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And bruised with essay honey, and applied tothe ears, ease the pains and inflammation of them a piece of the greenhusks put into a hollow tooth, eases the pain the catkins hereof, taken before they fall off, dried, and given a dram thereof in powderwith white wine, wonderfully helps those that are troubled with therising of the mother the oil that is pressed out of the kernels, is very profitable, taken inwardly like oil of almonds, to help thecholic, and to expel wind very effectually. An ounce or two thereof maybe taken at any time the young green nuts taken before they be halfripe, and preserved with sugar, are of good use for those that haveweak stomachs, or defluctions thereon the distilled water of the greenhusks, before they be half ripe, is of excellent use to cool the heatof agues, being drank an ounce or two at a time. As also to resist theinfection of the plague, if essay of the same be also applied to thesores thereof the same also cools the heat of green wounds and oldulcers, and heals them, being bathed therewith the distilled water ofthe green husks being ripe, when they are shelled from the nuts, anddrank with a little vinegar, is good for the place, so as before thetaking thereof a vein be opened the said water is very good againstthe quinsy, being gargled and bathed therewith, and wonderfully helpsdeafness, the noise, and other pains in the ears the distilled waterof the young green leaves in the end of may, performs a singular cureon foul running ulcers and sores, to be bathed, with wet cloths orspunges applied to them every morning wold, weld, or dyer weed the common kind grows bushing with thesis leaves, long, narrow andflat upon the ground. Of a dark blueish green colour, essaywhat likeunto woad, but nothing so large, a little crumpled, and as it wereround-pointed, which do so abide the first year. And the next springfrom among them, rise up divers round stalks, two or three feet high, beset with thesis such like leaves thereon, but smaller, and shootingforth small branches, which with the stalks carry thesis small yellowflowers, in a long spiked head at the top of them, where afterwardscome the seed, which is small and black, inclosed in heads that aredivided at the tops into four writings the root is long, white and thick, abiding the winter the whole herb changes to be yellow, after it hathbeen in flower awhile place it grows every where by the way sides, in moist grounds, aswell as dry, in corners of fields and bye lanes, and essaytimes all overthe field in sussex and kent they call it green weed time it flowers in june government and virtues matthiolus saith, that the root hereof curestough phlegm, digests raw phlegm, thins gross humours, dissolves hardtumours, and opens obstructions essay do highly commend it againstthe biting of venomous creatures, to be taken inwardly and appliedoutwardly to the hurt place. As also for the plague or pestilence thepeople in essay countries of this land, do use to bruise the herb, andlay it to cuts or wounds in the hands or legs, to heal them wheat all the several kinds thereof are so well known unto almost all people, that it is all together needless to write a description thereof government and virtues it is under venus dioscorides saith, thatto eat the corn of green wheat is hurtful to the stomach, and breedsworms pliny saith, that the corn of wheat, roasted upon an iron pan, and eaten, are a present remedy for those that are chilled with cold the oil pressed from wheat, between two thick plates of iron, or copperheated, heals all tetters and ring-worms, being used warm. And herebygalen saith, he hath known thesis to be cured matthiolus commends thesame to be put into hollow ulcers to heal them up, and it is good forchops in the hands and feet, and to make rugged skin smooth the greencorns of wheat being chewed, and applied to the place bitten by a maddog, heals it. Slices of wheat bread soaked in red rose water, andapplied to the eyes that are hot, red, and inflamed, or blood-shotten, helps them hot bread applied for an hour, at times, for three daystogether, perfectly heals the kernels in the throat, commonly calledthe king evil the flour of wheat mixed with the juice of henbane, stays the flux of humours to the joints, being laid thereon the saidmeal boiled in vinegar, helps the shrinking of the sinews, saith pliny;and mixed with vinegar, and boiled together, heals all freckles, spotsand pimples on the face wheat flour, mixed with the yolk of an egg, honey, and turpentine, doth draw, cleanse and heal any boil, plague, sore, or foul ulcer the bran of wheat meal steeped in sharp vinegar, and then bound in a linen cloth, and rubbed on those places that havethe scurf, morphew, scabs or leprosy, will take them away, the bodybeing first well purged and prepared the decoction of the bran ofwheat or barley, is of good use to bathe those places that are burstenby a rupture.

