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If you add to it essay spikenard, with thewhey of goat milk, or honeyed water, it is made more strong, butit purges phlegm more manifestly than choler, and therefore doesmuch help custom papers writing pains in the hips, and other writings. Being boiled in whey, it wonderfully helps the obstructions of the liver and spleen, andtherefore profitable for the dropsy and jaundice. Being steeped inwine and drank, it helps those continual agues that come by the plentyof stubborn humours. An oil made thereof by setting in the sun, withessay laudanum added to it, provokes sweating the ridge of the backbeing anointed therewith, and thereby drives away the shaking fits ofthe ague it will not abide any long boiling, for it loseth its chiefstrength thereby. Nor much beating, for the finer powder provokesvomits and urine, and the coarser purgeth downwards the common use hereof is, to take the juice of five or seven leaves ina little drink to cause vomiting. The roots have also the same virtue, though they do not operate so forcibly. They are very effectual againstthe biting of serpents, and therefore are put as an ingredient bothinto mithridite and venice treacle the leaves and roots being boiledin lye, and the head often washed therewith while it is warm, comfortsthe head and brain that is ill affected by taking cold, and helps thememory i shall desire ignorant people to forbear the use of the leaves. Theroots purge more gently, and may prove beneficial to such as havecancers, or old putrified ulcers, or fistulas upon their bodies, totake a dram of them in powder in a quarter of a pint of white winein the morning the truth is, i fancy purging and vomiting medicinesas little as any man breathing doth, for they weaken nature, norshall ever advise them to be used, unless upon urgent necessity ifa physician be nature servant, it is his duty to strengthen hismistress as much as he can, and weaken her as little as may be asparagus, sparagus, or sperage descript it rises up at first with divers white and green scalyheads, very brittle or easy to break while they are young, whichafterwards rise up in very long and slender green stalks of the bignessof an ordinary riding wand, at the bottom of most, or bigger, orlesser, as the roots are of growth. On which are set divers branches ofgreen leaves shorter and smaller than fennel to the top.

“accepting that the gonorrheal infection gives systemic toxemia from absorption of the toxins ”it is the general opinion that in the majority of instances there is nosystemic toxemia custom papers writing “the technique of intraprostatic injection, while less simple than that of the intravenous, is by no means so difficult or complicated as to place it exclusively in the category of the urologist ”this obviously is an attempt to encourage the general use of thesepreparations and to minimize the necessity for careful study andspecial skill in their employment it is most unwise for one to attemptintraprostatic injections unless he is specially trained in thetechnique of this procedure “this injection to be performed after the 5th or 6th intravenous injection of methyl-phenol serum ”intravenous injections have a place in sane therapy only when themedicament to be so administered is of known composition and whenevidence is available which gives assurance that definite results shallfollow its use in the absence of these conditions it is manifestlyunwise and even unexcusable to employ any medicament in this manner, and its repeated use is reprehensible “intravenous injection of methyl-phenol serum alternating with intravenous injections of mercury should be given every 48 hours until infection is under control ”this quotation further emphasizes that the treatment, as advised, carries with it a certain element of danger “methylene blue prevents the phenol from exerting its usual action upon the red blood corpuscles, and ensures rapid elimination through healthy kidneys it preserves the antiseptic power of the phenol and prevents the phenol from interfering with the chemico-biological function of the white and red blood cells the serum component favors chemotaxis, it strengthens bodily defense, it prevents anaphylaxis even in debilitated patients, and it replaces the resistance which has been impaired by the demands that have already been made upon it ”no evidence is submitted to substantiate these claims it seems strangethat phenol should lose its power and that this should be restored bythe methylene blue “it has a refractory chemico-biological action, and exercises no vicious effect on the red blood corpuscles in the circulation, but, on the contrary, by its inoffensive presence, it wholly preserves all of the physiological properties of the blood ”what “a refractory chemico-biologic action” is, is not clear, butthere is no evidence that this preparation has any action which mightbe defined as “refractory chemico-biological, ” that its presence isinoffensive or that it wholly preserves all the