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For suchdiseases you may make up your physic with whey outwardly it cleansesthe custom essays website review skin of such deformities as come through choler or melancholy, asscabs, itch, morphew, leprosies, &c honey is of a gallant cleansing quality, exceeding profitable in allinward ulcers in what writing of the body soever. It opens the veins, cleanses the reins and bladder i know no vices belonging to it, butonly it is soon converted into choler wax, softens, heats, and meanly fills sores with flesh, it suffersnot the milk to curdle in women breasts. Inwardly it is given tengrains at a time against bloody-fluxes raw-silk, heats and dries, cheers the heart, drives away sadness, comforts all the spirits, both natural, vital and animal belonging to the sea sperma cœti, is well applied outwardly to eating ulcers, the markswhich the small pox leaves behind them. It clears the sight, provokessweat. Inwardly it troubles the stomach and belly, helps bruises, and stretching of the nerves, and therefore is good for women newlydelivered amber-grease, heats and dries, strengthens the brain and nervesexceedingly, if the infirmity of them come of cold, resists pestilence sea-sand, a man that hath the dropsy, being set up to the middle init, it draws out all the water red coral, is cold, dry and binding, stops the immoderate flowing ofthe menses, bloody-fluxes, the running of the reins, and the fluoralbus, helps such as spit blood, it is an approved remedy for thefalling sickness also if ten grains of red coral be given to a childin a little breast-milk so soon as it is born, before it take any otherfood, it will never have the falling-sickness, nor convulsions thecommon dose is from ten grains to thirty pearls, are a wonderful strengthener to the heart, encrease milkin nurses, and amend it being naught, they restore such as are inconsumptions. Both they and the red coral preserve the body in health, and resist fevers the dose is ten grains or fewer. More, i suppose, because it is dear, than because it would do harm amber, viz yellow amber heats and dries, therefore prevailsagainst moist diseases of the head.

Yet out of 952cataracts, of which a record has been kept, only two paper occurred injewellers besides, there is not one special sign or physical traceleft on the body by which a prostitute may be known, notwithstandingthe fact that in life the collective appearance would seldom deceive anexperienced man only in the case of sodomy, where anal coitus has been frequent, wouldcharacteristic signs be found on anal examination of 446 prostitutes, dr coutagne594 found the signs of post-perineal coitus in 180 he cites the case of a young prostitute presenting the astonishingcontrast of a gaping anus surrounded by characteristic rhagades, withthe genital writings of an extreme freshness, a very narrow vagina, andnon-retracted hymen, constituting by their reunion a still firm ring a fact yet more curious is shown by a specimen in the collection ofthe museum of the laboratory of legal medicine at lyons the genitalorgans of the cadaver of a woman of twenty-eight or thirty years showeda hymen intact and firm, but on examining the anal region it wassurprising to find an infundibuliform deformity with all the signs ofsodomitical habits, which of course rectified the opinion that had beenmade regarding the chastity of this woman thesis of the signs enumerated as peculiar to different callings haveno special anatomical characteristic that is easy to distinguish withprecision, consequently they do not present a degree of certainty orconstancy sufficient to be invoked as strong medico-legal proof ofidentity moreover, the effects of time or treatment may have causedalteration or disappearance of thesis of the signs custom essays website review in question, whichwould at best be of negative rather than of absolute value to arrive at an imwritingial appreciation of the relative value of theprofessional stigmata as signs of identity, a certain number of thesigns should be thrown aside as illusory others, on the contrary, aredurable, special, and constant, and assist in establishing the identityaccordingly as the lesions or alterations are complete or evident. Butit should be borne in mind that the physical alterations and chemicalmodifications resulting from the exercise of certain trades are not inour country so important from a medico-legal point of view as they arein europe, where class distinctions are more defined value of stains and different imprints in the same manner that a very small portion or fragment of the humanbody may suffice to establish the corpus delicti, so will minuteremains or traces, as finger-marks, footprints, and other materialsurroundings, even smells or traces of perfume, be of great assistanceto justice in determining the identity of both culprit and victim, andat the same time throw light on the attendant circumstances of thedeed the traces of a bloody hand or foot, smears of tar or paint, the various spots or stains found on fabrics, instruments, etc , mayinvolve questions of great nicety the relativity of which is apparent, especially in criminal trials newspapers have familiarized the publicwith thesis paper of the kind, in which medical experts have demonstratedblood and other stains with sufficient accuracy and positiveness tosatisfy a jury the cronin case is a notable instance imprints made by finger-tips are known to be singularly persistent in four specimens of inked digit marks of sir william herschel, madein the years 1860, 1874, 1885, and 1888 respectively, though therewas a difference of twenty-eight years between the first and last, nodifference could be perceived between the impressions the forms ofthe spirals remained the same, not only in general character, but inminute and measurable details, as in the distances from the centreof the spiral and in the direction at which each new ridge took itsrise sir william herschel has made great use of digit-marks forthe purposes of legal attestation among natives of india 595 theextraordinary persistence of the papillary ridges on the inner surfaceof the hands throughout life has been a theme of discussion by theroyal society, 596 and mr galton has devised a method of indexingfinger-marks 597the impress of a naked foot covered with blood may serve to direct theinvestigations of justice in a criminal