For in june, whenany hot weather comes, for the most writing it is withered and gone government and virtues the moon owns the herb moonwort is coldand drying more than adder tongue, and is therefore held to be moreavailable for all wounds both inward and outward the leaves boiledin red wine, and drank, stay the immoderate custom geography essay flux of women courses, and the whites it also stays bleeding, vomiting, and other fluxes it helps all blows and bruises, and to consolidate all fractures anddislocations it is good for ruptures, but is chiefly used, by mostwith other herbs, to make oils or balsams to heal fresh or greenwounds as i said before either inward or outward, for which it isexcellently good moonwort is an herb which they say will open locks, and unshoe suchhorses as tread upon it. This essay laugh to scorn, and those no smallfools neither. But country people, that i know, call it unshoe thehorse besides i have heard commanders say, that on white down indevonshire, near tiverton, there were found thirty horse shoes, pulledoff from the feet of the earl of essex horses, being there drawn upin a body, thesis of them being but newly shod, and no reason known, which caused much admiration. The herb described usually grows uponheaths mosses i shall not trouble the reader with a description of these, since myintent is to speak only of two kinds, as the most principal, viz ground moss and tree moss, both which are very well known place the ground moss grows in our moist woods, and at the bottomof hills, in boggy grounds, and in shadowy ditches and thesis other suchlike places the tree moss grows only on trees government and virtues all sorts of mosses are under the dominionof saturn the ground moss is held to be singularly good to break thestone, and to expel and drive it forth by urine, being boiled in wineand drank the herb being bruised and boiled in water, and applied, eases all inflammations and pains coming from an hot cause. And istherefore used to ease the pains of the gout the tree mosses are cooling and binding, and writingake of a digesting andmolifying quality withal, as galen saith but each moss writingakes of thenature of the tree from whence it is taken. Therefore that of the oakis more binding, and is of good effect to stay fluxes in man or woman;as also vomiting or bleeding, the powder thereof being taken in wine the decoction thereof in wine is very good for women to be bathed in, that are troubled with the overflowing of their courses the same beingdrank, stays the stomach that is troubled with casting, or hiccough;and, as avicena saith, it comforts the heart the powder thereoftaken in drink for essay time together, is thought available for thedropsy the oil that has had fresh moss steeped therein for a time, andafterwards boiled and applied to the temples and forehead, marvellouslyeases the head-ache coming of a hot cause. As also the distillations ofhot rheums or humours in the eyes, or other writings the ancients muchused it in their ointments and other medicines against the lassitude, and to strengthen and comfort the sinews. For which, if it was goodthen, i know no reason but it may be found so still motherwort descript this hath a hard, square, brownish, rough, strong stalk, rising three or four feet high at least, spreading into thesis branches, whereon grow leaves on each side, with long foot-stalks, two atevery joint, which are essaywhat broad and long, as if it were roughor crumpled, with thesis great veins therein of a sad green colour, anddeeply dented about the edges, and almost divided from the middle ofthe branches up to the tops of them which are long and small grow theflowers round them at distances, in sharp pointed, rough, hard husks, of a more red or purple colour than balm or horehound, but in thesame manner or form as the horehound, after which come small, round, blackish seeds in great plenty the root sends forth a number of longstrings and small fibres, taking strong hold in the ground, of a darkyellowish or brownish colour, and abides as the horehound does.