physiologic propertiesof the blood “the treatment of gonorrhea by cano theory is firmly based upon chemico-biological facts and accepted authoritative theories and bears the same relation to gonorrhea that intravenous injections of arsenicals bear to syphilis ”quite an exaggerated and unwarranted statement in the same way, objection is taken to the following quotations. “phenol administered intravenously in combination with methylene blue, to protect the red-blood globule, undergoes no change, and preserves all of its actual antiseptic effect on the gonococcus and its toxins as though employed in the test tube ” “when thus introduced into the human body its elimination is unique, effective, antiseptic, germicidal, being completely and exclusively thrown off through the kidneys in a period varying from one-half to twelve hours without local injury or disturbance to the general economy ” “combinations of phenol are unstable, but they do have the advantage of mitigating direct action on the cells and globules it is also known that ordinary phenol has a coagulant action on the albumins and an oxidizing power on the tissues, which power, if permanent, produces gangrene by virtue of this dual action it therefore acts as a modifier. By its oxidizing power on the germ it is germicidal, and prevents the growth of the gonococcus. And by its coagulant power on the toxins it relieves paragonococcal lesions mono- and poly-arthritides and affections of the serous organs endo- and pericarditis, meningitis, and essay definite systemic disturbances, the pathology of which is often confused with that of other infections ” “lymphocytosis is often persistent in essay individuals in whom the internal secretions and the processes of assimilation and disassimilation are deficient. And because of the lack of these the organic physiological ferments are insufficient for the mechanism of nutrition and the phenomena of hematopoiesis ”until proof is available showing that phenol, administeredintravenously in the quantities employed in cano normal phenol serumand cano methyl-phenol serum, acts as a germicide and methylthioninechloride “methylene blue” prevents the deleterious effects of phenolon the red blood corpuscles.

Kills rats and mice being mixed with theirmeat black hellebore, bears-foot or christmas flower. Both this and theformer are hot and dry in the third degree this is neither so violentnor dangerous as the former enulæ campanæ helenij of elecampane it is hot and dry in thethird degree, wholeessay for the stomach, resists poison, helps oldcoughs, and shortness of breath, helps ruptures, and provokes lust. Inointments, it is good against scabs and itch endivæ, &c of endive, garden endive, which is the root herespecified, is held to be essaywhat colder, though not so dry andcleansing as that which is wild.

1 evidence that the arsphenamine used insupsalvs complies with the n n r standards and that deteriorationof it does not occur in the preparation of the suppositories or onkeeping 2 the identity of the ingredients composing the suppository the anglo-french drug company did not supply the requested evidenceand consequently the council judged the preparation on the basis ofthe information received from the company, and that contained in theavailable advertising and circulars it found supsalvs inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies, first because the quality of themedicament contained in the suppositories has not been established, andsecond because the claimed efficacy of this preparation as a means ofsecuring the effects of arsphenamine lacks substantiating proof during the past few years essay french physicians have reportedfavorably on the intrarectal administration of arsphenamine boyd andjoseph at panama published the journal, aug 17, 1918, p 521 anenthusiastic report on intrarectal injection of arsphenamine but didnot refer to its use in the form of suppositories in a comprehensivereport, on the “treatment of syphilis” quarterly journal of medicine, july, 1917 l w harrison stated that arsphenamine salvarsan in theshape of an enema is definitely less effective than intravenously andthat “neisser and the vast majority of workers can see no value in therectal method ” schamberg and hirschler a safe and efficient intensivemethod of treating syphilis, therapeutic gazette, november, 1919, p 761 have given a rather thorough trial of this method. The resultswere most disappointing. “a certain or rather uncertain amount ofarsphenamine is absorbed into the blood, but the quantity is obviouslytoo small to be at all comparable in its effect with the intravenousadministration our conclusions are that the rectal administrationof arsphenamine or neoarsphenamine is an extremely feeble method ofadministering these drugs ”the report of the special committee on the manufacture, biologicalhistory and clinical administration of salvarsan and other substancesof the british national health insurance medical research committeecontains the following. “the rectal method