affair in france, where eightindividuals were implicated, comparative experiments upon the identityof the foot, made with a view to determine to which of the individualsought to be attributed the bloody footprints found near a wardrobe, it was shown that a degree of recognition could be established onreproducing the footprints with defibrinated blood from the eightimprints of the left foot of each individual, impregnated with blood, measures and comparisons could be made, thus helping to establish thedifference or the resemblance with those found near the wardrobe imprints thus obtained may be looked upon as a kind of documentaryevidence, but too much importance should not be attached to them asarticles tending to prove criminality the futility of such evidenceis shown in the varying sizes of different impressions of the foot ofthe same person first in rapid progression, secondly by standing, and third by slow advance the results appear less sure in the case offootprints made in mud, sand, dust, or snow nevertheless thesis factsrelating thereto may be noted with great certainty the question hasbeen mooted as to whether or not the impress left upon the soil givesalways the exact dimensions of the foot that has made them one sidehas contended that the footprints are a little smaller, while theother refutes this opinion and thinks that they are a little larger the consistency of the soil, which does not seem to have entered intothe discussion, doubtless accounts for the small differences that havegiven rise to this discrepancy of opinion the outline of the sole ofthe foot and the relative position of the toes are more or less neatlydesigned as the ground is more or less wet or soft the means employedfor taking impressions of foot or other tracks in mud, etc , showconsiderable ingenuity on the writing of those who have elaborated thesubject to discover foot-marks in mud, powdered stearic acid is spreadover the imprint and a heat of at least 212° is applied from above bythis means a solid mould may be taken of the imprint these researcheshave been extended to the exact reproduction of imprints left upon snowby pouring melted gelatine upon the imprint previously sprinkled with alittle common table salt, which rapidly lowers the temperature of thesnow about fifteen degrees and permits the mould to be taken withouttoo much hurry the study has been extended to the configuration of theplantar imprints in tabetics, but it does not appear so far to be ofmuch medico-legal value the question may arise as to the length of time since the imprintswere made this would, of course, depend upon thesis circumstances, asweather, temperature, and the like it is a fact that in greenlandfootsteps in snow have been recognized thesis months after they weremade a few summers ago, on an arctic expedition, i climbed capelisbourne, alaska, in company with another person the ground beingthawed in thesis places, our feet left very decided imprints in the mud a year afterward i visited the same spot, and on again making theascent was astonished to recognize the footsteps made the year before circumstances essaytimes direct expert attention to vestiges of otheranimals the tracks of a dog or of a horse may become the object of amedico-legal inquest the books record a case in which it was necessaryto ascertain whether a bite had been made by a large or a small dog this question was settled by producing the dogs and comparing theirteeth with the scars persons familiar with border life know theimportance of trails and the minute observation that is brought to bearon them by the experienced frontiersman in following cattle-thievesand murderers, while with the fourth united states cavalry on the riogrande frontier, i have known the peculiarity of a horse footprint inthe prairie to tell a tale of great significance observation in this respect may extend to such apparently trivialobjects as the tracks of wheels, as those of a wagon, a wheelbarrow, or a bicycle, or to the singular imprints left by crutches or awalking-stick the imprint left in the ground by a cane usually occursin the remarkable order of every two and a half or every four and ahalf steps investigation of such circumstances may result in materialfacts that may be of great assistance in establishing the relation ofone or several persons with essay writingicular act deformities and pathological peculiarities the existence of deformities or injuries is so apparent in serving toestablish identity that it seems almost superfluous to mention them, except for the purpose of deciding whether the wounds were made duringlife or after death in the matter of gunshot wounds on persons whotook writing in the late civil war, thesis of whom unfortunately belong tothe vagrant class and are often found dead, their wounds essaytimesafford excellent means of identification in thesis instances themultiple character of these wounds is almost incredible when on dutyat the army medical museum, in connection with the preparation of the“medical and surgical history of the war of the rebellion, ” i saw a manwho was literally wounded from the crown of his head to the sole of hisfoot, the scars being fifty-two in number wounds made during life might show the suggillation peculiar tobruises or traces of inflammation besides, the gaping nature of thelips of the wound, the fact of hemorrhage having taken place and thecoagulation of the blood, the infiltration of blood into the cellulartissue, etc , are surgical facts that would leave but little doubt asto the infliction of the wounds during life the cause of death is often a difficult matter to determine, asit may have been accidental, suicidal, or the result of homicide the causes relating thereto are, moreover, so thesis and varied thatspace and time compel a reference to other headings of this work informing an opinion as to the probable date of death the extent ofputrefaction is the chief guide if death is quite recent, we may beguided by the post-mortem rigidity or the extent to which the body hascooled the march of putrefactive decomposition would, of course, beregulated by circumstances it takes place very rapidly in persons whohave succumbed to excessive fatigue or to any disassimilative excessesor derangement resulting in ante-mortem change of the tissues, suchas those occurring in virulent or infectious diseases the body ofan infant decays more rapidly