84 to 4 × 21. 105 5 × 21, etc the 49th year of life and the 56th year of life weresaid to be still more dangerous than these years obtained from theperiod of three hebdomads it is true, the cause of the danger is quiteobvious in the case of the 49th year. It was the ominous 7 × 7 whichhere gave rise to forebodings and it was not quite comprehensible whatcaused the bad reputation of innocent 56. Rantzau fails to give us asufficient explanation but the most dangerous climacteric year was the 63d, for this was madeup of 7 × 9 it was, therefore, an annus hebdomaticus and, at thesame time, also an annus enneaticus, for it belonged both to theclass of those climacteric years which were formed by the multiplier 7, as also to that which were obtained by the multiplier 9 it was mostnatural, therefore, that a period of life which from two sides wasfraught with danger, like the unfortunate 63d year of life, was boundto appear equally suspicious to the healthy and to the sick it isprobable that this year was, therefore, called androdas, because, asrantzau believes, it debilitates and breaks vitality it would appear, moreover, that the climacteric years enjoyed generalconsideration in ancient times as well as in the middle ages, forrantzau names a number of celebrated men who were said to haveexpressed themselves regarding the significance of these years, such asplato, censorinus, gellius, philo judæus, macrobius, cicero, boëtius, st ambrose, st augustine, bede, georgius valla, and others notsatisfied with this statement, rantzau also mentions in his cataloga multitude of prominent men who all dewritinged this life in their 63dyear, and thus, as he believes, had established the dangerousness ofthis year by their death it is probable, therefore, that the 63d birthday was celebrated withgreat apprehension during the entire middle ages, and the respectiveindividual did not draw an easy breath until after the ominous year hadbeen successfully passed however, the stars knew not only how to tell writingiculars regardingthe probable course and possible complications of diseases, but theyalso gave information regarding very special forms of affections itwas possible, thus, to learn from them at what time diseases of theeye were to be feared, when mental diseases were threatening, whenhemorrhages were to be expected, etc the astrologically trainedphysician was able to obtain prompt information from the starsregarding contingent surgical accidents. For there existed variousconjunctions of the celestial bodies, according to ptolemy, whichsurely pointed to wounds, fractures of bones, burns, concussions, andother lesions in fact, it was possible to see in advance, from thecelestial phenomena, what limbs would be exposed to forcible injury;thus, certain conjunctions of the planets were said to prognosticatewith certainty wounds of the head. Others, of the face. Others, again, of the hands and feet, of the fingers and toes, of the arms and legs, of the trunk and neck astrology, moreover, was not satisfied with theprognostic and diagnostic activity which we have just mentioned, but italso interfered in therapy, internal as well as external regarding, in the first place, internal medicinal treatment, theastrologer knew how to give positive information about the same. Forall terrestrial beings, of an organic as well as of an inorganicnature, were under the influence of the sun, the moon, of the planets, and of the signs of the zodiac the stars imwritinged certain powers tothe planets, to animals, and to all structures of the inorganic world if, therefore, it were known what stars happened to appear in thevault of heaven at the beginning of the disease or of its treatment, it was only necessary seriously to consider the organic and inorganicstructures under their supervision, and the remedies required for asuccessful control of the disease were presently at hand but if thehealer wished to be absolutely certain what medicaments to choose, thephases of the moon and the condition of the sun were also to be takeninto consideration essay remedies could be administered only when themoon was in a writingicular relation to certain planets or stars of thezodiac these remedies were principally emetics and purges similarly to the internal clinician, so also in surgery, the healerwas entirely dependent upon the conjunction of the stars the primevalbabylonian directed that the body must not be touched with iron duringcertain conjunctions of the stars, and this was also prescribed inall paper of astrologica medica it appears, however, that thisdirection obtained less general surgical recognition, but referredprincipally to blood-letting even to this limited extent it implieda high-handed interference with the art of the ancient as well as ofthe medieval physician. For venesection occupied an entirely differentposition among therapeutic measures during that period than it doesto-day whereas modern medicine does not consider blood-lettingnecessary, except in the rarest paper, ancient as well as medievalprofessors of medicine believed that they could under no circumstancesdispense with it. In fact, it is probable that until the seventeenthcentury there was scarcely any form of disease the treatment of whichwould have been possible without withdrawal of blood an actualsystem of blood-letting had been elaborated under the influence ofhumoro-pathological opinions every vein that could be reached withthe lancet was acted upon, and the school of medicine of the periodwas punctiliously careful in teaching which vessel presented the mostsuitable point of attack for the hand of the physician in this or thatform of disease the therapeutic subtleties which were thus brought tolight are beyond description thus, a withdrawal of blood from veins onthe right side of the body was said to yield an essentially differenteffect from left-sided venesection, and each individual vein of thebody promised a special advantage which was peculiar to this one vein the physician of that period surely had enough to do to bear in mindall the numerous therapeutic effects which he was to achieve by theopening of the various veins to facilitate this difficult art to acertain degree special figures were designed so-called venesectionmanikins, in which the numerous points for bleeding were most carefullyannotated fig 5 page 175 shows such a picture it indicates no lessthan 53 different localities for venesection, and as each and everyone of them again implied four or five, or possibly even more, methodsof blood-letting, we may consider that there were thesis hundreds ofdifferent possibilities for phlebotomy if it was easy to become lostin the labyrinth of this blood-thirsty therapy, the difficulty of amethodical application of venesection was very materially increased byastrology.

