said board for examination upon anatomy, physiology, chemistry, pathology, surgery, obstetrics, and therapeutics if the diploma befound genuine, or if the applicant for examination be found worthy andcompetent, the board shall issue a certificate which shall entitlethe lawful holder to all the privileges of this act 3, asamended act 1891, c 109, s 2 the governor appoints six graduate physicians as a state board ofmedical examiners. The three schools allopathic, homœopathic, andeclectic must be represented on the board. Five constitute a quorumand a majority of those present are necessary to reject an applicant, but such rejection shall not bar a re-examination after the lapse ofthree months.

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Died in custom writing review eleven days vagina gangrenous. Blood fluid. Lungs anæmic and pale. Trachea bright red, etc case 8 red, parchmenty skin, cracks, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 307 - while a chimney-sweep was cleaning a chimney a fire was lighted below death the entire skin was of a coppery red color, with yellow patches no carbonization skin parchmenty, with fissures upon the edges of which the fat had melted and flowed out case 9 asphyxia sooty mucus, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 314 - two children, æt 3 and 7, burned.