that that of an adult the course ofputrefactive phenomena is also influenced by the seasons, the extentof the exposure to air, and to other mesological causes there is amanifest difference in the special putrefactive change accordingly asa body is buried in the earth, submerged in a fluid, thrown into acesspool, or buried in a dung-heap in certain paper, especially where the body has been much mutilated, itmay be desirable to know whether there was one or several murderers while no definite rule can be laid down on this point, we are justifiedin supposing that there were two or more assassins when the body of thevictim shows both gunshot and knife wounds, or that two persons wereconcerned in the dismemberment and mutilation of a body which shows thesimultaneous presence of writings skilfully cut, while others show evidentawkwardness where there is more than one mortal wound on the same dead body, a question of medico-legal significance may arise this occurred inthe burton murder case at newport, r i , in 1885, which gave rise todiscussion of the following abstract question. “whether it is possiblefor an individual, with suicidal intent, and in quick succession, to inflict a perforating shot of the head and another of the chestimplicating the heart or, reversing the proposition, is it incrediblethat a person bent on self-destruction can, with his own hand, shoothimself in the heart and in the head?. ”after consideration of the case referred to and reversal of theprevious decision of the coroner, the supposed suicide proved to bea homicide yet if the abstract question of possibilities is aloneregarded, there is no doubt of the fact that a suicide could shoothimself in such manner, both in the head and the heart, or, changingthe order, of shots in the heart and in the head the number ofpaper recorded establishes beyond a doubt the feasibility of theself-infliction of two such wounds, and make it clear that the theoryof suicide may be maintained in such circumstances 598judicial anthropometry of late years the subject of anthropometric identification has takensuch a place before justice that it cannot be ignored by the medicallegist the facts of scientific anthropology have here been applied insuch a way as to establish with great certainty both the present andfuture identity of individuals who attempt dissimulation of their nameand antecedents the method used principally in the identificationof criminals and deserters from the army has been adopted in thepublic service599 and by most municipalities, with the exception ofnew york, where the subsequent identification of persons connectedwith municipal affairs has been and may be a source of no littleembarrassment the system is based on three recognitory elements. Photography, anthropometric measurements, and personal markings, from which adescriptive list is made that gives absolute certainty as to individualidentity owing to the illusory nature of photography and the difficultyin finding the portrait of any given individual in the large andconstantly increasing collection of a “rogues’ gallery, ” the matterhas been simplified and facilitated by grouping the photographiccollection according to the six anthropological coefficients of sex, stature, age, and color of the eyes each of these primordial groups isagain subdivided in such a way as to reduce the last group to a smallnumber, when the portrait is easily found and verified on comparing themeasurements of the head, of the extended arms, the length of the leftfoot, and that of the left middle finger the photographic proof for each individual consists of two portraitsside by side, one of which is taken full face, the other in profile ofthe right side on the back of the photographic card is recorded withrigorous precision all personal markings or peculiarities the measurements, which can be made by any person of averageintelligence in three or four minutes, are extremely simple theright ear is always measured, for the reason that this organ isalways reproduced in the traditional photograph which represents theright face other special measurements are taken on the left side theheight sitting, dimensions and character of the nose, color of eyes, etc , are also noted it is contended that by these measurements alone the identity of anindividual whose face is not even known may be established in anothercountry by telegraph the application of the system has proved of greatservice in the apprehension of deserters from the united states army when the authorities have been able to find the card, while it isclaimed to have caused the disappearance of numerous dissimulators ofidentity in the prisons of paris the police authorities of that cityreport that out of more than five hundred annual recognitions by theforegoing means, not one mistake has yet occurred 600to avoid a possible source of error mensuration of the organs and theascertainment of their form may be resorted to in the case of a cadaverthat is much decayed, or in one that has been purposely mutilated orburned by the assassin in order to prevent recognition a sufficientnumber of paper may be cited in which the measurement of a limb or abone of a deceased person known to have been lame or deformed duringlife has resulted in the establishment of identity or the reverse a mistake may be prevented in the case of supposed mutilation of adrowned body, which may have been caused by the screw of a passingsteamer other errors may result from carelessness, incorrectobservation of signs, and neglect to follow the ordinary precautionsthat should obtain in all researches on identity of the dead body certain circumstances indicative of the mental state of the culpritmay throw light on the identity a person of unsound mind wouldcertainly be suggested as the perpetrator of such a deed as that ofthe woman already mentioned, who after killing and cutting up herinfant, cooked portions of the remains with cabbage and served themat a meal of which she herself writingook equally conclusive should bethe inference in the case cited by maudsley of a person who, for noascertainable motive, kills a little girl, mutilates her remains, andcarefully records the fact in his note-book, with the remark that thebody was hot and good the handwriting left by the assassin might also furnish a strongpresumption as to the existence of a mental lesion, since the writingof the insane is often