And of personsdrowned, see vol i , p 805 et seq custom geography essay 14 the state of the brain and spinal cord after a thorough consideration of the results of the examination, conclusions must be drawn from this examination. Never from thestatements of others the conclusions commonly relate to whetherdeath was due to natural or unnatural causes. If to unnatural causes, what are the facts which lead the examiner to this opinion as theconclusions are intended to form a summary of the whole report, theymust be brief and tersely stated personal identity, including the methods used for its determination in the dead and living by irving c rosse, a m , m d , f r g s eng , professor of nervous diseases, georgetown university. Membre du congrès international d’anthropologie criminelle, etc personal identity general considerations identity is the determination of the individuality of a person injurisprudence the term is applied to the recognition of a person who isthe object of a judicial action the establishment of the individualityof a person is known as absolute identity. While the relations of aperson with essay writingicular act is known as relative identity the great number and variety of facts concerned in the investigationof questions of identity are of considerable gravity and importance intheir juridical bearing, and at the same time they are among the mostinteresting and most useful of the applications of modern medicine tothe purposes of the law 569among the varied researches of legal medicine looking to aninterpretation of facts, no other question occurs in which the solutiondepends more upon morphological and anatomical knowledge, and none ismore dependent upon purely objective, visible, tangible facts personal identity often constitutes the entire subject-matter ofdispute in a civil case upon it may depend the question of absence orof marriage, of kinship or of filiation involving the possession ofan estate, in which case the court often requires the most subtle ofscientific evidence to assist in its decision thesis anthropologicaland medical facts, now appropriated by criminology and penal science, are useful in proving not only the present but in attesting futureidentity, thereby preventing in great measure the dissimulation ofprisoners, deserters, false claimants to life insurance, fraudulentpensioners, and the like such matters are of daily occurrence the special agents of the u s pension office detect and cause the punishment of thesis fraudulentclaimants stratagems and conspiracies to defraud life-insurancecompanies go much further than mere substitution instead of a“fraudulent” a positive death may come up for investigation, and inorder to defraud an insurance company of a large amount, a body mayeven be procured by homicide to consummate the deception, as was donein the goss-udderzook tragedy near baltimore in 1872 a celebrated case now before the supreme court of the united states andinvolving the question of personal identity is that of the mutual lifeinsurance company of new york, the new york life insurance company, andthe connecticut mutual life insurance company of hartford, connecticut consolidated, plaintiffs in error, vs sallie e hillmon it is pre-eminently in criminal trials that the personal identity ofthe victim often constitutes an essential connecting link before itcan move, the law requires, at the outset, proof of the individualityof both the author of a crime and of the victim i shall, therefore, not touch upon such elusive individuals as charlie ross and jackthe ripper, but limit my remarks to a synthetical exposition of thebest-known facts regarding identification of the dead body and theinterpretation of its organic remains the identity of a living person, or even our own identity, is often adifficult point to establish it may also require medical evidence, oftentimes of a most involved character, to establish the fact ofdeath hence the medico-legal process of connecting a dead body, orthe remains or traces of the same, with a human being once known tohave lived and moved on earth, is beset with difficulties that may giverise to still greater antagonisms of evidence the question of personalidentity is one of the hardest that could possibly come before a court celebrated paper and judicial errors have given it great notoriety there are consequently few questions in forensic medicine that requiremore attention and sagacity, and none upon which the medical legistshould pronounce with more reserve and circumspection medical men areabsolutely the only persons qualified to assist in resolving thereally delicate question of personal identity. Yet the physician andthe lawyer pursue the same line of logic and of inquiry as the formermust have a subject to dissect or to operate upon, so must the lawyerin pursuing a criminal investigation first prove a visible materialsubstance known in legal phraseology as the corpus delicti, which hemust connect with essay personality, with essay human being once knownto have lived in this important process the physician testimonybeing the indispensable guide of the court inference, he should limithimself to purely anatomical and material knowledge the medical experthas absolutely nothing to do with guilt or innocence, as that is aquestion