of administration, either inthe form of solution or as suppositories, has been advocated by a fewobservers mainly for paper in which there is difficulty in the adoptionof the intravenous method the experiments made by mills at rochesterrow show that three enemata of ‘606’ 0 6 gm in each on successivedays failed to produce any effect on the spironemes in the lesions the general opinion of experienced workers is that the rectal methodis ineffective, and in this view the committee concur ”-- from thejournal a m a , oct 30, 1920 hypodermic solution no 13, iron, arsenic and phosphorus compound not accepted for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary hypodermic solution no 13, iron, arsenic and phosphorus compound burdick-abel laboratory is said to contain in each c c. Ferrous citrate 0 06 gm sodium cacodylate 0 06 gm sodium glycerophosphate 0 1 gm chloretone 0 005 gm the preparation is advertised as “the old reliable hematinic” which is“indicated in all forms of anemia, where both red and white cells arelow ” it is for hypodermic or intramuscular administration the productis inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because:1 it does not contain ferrous citrate as claimed instead the iron isin the ferric condition, apparently in the form of the unofficial andunstandardized “iron citrate green” for which there is no evidence ofsuperiority over the official iron and ammonium citrate 134134 iron citrate green, the journal a m a , jan 12, 1917, p 135;reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 42 2 its name gives no information on the form in which the iron, thearsenic and the phosphorus occur therein the term “arsenic” doesnot indicate whether the mild cacodylate or the potent arsenousoxid is being administered nor does the term “phosphorus” tell thephysician that he is administering the practically inert sodiumglycerophosphate 135-- from the journal a m a , nov 13, 1920 135 glycerophosphates, the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 1033. Reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 32 sodiumglycerophosphates reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 52 parathesin not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the local anesthetic ethyl paraminobenzoate was first introduced as“anesthesin” or “anæsthesin ” ethyl paraminobenzoate is not patentedin the united states and it may be manufactured, therefore, by anyfirm which chooses to do so in order that a common name by which todesignate the drug might be available, the council coined the name“benzocaine, ” as being short and easily remembered, but yet suggestiveof its composition and character “benzo” to indicate its derivationfrom benzoic acid and “caine” to indicate its cocaine-like properties as the term “anesthesin” had become a common name for the drug, thecouncil recognized this as a synonym for benzocaine one of the accepted brands for benzocaine is “anesthesin, ”manufactured by the h a metz laboratories, inc see new andnonofficial remedies, 1920, p 33 however, on april 19, 1920, themetz laboratories requested that its product be recognized underthe designation of “parathesin ” as the use of one substance underseveral names causes confusion and retards rational therapeutics, thecouncil rules provide against the recognition of proprietary namesfor nonproprietary, established drugs in view of this and becausethe legitimate interests of the manufacturer may be safeguardedby appending his name or initials to the common name, benzocaineor anesthesin, the council voted not to recognize the designation“parathesin ”-- from the journal a m a , nov 13, 1920 chlorlyptus report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe condensed report on chlorlyptus which follows and also a completedetailed report was sent to the proprietor, jan 9, 1920 in replyhe requested that publication be postponed pending the submission offurther clinical evidence as after nine months this evidence had notbeen received the council has authorized publication of its report w a puckner, secretary chlorlyptus is manufactured by chas a weeks, trading as the weekschemical company, philadelphia it is prepared by chlorinatingeucalyptus oil until it has bound 30 per cent of chlorin, the chlorinbeing in relatively stable combination it is claimed that chlorlyptusis a new “chlorinated antiseptic, ” highly efficient as a woundantiseptic and at the same time nonirritant and nontoxic chlorlyptusis offered for use in the treatment of local infections of all types, as well as of burns, and also as an antiseptic in the alimentary andgenito-urinary tracts the claims were based largely on reports of investigations made byphilip b hawk and his collaborators these reports the refereeof the committee in charge of chlorlyptus considered incompleteand unconvincing being advised of this mr weeks caused furtherinvestigations to be made essay of the information was checked andextended by the a m a chemical laboratory and by the referee the laboratory side of the investigation