characteristic, especially in the initial stageof dementia i recall the case of a former patient, an aphasic, imprisoned for having stabbed a man in the abdomen and for havingwounded his wife in such a way that her arm had to be amputated havinglost the power to express himself phonetically, this man used a bookand pencil, but his writing showed a degree of agraphia which alonewould establish his identity beyond a doubt while it is quite possible that dishonest transactions, and even theft, may take place by telephone and the voices of the perpetrators maybe unmistakable between distant cities, it is more likely that thephonographic registration of speech or other sound by means of agramophone should become a matter of medico-legal investigation and apossible means that may lend great assistance in establishing personalidentity although no precedent may be cited, it is not going intothe domain of theoretical hypothesis to mention a discovery of suchreal scientific certainty that for years after death, and thousands ofmiles away, gives an indefinite number of reproductions that cannotpossibly be mistaken by any one familiar with the voice before it hadbecome “edisonized ” essay gramophone disks lately shown me from gerthesisregistered greetings and messages to relatives in washington, who weredelighted to recognize the exact reproduction of familiar tones andaccents of the fatherland so limitless is the field of research in this direction that there isscarcely an anthropological, biological, or medical discovery thatmay not sooner or later be applied with profit in the investigationsof personal identity where the combined efforts of an attorney and anexpert are required after the most rigid and scrutinizing anatomical and materialexamination is made and the closest inquisition entered on, it mayoften be impossible to give a reasonable explanation for the causeof the physical facts observed the medical man should remember thathis is the one great exception to the rule that rigidly excludesopinions, and that scientific men called as witnesses may not givetheir opinion as to the general merits of the case, but only as to thefacts already proved this qualifying rule being altogether reversedin investigations into personal identity, and the physician opinionas to identity being indispensable, it becomes a matter of mostserious import that this opinion should be grounded upon absolute andwell-attested facts medico-legal determinationofthe time of death byh p loomis, a m , m d , professor of pathology in the university of the city of new york;visiting physician and curator to bellevue hospital, new york;pathologist to the board of health, new york city. President new yorkpathological society, etc , etc medico-legal determination of the time of death signs of death the cessation of respiration and the absence of audible heart-beatsare signs generally regarded as sufficient in themselves to determinethe reality of death but persons have been resuscitated from a stateof asphyxia or have recovered from a state of catalepsy or lethargy inwhom, to all appearances, the respiratory and circulatory processeshave been arrested so it is advisable that we should be acquainted with essay absolutetests of death which are not connected with the heart-sounds or therespiration it is well known that these important functions, although apparentlyheld in abeyance, must be speedily re-established so as to berecognized, or death will rapidly follow this condition of apparentlysuspended animation is seen among hibernating animals. The bear, forinstance, will remain for four or five months without food or drinkin a state of lethargy the heart-action and respiration hardlyappreciable yet it will be sufficiently rapid to sustain life duringthe slow metabolic processes a number of well-authenticated paper arereported in which persons could slacken their heart-action, so thatno movement of the organ could be appreciated the case of coloneltownsend, reported by cheyne, is an example he possessed the power ofapparently dying, by slowing his heart so that there was no pulse orheart-action discernible the longest period he could remain in thisinanimate state was half an hour instances have occurred in the new-born child where without questionthere have been no heart-beats or respiratory movements for a number ofminutes, the limit being set at five these are exceptional paper, and it is setting at defiance allphysiological experience to suppose that the heart-action andrespiration can be suspended entirely when once they are established, for a period as long so, then, if no motion of the heart occurs duringa period of five minutes a period five times as great as observationwarrants death may be regarded as certain the respiratory movements of the chest are essaytimes very difficultto observe they can always be better appreciated if the abdomen andchest are observed together there are two methods to determine whetherrespiration is absolutely suspended or not first, by holding a mirrorin front of the open mouth, observing whether any moisture collects onits surface second, by placing on the chest a looking-glass or basinof water, and reflecting from it an image by artificial or sun light the slightest movement would be registered by a change in position ofthe image while the writer considers the absence of heart-beats and ofrespiratory movement an absolute test of death, still essay paper mayoccur in which the establishment of this test is very difficult, andthe following additional tests may be employed:1 temperature of the body same as surrounding air 2 intermittent shocks of electricity at different tensions passed intovarious muscles, giving no indication whatever of irritability 3 careful movements of the joints of the extremities and of the lowerjaw, showing that rigor mortis is found in several writings 4 a bright needle plunged into the body of the biceps muscle cloquet needle test and left there, showing on withdrawal no signsof oxidation 5 the opening of a vein, showing that the blood has undergonecoagulation 6 the subcutaneous injection of ammonia monte verde test, causinga dirty-brown stain indicative of dissolution 7 a fillet applied to the veins of the arm richardson test, causing no filling of the veins on the distal side of the fillet 8 “diaphanous test:” after death there is an absence of thetranslucence seen in living people when