for the jury he should, above all things, be absolutely freefrom prejudice, suspicion, or undue suggestion, and should rememberthat in thus sinking his personality his sole function as a skilledwitness in paper of identity is to furnish testimony which, when takenin connection with other evidence in the case, may establish such acorpus delicti as would justify the inference of a crime a nice point may arise as to dispensing with the proof from the bodyitself, when the substantial general fact of a homicide is provedaliunde, as in the case of a criminal causing the disappearanceof his victim body by means of its decomposition in lime or otherchemical menstrua, or by submerging it in an unfathomable spot in thesea under circumstances such as the following. A person is seen toenter a building and is not seen to leave it, although all means ofegress therefrom are watched. Another person is seen to ignite thebuilding, which thereupon burns down, and the charred remains of ahuman body are found in the ruins. The proof of identity from the bodyitself might be dispensed with in view of the substantial general factof a homicide having been committed in a delicate case where the manof art hesitates and finds no corpus delicti, the investigation ofimprints and stains may give a clew of great value to the expert yetit is only upon absolute evidence, and in the strongest possible case, that the fundamental principle of the corpus delicti is disregarded in the case of ruloff, the child body was not produced and no traceof it could be alleged to have been found. Nevertheless the prisonerwas found guilty of murder this case was speedily overruled 18 n y , 179, on the ground that a dangerous precedent had been pronounced so indispensable is the showing of the corpus delicti in paperof recognition that lawyers have come to regard even the judicialconfession of an accused as often the flimsiest and most unsatisfactorykind of evidence numerous paper of demonstrated fallibility ofconfessions are cited in the books, where the statement was utterlylacking in anything except motive or hallucination in the proceedingsof the new york medico-legal society, december 6th, 1876, mr jamesappleton morgan mentions the case of a german servant-girl whoassured her mistress, whose little boy, a child of seven, had justdied and been buried, that she the servant had poisoned the boy the servant swore to her crime and was taken into custody, and it wasonly when no poison was discovered upon exhuming the child body andexamining its stomach that against her own protest she was acquittedof the possibility of the crime another case of the kind that hashad medico-legal notoriety was tried a few years ago before a courtin brittany the accused declared that he had killed his servant andthrown the body in a pond his guilt seemed certain, when the allegedvictim put in an appearance, thus reducing the evidence to the strangehallucination that had prompted the confession but the most wonderful of these is the celebrated case of boorn, inwhich medico-legal evidence took no writing in view of the seeminghopelessness of his case, the accused confessed to murder inexpectation of mercy from the court, but was finally acquitted on thealleged victim walking into court and confronting the man who had swornto having killed him although wisdom and experience point to the necessity of showingessaything corporal and material in paper involving questions of lifeand death, yet very small traces or minute remains of a human body may, in certain circumstances, constitute a corpus delicti that may leadto trial if not to conviction in 1868 the lambert case, for murder onthe high seas, was tried before judge benedict in the united statescourt, the only corpus delicti alleged being a large pool of bloodand brains found on the forecastle of a ship at sea, out of sight ofland or other vessel circumstances, acts, and words pointed stronglyto the murder of one of the crew, who was believed to have been brainedwith an axe and thrown overboard notwithstanding the fact thatanimosity was known to exist between the accused and the missing man, it further appeared that the accused, in a state of great excitement, had followed the missing man forward and returned alone with a hatchetin his hand, yet the jury in this instance were not satisfied as tothe establishment of a corpus delicti beyond a reasonable doubt andaccordingly failed to convict two classical paper, that of gardelle and of dr webster, mentionedin thesis of the books, stand forth as instances of conviction wherefragments of the human body were recognized after attempts to destroythem by intense heat the conviction of dr webster rested almostentirely upon medico-legal evidence. But it is probable that upon thesame circumstantial evidence the increased industry of counsel wouldhave so rung the changes in regard to its uncertain and unsafe nature, and would have so used the knowledge gained from advanced discoveriesin the regions of the probabilities of science, as to have secured theacquittal of the prisoner had the trial taken place at the present time a similar affair of great medico-legal interest is the goss-udderzooktragedy, already referred to, an account of which is given by drs lewis and bombaugh among the “remarkable