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Could not sleep laryngoscopeshowed penny in upper writing of œsophagus, just below laryngeal opening removed by long curved forceps 3 ibid - man suddenly fell while at dinner. Face blue. Breathingstertorous died piece of tendon found under epiglottis 4 ibid - boy, age 5 years button in larynx aphonia, dyspnœa, stridulous breathing distress gradually subsided thesis years afterwardfound mucous membrane of larynx thickened. Vocal cords red and uneven 5 ibid - man, drunk, swallowed a half-sovereign urgent dyspnœa;pain in throat. Aphonia.

And having firstclarified the honey before you put them in then strained out. Thishoney taken with a liquorice stick, is an excellent remedy for coughs, asthmas, and consumptions of the lungs fruits college winter-cherries, love apples, almonds sweet and bitter, anacardia, oranges, hazel nuts, the oily nut ben, barberries, capers, guinny pepper, figs, carpobalsamum, cloves, cassia fistula, chestnuts, cherries black and red, cicers, white, black and red, pome citrons, coculus indi, colocynthis, currants, cornels or cornelian cherries, cubebs, cucumbers garden and wild, gourds, cynosbatus, cypress, cones, quinces, dates, dwarf-elder, green figs, strawberries, common andturkey galls, acorns, acorn cups, pomegranates, gooseberries, ivy, herb true-love, walnuts, jujubes, juniper berries, bayberries, lemons, oranges, citrons, quinces, pomegranates, lemons, mandrakes, peaches, stramonium, apples, garden and wild, or crabs and apples, musk melons, medlars, mulberries, myrobalans, bellericks, chebs, emblicks, citronand indian, mirtle, berries, water nuts, hazel nuts, chestnuts, cypressnuts, walnuts, nutmegs, fistick nuts, vomiting nuts, olives pickled inbrine, heads of white and black poppies, pompions, peaches, french orkidney beans, pine, cones, white, black, and long pepper, fistick nuts, apples and crabs, prunes, french and damask, sloes, pears, englishcurrants, berries of purging thorn, black berries, raspberries, elderberries, sebastens, services, or checkers, hawthorn berries, pine nuts, water nuts, grapes, gooseberries, raisins, currants culpeper that you may reap benefit by these, be pleased toconsider, that they are essay of themtemperate in respect of heat raisins of the sun, currants, figs, pine nuts, dates, sebastens hot in the first degree sweet almonds, jujubes, cypress nuts, greenhazel nuts, green walnuts hot in the second degree the nut ben, capers, nutmegs, dry walnuts, dry hazel nuts, fistick nuts in the third degree juniper berries, cloves, carpobalsamum, cubebs, anacardium, bitter almonds in the fourth degree pepper, white, black and long, guinny pepper cold in the first degree the flesh of citrons, quinces, pears, prunes, &c in the second gourds, cucumbers, melons, pompions, oranges, lemons, citrons, pomegranates, viz the juice of them, peaches, prunes, galls, apples in the third mandrakes in the fourth stramonium moist in the first degree the flesh of citrons, lemons, oranges, viz the inner rhind which is white, the outer rhind is hot in the second gourds, melons, peaches, prunes, &c dry in the first degree juniper berries in the second the nut ben, capers, pears, fistick nuts, pine nuts, quinces, nutmegs, bay berries in the third cloves, galls, &c in the fourth all sorts of pepper as appropriated to the body of man, so they heat the head. Asanacardia, cubebs, nutmegs the breast bitter almonds, dates, cubebs, hazel nuts, pine nuts, figs, raisins of the sun, jujubes the heart walnuts, nutmegs, juniper berries the stomach sweet almonds, cloves, ben, juniper berries, nutmegs, pine nuts, olives the spleen capers the reins and bladder bitter almonds, juniper berries, cubebs, pinenuts, raisins of the sun the womb walnuts, nutmegs, bayberries, juniper berries cool the breast sebastens, prunes, oranges, lemons the heart oranges, lemons, citrons, pomegranates, quinces, pears the stomach quinces, citruls, cucumbers, gourds, musk melons, pompions, cherries, gooseberries, cornelian cherries, lemons, apples, medlars, oranges, pears, english currants, cervices or checkers the liver those that cool the stomach and barberries the reins and womb those that cool the stomach, and strawberries by their several operations, essaybind as the berries of mirtles, barberries, chestnuts, cornels, or