the hand is held before astrong light with the fingers extended and in contact 9 “eye test:” after death there is a loss of sensibility of the eyeto light, loss of corneal transparency, and the pupil is not responsiveto mydriatics post-mortem changes the human body after death undergoes certain changes which will bediscussed under the following heads:1 cooling of the body 2 flaccidity of the body 3 rigor mortis 4 changes in color due to a cadaveric ecchymoses b putrefaction cooling of the body immediately after death there is a slight rise of temperature, supposedto be due to the fact that the metabolic changes in the tissues stillcontinue, while the blood is no longer cooled by passing through theperipheral capillaries and lungs the body gradually cools and reaches the temperature of the surroundingair in from fifteen to twenty hours. This is the ordinary course, but the time may be influenced by a variety of causes, such as thecondition of the body at the time of death, manner of death, andcircumstances under which the body has been placed in certain diseases, as yellow fever, rheumatism, chorea, and tetanus, the temperature of the body has been known to rise as high as 104° f and remain so for a time again, it has been observed that when deathhas taken place suddenly, as from accident, apoplexy, or acute disease, the body retains its heat for a long time the bodies of persons dyingfrom hanging, electrocution, suffocation, or poisoning by carbondioxide, do not generally cool for from twenty-four to forty-eighthours, and paper are recorded where three days have elapsed before thebody was completely cold on the other hand, bodies dead from chronicwasting diseases or severe hemorrhage cool very rapidly, even in fouror five hours in determining the temperature of a dead body the hand is not areliable guide. The thermometer should always be used flaccidity the first effect of death from any cause is general relaxation of theentire muscular system the lower jaw drops, the eyelids lose theirtension, the limbs are flabby and soft, and the joints become flexible in from five to six hours after death, and generally while the body isin the act of cooling, the muscles of the limbs are observed to becomehard and contracted, the joints stiff, and the body unyielding muscleswhich are contracted in the death-agony do not necessarily becomerelaxed at any time the muscular tissues in the dead body can be considered as passingthrough three stages. 1 flaccid but contractile, 2 rigid andincapable of contraction, 3 relaxed and incapable of furthercontractility rigor mortis this is essaytimes called cadaveric rigidity and occurs generally withinsix hours after death and disappears within sixteen to twenty-fourhours thesis theories have been advanced to account for it, but the mostprobable one is that the rigidity is due to the coagulation of themyosin in the muscles by the weak acids which are no longer removedfrom the system. The muscles always give an acid reaction and areopaque instead of transparent. After putrefaction has set in ammonia isdeveloped, the myosin dissolved, and so flaccidity results rigor mortis occurs first in the muscles of the eyelid, next themuscles of the lower jaw and neck are affected, then the chest andupper extremities. Afterward it gradually progresses from abovedownward, affecting the muscles of the abdomen and lower limbs therigidity disappears in the same sequence the period after deathwhen rigor mortis manifests itself, together with its duration, ischiefly dependent upon the previous degree of muscular exhaustion brown-séquard has demonstrated that the greater the degree of muscularirritability at the time of death, the later the cadaveric rigiditysets in and the longer it lasts he has also shown that the laterputrefaction sets in, the more slowly it progresses the more robust the individual and the shorter the disease, the moremarked and persistent is this muscular rigidity it has been noticedthat the bodies of soldiers killed in the beginning of an engagementbecome rigid slowly, and those killed late quickly this explains thereason why bodies are essaytimes found on the battle-field in a kneelingor sitting posture with weapons in hand if the rigidity of rigor mortis after it is once complete is overcome, as in bending an arm, it never returns. But if incomplete it mayreturn this will serve at times to distinguish real death fromcatalepsy and its allied conditions while the average duration ofrigor mortis has been given as sixteen to twenty-four hours, it mustbe remembered that in essay paper it has been known to last only a fewhours, as in death by lightning or by electrocution in other paper ithas persisted for seven and fourteen days this long continuance of rigor mortis has been noted in death fromstrychnine and other spinal poisons, in suffocation, and in poisoningby veratrum viride atmospheric conditions modify to a large extent the duration of rigormortis dry, cold air causes it to last for a long time, while warm, moist air shortens its duration also immersion in cold water brings onrigor mortis quickly and lengthens its duration cadaveric ecchymosis cadaveric lividity or hypostasis within a few hours after death the skin of the body, which is of apale, ashy-gray color, becomes covered by extensive patches of a bluishor purple color, which are most pronounced and are first seen on theback writing of the trunk, head extremities, ears, face, and neck, and aredue to the blood, before coagulating, settling in the most dependentwritings of the body, producing a mottling of the surface with irregularlivid patches there is also a stagnation of blood in the capillaryvessels, especially in those in the upper layer of the true skin or inthe space between the cuticle and cutis the discoloration continues toincrease until the body is cold, when it is entirely arrested lateron, just before putrefaction begins, the color deepens, and the changeappears to proceed from an infiltration of blood pigment into thedependent writings of the body at the same time the discolorations are appearing on the surface of thebody, internal hypostasis is also taking place, most marked in thedependent portions of the brain, lungs, intestines, kidneys, and spinalcord this condition in the brain may be mistaken for so-called congestiveapoplexy. In the lungs, for pulmonary apoplexy or the first stageof lobar pneumonia.