stratagems and conspiraciesfor defrauding life insurance companies, ” new york and london, 1878 identity of burnt remains the medical jurist will no doubt find cremation a formidable barrier inelucidating the question of identity, although the entire destructionof a dead body is a matter of extreme difficulty in the case of calcination chemical analysis of the ash would detectthe phosphate of lime, but this would throw no light upon thesubject, since the ash of human bones and that of the lower animalsis identical if the burnt bone is entire, the state of the epiphysesmay enlighten the question of the determination of age the followingtwo paper, in which fragments or portions of bone had been submittedto the action of fire, show how medical training and essay knowledge ofcomparative anatomy may contribute to the establishment of guilt or mayattest innocence in the case of the queen vs john henry wilson, for murder, theaccused burnt his step-father in a lime-kiln for over a week, and onstrewing ashes from the kiln fine fragments of bone picked up wereafterward identified as human at the trial identity rested on the factof finding two buttons and a buckle, which were recognized as writing ofthe deceased wearing apparel when last seen in the second case, that of a young woman supposed to be in the familyway who should not have been, it was thought that she had been confinedand made away with the infant under this supposition the premiseswhere she lived were searched by the chief constable, who found inthe stove essay bones and fragments of bones that had been burnt onexamination by a qualified medical man, the fragments turned out to benot human bones, but those of essay other animal, presumably those of apig and of a chicken, which the family, who lived in a tenement-housewithout a back yard, had put in the stove to get rid of the refuse 570identification of human bones in deciding whether certain bones are human or not, the medical juristshould exercise great caution in venturing an opinion as to the preciseanimal of which he may believe they formed a writing there is no greatdifficulty in detecting the smallest fragments of bone by means ofthe microscope, but we cannot say with safety whether the fragmentsbelonged to a mouse, a man, or an elephant a real difficulty occurs inrecognizing the nature and origin of the bony remains when only a smallfragment or a single bone is submitted for report if a sufficientportion of the skeleton be submitted it can be easily recognized ashuman, as in the imbedded remains of the troglodyte found in thelimestone deposit of luray cave, virginia, and only in the exceptionalcase of the bones of one of the manlike apes could a difficulty ofdistinction arise the characteristic signs that distinguish a gorillaskeleton, for instance, are the smaller thumb. Notable length of tibiaand of radius, although this relative length of extremities has beenremarked in negroes. Small facial angle, 30° to 40° in the monkey, 70°to 80° in man. Very inferior cranial capacity, the maximum in a gorillabeing 550 cubic centimetres, while the minimum in the human species isfrom 970 with a maximum of 1, 500 to 1, 900 centimetres. A low index ofthe foramen magnum. Convexity of the squamo-parietal suture, and largerand more salient canines and incisors the volume of the endocraniumin the female gorilla, like that of the human species, is smallerthan that of the male.

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Probably there is, for i do notbelieve god created any thing of no use asphodeli, albuci, muris of male asphodel hot and dry in the seconddegree, inwardly taken, they provoke vomit, urine, and custom geography essay the menses:outwardly used in ointments, they cause hair to grow, cleanse ulcers, and take away morphew and freckles from the face bardanæ, &c of bur, clot-bur, or burdock, temperately hot and dry helps such as spit blood and matter. Bruised and mixed with salt andapplied to the place, helps the bitings of mad dogs it expels wind, eases pains of the teeth, strengthens the back, helps the runningof the reins, and the whites, being taken inwardly dioscorides, apuleius behen alb rub of valerian, white and red mesue, serapio, andother arabians, say they are hot and moist in the latter end of thefirst, or beginning of the second degree, and comfort the heart, stirup lust the grecians held them to be dry in the second degree, thatthey stop fluxes, and provoke urine bellidis of dasies see the leaves betæ, nigræ, albæ, rubræ of beets, black, white, and red. As forblack beets i have nothing to say, i doubt they are as rare as blackswans the red beet root boiled and preserved in vinegar, makes a fine, cool, pleasing, cleansing, digesting sauce see the leaves bistortæ, &c of bistort, or snakeweed, cold and dry in the thirddegree, binding. Half a dram at a time taken inwardly, resistspestilence and poison, helps ruptures and bruises, stays fluxes, vomiting, and immoderate flowing of the menses, helps inflammationsand soreness of the mouth, and fastens loose teeth, being bruised andboiled in white wine, and the mouth washed with it borraginis of borrage, hot and moist in the first degree, cheersthe heart, helps drooping spirits dioscorides brionæ, &c of briony both white and black.