may now be considered ascomplete the results show that chlorlyptus is a feeble antiseptic ofthe aromatic oil type, considerably weaker than eucalyptus oil, bothas to therapeutic and toxic qualities the chlorin contained in it isbound too firmly to have any action. In fact, the chlorination appearsto have accomplished nothing more than a considerable destruction orweakening of the eucalyptus oil as far as the referee can judge, thisobject could have been accomplished just as effectively by dilutingordinary eucalyptus oil with essay indifferent solvent the manufacturer of chlorlyptus contends that if the experimentalfindings are against his product, it should be judged by the clinicaldata the clinical evidence, however, is not decisive it shows thatwounds healed and infections were prevented or successfully combated inpaper in which chlorlyptus was used in combination with good surgery, but it does not show how much of the result was due to the surgery andhow much, if any, to the use of chlorlyptus even if it were grantedas probable that the chlorlyptus contributed to the favorable outcome, it would still be a question whether it equals other establishedantiseptics, or whether it possesses any material advantages overdiluted eucalyptus oil until these points are established the clinicalreports cannot offset the unfavorable results of the laboratoryinvestigation the manufacturer has endeavored to obtain more convincing clinicalreports, but the lack of success in this direction during the past ninemonths gives little encouragement that acceptable clinical evidencewill be available within a reasonable time believing that the information which has been obtained should be madeavailable to the profession, the council authorized publication ofthis statement and also of the detailed report the council voted notto accept chlorlyptus for new and nonofficial remedies because of theunfavorable results of the laboratory investigation, but with theagreement that the product would receive further consideration shouldmore convincing clinical data become available i detailed reports summarized reports chemical nature of chlorlyptuschlorlyptus is prepared by chlorinating eucalyptus oil until ithas bound 30 per cent of chlorin “chlorlyptol” is prepared in ananalogous manner from eucalyptol there has been essay confusion as tothe composition. But the principal constituent is now stated to be “adichloride of eucalyptus oil, ” to which the formula c₁₀h₁₆ocl₂ hasbeen assigned it differs from the “chlorinated eucalyptus oil, ” asordinarily used for making dichloramin-t solutions, and which containsonly 2/3 per cent of chlorin availability of chlorin in chlorlyptusthe chlorin content of chlorlyptus is almost entirely firmly bound, and therefore not “available, ” in contrast to the group of so-calledchlorinated antiseptics i e , the hypochlorite and chloramin type for instance, it does not directly liberate iodin from iodid itcontains a very small quantity of free hydrochloric acid, or perhapsessay acid esters, and liberates a little more on prolonged contact withwater. But the total quantity liberated under reasonable conditions isvery small according to hawk data, they correspond only to 1/8 percent hcl even after standing with water overnight and to only 1/5 percent of hcl after two weeks the referee has shown that this quantityof acid has no therapeutic significance the “bound” chlorin of chlorlyptus, being chemically inactive, wouldhave no more practical significance than the bound chlorin in commonsalt the “ozone” said to be used during the preparation, to expel thehcl, has also practically disappeared, to judge by the slowness withwhich iodin is liberated from potassium iodid acid formationessay constituents of chlorlyptus hydrolyze slowly and to a slightdegree with the liberation of a trace of free hydrochloric acid according to the data of hawk report, the free acidity, in termof hcl, is 1/12 per cent on standing with water over night, thisincreases to 1/8 per cent on this basis, hawk proposed a theory that the claimed antisepticeffects of chlorlyptus are due to the continuous liberation ofhydrochloric acid experiments by the referee show this to be untenable the traces ofacid are neutralized and absorbed by the tissues so rapidly that anacid reaction is not maintained these experiments are described in theappendix they were submitted to the manufacturers, who in the name of mr weeks may 9, 1919 concede this conclusion and state that “there is nodoubt that the referee statements as to action in mouth, contactwith living tissue and improbability that the acidity is effectivelyantiseptic is correct, and i am willing to accept the refereestatement as conclusive in this respect ” bacterial culture experimentsmr weeks submitted a statement by hawk to the effect that chlorlyptushas a phenol coefficient of 2 6, determined by the standard hygieniclaboratory procedure he also quotes rockefeller war hospital that chlorlyptus killsstaphylococcus aureus in concentra of 1 dram.