Andgive it also to those who have the leprosy, scabs, ulcers, or the like its ashes doth quickly heal blisters raised by burnings or scaldings it helps the dropsy, arising from the hardness of the spleen, andtherefore to drink out of cups made of the wood is good for custom essays website review spleneticpersons it is also helpful for melancholy, and the black jaundice thatarise thereof garden tansy garden tansy is so well known, that it needs no description time it flowers in june and july government and virtues dame venus was minded to pleasure women withchild by this herb, for there grows not an herb, fitter for their usethan this is. It is just as though it were cut out for the purpose this herb bruised and applied to the navel, stays miscarriages. Iknow no herb like it for that use. Boiled in ordinary beer, and thedecoction drank, doth the like. And if her womb be not as she wouldhave it, this decoction will make it so let those women that desirechildren love this herb, it is their best companion, their husbandsexcepted also it consumes the phlegmatic humours, the cold andmoist constitution of winter most usually affects the body of manwith, and that was the first reason of eating tansies in the spring the decoction of the common tansy, or the juice drank in wine, is asingular remedy for all the griefs that come by slopping of the urine, helps the stranguary and those that have weak reins and kidneys it isalso very profitable to dissolve and expel wind in the stomach, belly, or bowels, to procure women courses, and expel windiness in thematrix, if it be bruised and often smelled unto, as also applied to thelower writing of the belly it is also very profitable for such women asare given to miscarry it is used also against the stone in the reins, especially to men the herb fried with eggs as it is the custom inthe spring-time which is called a tansy, helps to digest and carrydownward those bad humours that trouble the stomach the seed is veryprofitably given to children for the worms, and the juice in drink isas effectual being boiled in oil, it is good for the sinews shrunk bycramps, or pained with colds, if thereto applied wild tansy, or silver weed this is also so well known, that it needs no description place it grows in every place time it flowers in june and july government and virtues now dame venus hath fitted women withtwo herbs of one name, the one to help conception, and the other tomaintain beauty, and what more can be expected of her?. what now remainsfor you, but to love your husbands, and not to be wanting to your poorneighbours?. wild tansy stays the lask, and all the fluxes of blood inmen and women, which essay say it will do, if the green herb be worn inthe shoes, so it be next the skin. And it is true enough, that it willstop the terms, if worn so, and the whites too, for ought i know itstays also spitting or vomiting of blood the powder of the herb takenin essay of the distilled water, helps the whites in women, but moreespecially if a little coral and ivory in powder be put to it it isalso recommended to help children that are bursten, and have a rupture, being boiled in water and salt being boiled in water and drank, iteases the griping pains of the bowels, and is good for the sciaticaand joint-aches the same boiled in vinegar, with honey and allum, and gargled in the mouth, eases the pains of the tooth-ache, fastensloose teeth, helps the gums that are sore, and settles the palate ofthe mouth in its place, when it is fallen down it cleanses and healsulcers in the mouth, or secret writings, and is very good for inwardwounds, and to close the lips of green wounds, and to heal old, moist, and corrupt running sores in the legs or elsewhere being bruisedand applied to the soles of the feet and hand wrists, it wonderfullycools the hot fits of agues, be they never so violent the distilledwater cleanses the skin of all discolourings therein, as morphew, sun-burnings, &c as also pimples, freckles, and the like. And droppedinto the eyes, or cloths wet therein and applied, takes away the heatand inflammations in them thistles of these are thesis kinds growing here in england which are so wellknown, that they need no description. Their difference is easily knownon the places where they grow, viz place essay grow in fields, essay in meadows, and essay among thecorn. Others on heaths, greens, and waste grounds in thesis places time they flower in june and august and their seed is ripe quicklyafter government and virtues surely mars rules it, it is such a pricklybusiness all these thistles are good to provoke urine, and to mendthe stinking smell thereof. As also the rank smell of the arm-pits, orthe whole body. Being boiled in wine and drank, and are said to help astinking breath, and to strengthen the stomach pliny saith, that thejuice bathed on the place that wants hair, it being fallen off, willcause it to grow speedily the melancholy thistle descript it rises up with tender single hoary green stalks, bearingthereon four or five green leaves, dented about the edges. The pointsthereof are little or nothing prickly, and at the top usually but onehead, yet essaytimes from the bosom of the uppermost leaves there shootsforth another small head, scaly and prickly, with thesis reddish thrumbsor threads in the middle, which being gathered fresh, will keep thecolour a long time, and fades not from the stalk a long time, while itperfects the seed, which is of a mean bigness, lying in the down theroot hath thesis strings fastened to the head, or upper writing, which isblackish, and perishes not there is another sort little differing from the former, but that theleaves are more green above, and more hoary underneath, and the stalkbeing about two feet high, bears but one scaly head, with threads andseeds as the former place they grow in thesis moist meadows of this land, as well in thesouthern, as in the northern writings time they flower about july or august, and their seed ripensquickly after government and virtues it is under capricorn, and therefore underboth saturn and mars, one rids melancholy by sympathy, the other byantipathy their virtues are but few, but those not to be despised. Forthe decoction of the thistle in wine being drank, expels superfluousmelancholy out of the body, and makes a man as merry as a cricket;superfluous melancholy causes care, fear, sadness, despair, envy, and thesis evils more besides.

That there is no danger ofanaphylaxis. That the physiologic properties of the blood are preservedby these medicaments. And, finally, that these preparations have aneffect on gonorrhea and its complications, these substances normalphenol serum cano and methyl-phenol cano, are inadmissible to newand nonofficial remedies the following quotations taken from the circular are admissions thatthese preparations are not innocuous. “that the economy will tolerate to a surprising degree substances directly introduced through the blood stream is now well known by the intravenous injection of 10 c c of methyl-phenol serum we throw into the human body a massive dose of an alien substance the immediate effect of this injection is upon the central nervous system the recipient usually becomes either pale or suffused, he has a ringing in his ears, has a sensation of great altitude, and occasionally has a dryness of the fauces and a metallic or a garlic taste ” “in essay patients secondary reactions occur in from one to four hours after injection the phenomena we have observed in these secondary reactions are pronounced chill and rigor ”there is no doubt that considerable harm may be done by the intravenousand by the intraprostatic administration of these preparations anduntil there is good evidence showing the therapeutic value of thetreatment, the routine use of these preparations, except perhaps athospitals in selected and well controlled and carefully guarded paper, is to be strongly discouraged when the foregoing statement was sent to the mulford company forcomment, the firm submitted a letter from dr perry townsend to themulford company in which he declared that the results obtained with thecano preparations had been satisfactory and without untoward results in this letter, dr townsend proposed that a series of injections withthese preparations be carried out under the observation of members ofthe council and the supervision of dr cano or himself the report of the council, the letter from the mulford company and thatof dr townsend were sent to a number of urologists for their opinionconcerning this whole matter it was explained that the referee heldthat no reason had been presented which would warrant the council todewriting from its customary procedure, namely, to require that clinicalevidence be submitted in the form of published reports which permitinvestigation and verification by independent observers but that, before making further recommendation to the council, he desired theopinion of urologists of recognized standing concerning the reportsubmitted to the mulford company all replies received approved thecouncil position the following is one of the replies received. Your letter in regard to normal phenol serum cano and methyl-phenol serum cano received i wish to state that i have read the correspondence between the council and h k mulford co and in my opinion the referee and the council are quite correct in their attitude in the matter in my opinion i would emphasize the following. 1 there is absolutely nothing about the remedies directed specifically against the gonococcus and no evidence to show that any action against them is obtained as we know there are certain states of normal serum which are highly toxic and any normal serum from another animal will produce disturbances in man when injected intravenously-- writingicularly if repeated the addition of substances to serum normal or otherwise is apt to and frequently does render that serum highly toxic!. the substances added in the instances referred to-- phenol and methylene blue are not in any way calculated to lessen the toxicity of serum the element of danger existing in the indiscriminate use of serums intravenously is, in my opinion, increased by the addition of the substances mentioned, and it would be unwise to encourage the general use of any such remedies furthermore the products are condemned by the very evidence of the originators and their admissions are quite sufficient to deter anyone from using the products as they suggest as to the intraprostatic injections with the serums it does not at all meet my views. Although the introduction of serums by this route have been frequently advocated and i have personally carried this mode out i cannot allow the impression to go out that it could be done in a routine manner-- nor that no ill results could follow-- for i have seen otherwise furthermore from theoretical standpoint serums need not be given in this way in consideration of the opinion expressed by the councilconsultants the referee recommended that normal phenol serum canoand methyl-phenol serum cano be declared ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 6 unwarrantedtherapeutic claims without considering possible conflicts with otherrules, and that publication of the report be authorized -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 85 soamin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrysoamin is the name under which the firm of burroughs wellcome andcompany sells its brand of sodium arsanilate the council directed theomission of soamin from new and nonofficial remedies and authorizedpublication of the report which appears below after the proprietors ofthe product had declined to withdraw or suitably revise the unwarrantedtherapeutic claims which it made w a puckner, secretary the proprietary brand “soamin” of sodium arsanilate was admitted tonew and nonofficial remedies several years ago at a time when thetherapeutic value of arsanilic acid had not been definitely determined experience with this drug has shown that it is far more dangerousand also has a more limited field of usefulness than was at firstrecognized the proprietors of the soamin brand have continued toinclude in the list of conditions in which it “would seem” to be a“very effective agent” cerebrospinal meningitis and pellagra. In fact, meningitis is the first in the list of conditions mentioned, syphilisthe second and pellagra third in support of their belief in theefficacy of the remedy in meningitis, three reports, published fromsix to nine years ago, are quoted in one of these it is stated thattwo patients “were cured”. In another report, seven of eight patientsin whom the clinical, but not the microscopic, diagnosis of meningitishad been made were reported as having recovered. In the third report, fifty-six of ninety paper were reported cured. In this larger series ofpaper the author neglects to state the method of administration thefirm quotes but one paper which is a very uncritical report in regardto pellagra it seems to the council that the evidence of value of sodium arsanilatein these conditions which are now treated by more rational methods istoo slight to justify the emphasis laid on it by the firm, especiallyas sodium arsanilate is admittedly a dangerous agent, several paper ofblindness having been reported from its use for these reasons it was voted to omit soamin from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 89 essay mixed vaccines not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the consideration of the following “mixed” vaccines was requested byf i lackenbach, san francisco.