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Volumetric analysis, custom papers writing edition 10, p 390 illustration. Two formamint advertisements reproduced in miniaturetypical of those appearing in a certain type of medical journals essay determinations were made of the germicidal power of formamintin vitro, that is, under controlled laboratory conditions atwenty-four-hour plain agar culture of staphylococcus aureus waswashed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chloridsolution a 1:100, 000 dilution of this was made in each of three flaskscontaining 100 c c of sterile saliva flask 1 contained 1 per cent offormamint, flask 2, 5 per cent. Flask 3, containing no formamint, waskept as a control at intervals samples were removed and dilutions madeand plated in duplicate on standard agar the plates were incubatedtwenty-four hours at 37 c , and plates containing less than 200colonies were counted the results are given in table 1 after sevendays there was no appreciable difference in the plates another test was made by adding a 1 per cent formamint solution toplain agar plates inoculated with b coli a twenty-four-hour plainagar culture of b coli was washed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 percent sodium chlorid solution a 1:1, 000, 000 dilution was made of thisand 1 c c added to each plate varying amounts of 1 per cent solutionof formamint were added to each plate they were incubated seventy-twohours at 37 c after seven days’ incubation the count was the same theresults are given in table 2 another experiment was made thus. One loopful of a twenty-four-hourplain agar culture of streptococcus lacticus was mixed with a tubeof north medium one loopful from the inoculated tube was mixed with asecond tube of north medium both tubes were poured into petri dishesand allowed to cool one half of each plate was well smeared with a 10per cent solution of formamint in saliva after twenty-four hours’incubation at 37 c , only a few colonies appeared on the side to whichthe formamint had been applied, while the other half was thicklycovered with colonies table 1 -- showing time in which cultures of staphylococcus aureus werekilled by different amounts of formamint amount of formamint| period of |average count| count on flask in saliva |standing at 37 c | when plated |of saliva without per cent | hours | | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 32 | 3200 1 | 6 | 0 | 7000 5 | 1 | few | 5000 5 | 2 | 0 | 4100 5 | 3 | 0 | 3200* 5 | 6 | 0 | 7000* -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the last two observations were made at the same time as on the 1 percent solutions this work so far corroborates that reported in the literature quotedby the manufacturers but the fact that a compound is a germicide whenbrought into intimate contact with bacteria in a solution or medium ina test tube or flask does not prove that it will be effective when usedin the human throat the alleged germicidal actionan attempt was made to discover whether or not the claims advanced bythe manufacturers as to the perfect germicidal action of formamint inall the nooks and crannies of the mouth and throat could be confirmed table 2 -- count of b coli cultures with different amounts of formamint no c c of 1 per cent formamint 0 0 1 0 3 0 5 0 7 1 0 1 5 2 0 3 0 count 160 33 39 26 15 12 2 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the first step in attacking this problem was to make comparative countsof the number of bacteria in the throat before and after the use offormamint the methods employed were as follows. The throat was gargledwith 50 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chlorid solution ineach case the same length of time, as far as possible, was used in theprocess the liquid was collected in a sterile flask the gargling in aseries of experiments was begun not less than two hours after a meal after essay preliminary work the following dilutions of the 50 c c ofsalt solution were found sufficient.