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One represents laborious research ending in the production of a new medicinal chemical. This product can be patented and the manufacturer can obtain a seventeen-year monopoly on its manufacture and sale the other represents no research but comprises simple mixtures-- frequently of the “shotgun” variety-- of well known pharmaceuticals, or biologic products sold under trade names as these do not represent anything new or original the manufacturer is unable to obtain a patent, but by means of the trade name he can and does obtain a perpetual monopoly this, from a business standpoint, is more valuable than the limited monopoly granted by a patent it is not surprising that proprietary remedies of the latter type flourish so long as physicians unthinkingly accept and prescribe them solely on the manufacturer valuation “the council has practically the undivided support of manufacturers of medicinal chemicals. That is, of proprietaries of the first mentioned type but pharmaceutical firms which have found it profitable to promote proprietaries of the second type-- “specialties, ” unscientific or ordinary mixtures of pharmaceuticals or biologic products sold under trade names-- have not supported the council “when the council was organized, it was hoped and believed that all the large pharmaceutical houses would find it possible and desirable, if not actually more profitable, to shape their business methods so as to make their proprietary and other articles conform to those conservative standards on which the council bases its rules, and thus render such articles acceptable for new and nonofficial remedies it soon developed, however, that the methods of the pseudochemical companies, whose sales propaganda in the interest of unscientific nostrums with its attending damage to scientific medicine had led to the establishment of the council, had found their lodgment in most of the pharmaceutical houses it was a genuine disappointment to the council to find that essay of the large and old-established firms were not only unwilling to cooperate with the council, but in thesis instances exhibited a definite antagonism to the council work “the object-- and duty-- of the officers of pharmaceutical houses is primarily to pay dividends to their stockholders through skilful advertising or the persuasiveness of “detail men, ” they are able to induce physicians to prescribe their controlled products, on which there are large profits, even though such products have not only not been accepted by the council, but in thesis instances, have been disapproved is it any wonder that concerns which put out such products are indifferent or openly antagonistic to the work of the council?. the matter is largely one of business policy when the medical profession as a unit will support the council in its work, then such firms will find it good business policy to accede to dr bevan suggestion-- but not before ”evidently the problem resolves itself into this. The council, constituted of scientific men, working without remuneration inthe interest of scientific medicine and the medical profession, expects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active, sympatheticcooperation of physicians. The cooperation of pharmaceutical houseswill follow as a matter of course j a m a 74:1235 may 11920 the following is the recommendation of the reference committee towhich the report of the board of trustees was referred. “a perusalof the trustees’ report, ‘cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses’, is well worth the time of every member of the profession, and yourcommittee would emphasize the statement of the trustees. ‘thecouncil, constituted of scientific men, working without remunerationin the interest of scientific medicine and the medical professionexpects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active sympatheticcooperation of physicians. The cooperation of pharmaceutical houseswill follow as a matter of course ’“your committee would go still further and move that a vote of thanksof the house be extended to those scientific men who have devoted somuch valuable time to the welfare of the association ” j a m a , 74:1322 may 8 1920. From reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1920, p 56 w a puckner, secretary budwell emulsion of cod-liver oil, nos 1 and 2 report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe budwell pharmacal company, lynchburg, virginia, which markets thesepreparations, claims that “no 1” contains cod liver oil, “iodide ofarsenic, ” “iodide of calcium, ” and “iodide of manganese ” “no 2” issaid to contain in addition to the ingredients of no 1, creosotecarbonate and guaiacol it is known that arsenous iodid is decomposed by contact with water itis recognized that creosote carbonate is unstable and prone to liberatecreosote iodide of manganese not being official, the supply on themarket is not controlled in any way. Tests of purity are not prescribedby the pharmacopeia, the national formulary, new and nonofficialremedies or other books of standards therefore doubt must be expressedas to the accuracy of the formulas as given the council cannot acceptsuch statements of composition without further evidence “no 1” is commended for use in “chronic rheumatism, glandular swellings, later forms of syphilis, convalescence from scarlet fever, la grippe and malaria, chronic malarial infection, marasmus, joint or other suppuration of standing, diseases of skin, chorea, anaemia, neurasthenia, obstinate neuralgia, scrofulous affections in general, and diarrhea or dysentery subacute or chronic in childhood ”“no 2” is said to be “prepared especially for the treatment of chronic throat, nasal, bronchial and pulmonary diseases ”in the advertising circular statements regarding the variousingredients of budwell emulsion are quoted from obsolete textbooks these statements, for the most writing, do not represent modernopinions on the subject for instance, the circular praises the actionof guaiacol as eliminated directly by the lungs, thus exerting abeneficial local effect and causing bacilli to diminish in numbers orto disappear all of this is directly contradicted in authoritativemodern publications on pharmacology, which hold that the excretion ofguaiacol by the lungs is infinitesimal and its action on bacilli isnil the council held the preparations in conflict with its rules asfollows:1 thesis of the therapeutic claims are exaggerations 2 the method of exploitation amounts to an indirect invitation to thepublic to use these preparations as “consumption cures ”3 the preparations are unscientific, they constitute a reprehensibleinvitation to uncritical prescribing and their use is inimical to thebest interests of the profession and the public it is difficult toimagine in what conditions such a combination would be indicated thesepreparations are a remnant of the days of polypharmacy their use isnot in keeping with present medical thought and practice -- from thejournal a m a , feb 20, 1915 rheumalgine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryrheumalgine eli lilly & co , indianapolis is put up both in tabletform and as a liquid each tablet, or teaspoonful of the liquid, issaid to contain.