cornelian cherries, quinces, galls, acorns, acorn-cups, medlars, checkers or cervices, pomegranates, nutmegs, olives, pears, peaches discuss capers, all the sorts of pepper extenuate sweet and bitter almonds, bayberries, juniper berries glutinate acorns, acorn cups, dates, raisins of the sun, currants expel wind bay berries, juniper berries, nutmegs, all the sorts ofpepper breed seed raisins of the sun, sweet almonds, pine nuts, figs, &c provoke urine winter cherries provoke the terms ivy berries, capers, &c stop the terms barberries, &c resist poison bay berries, juniper berries, walnuts, citrons, commonly called pome citrons, all the sorts of pepper ease pain bay berries, juniper berries, ivy berries, figs, walnuts, raisins, currants, all the sorts of pepper fruits purging choler cassia fistula, citron myrobalans, prunes, tamarinds, raisins melancholy indian myrobalans flegm colocynthis and wild cucumbers purge violently, and thereforenot rashly to be meddled withal. I desire my book should be beneficial, not hurtful to the vulgar, but myrobalans of all sorts, especiallychebs, bellericks and emblicks, purge flegm very gently, and withoutdanger of all these give me leave to commend only one to you as of specialconcernment which is juniper berries seeds college sorrel, agnus castus, marsh-mallows, bishop weed trueand common, amomus, dill, angellica, annis, rose-seed, smallage, columbines, sparagus, arach, oats, oranges, burdocks, bazil, barberries, cotton, bruscus or knee-holly, hemp, cardamoms greater andlesser, carduus benedictus, our lady thistles, bastard, saffron, caraway, spurge greater and lesser, coleworts, onions, the kernels ofcherry stones, chervil, succory, hemlock, citrons, citruls, gardenscurvy-grass, colocynthis, coriander, samphire, cucumbers gardenand wild, gourds, quinces, cummin, cynosbatus, date-stones, carrotsenglish, and cretish, dwarf-elder, endive, rocket, hedge mustard, orobus, beans, fennel, fenugreek, ash-tree keys, fumitory, brooms, grains of paradise, pomegranates, wild rue, alexanders, barley, whitehenbane, st john wort, hyssop, lettice, sharp-pointed-dock, spurge, laurel, lentils, lovage, lemons, ash-tree-keys, linseed, or flaxweed, gromwell, darnel, sweet trefoil, lupines, masterwort, marjoram, mallows, mandrakes, melons, medlars, mezereon, gromwell, sweet navew, nigella, the kernels of cherries, apricots, and peaches, bazil, orobus, rice, panick, poppies white and black, parsnips garden and wild, thorough wax, parsley, english and macedonian, burnet, pease, plantain, peony, leeks, purslain, fleawort, turnips, radishes, sumach, spurge, roses, rue, garden and wild, wormseed, saxifrage, succory, sesami, hartwort, common and cretish, mustard-seed, alexanders, nightshade, steves ager, sumach, treacle, mustard, sweet trefoil, wheat, both thefine flour and the bran, and that which starch is made of, vetches ortares, violets, nettles, common and roman, the stones of grapes, greekwheat, or spelt wheat culpeper that you may receive a little more benefit by these, thanthe bare reading of them, which doth at the most but tell you what theyare. The following method may instruct you what they are good for seeds are hot in the first degree linseed, fenugreek, coriander, rice, gromwell, lupines in the second dill, smallage, orobus, rocket, bazil, nettles in the third bishop weed, annis, amomus, carraway, fennel, andso i believe smallage too, let authors say what they will, for if theherb of smallage be essaywhat hotter than parsley. I know little reasonwhy the seed should not be so hot cardamoms, parsley, cummin, carrots, nigella, navew, hartwort, staves ager in the fourth water-cresses, mustard-seed cold in the first degree barley, &c in the second endive, lettice, purslain, succory, gourds, cucumbers, melons, citruls, pompions, sorrel, nightshade in the third henbane, hemlock, poppies white and black moist in the first degree mallows, &c dry in the first degree beans, fennel, fenugreek, barley, wheat, &c in the second orobus, lentils, rice, poppies, nightshade, and thelike in the third dill, smallages, bishop weed, annis, caraway, cummin, coriander, nigella, gromwell, parsley appropriated to the body of man, and so theyheat the head fennel, marjoram, peony, &c the breast nettles the heart bazil, rue, &c mustard seed, &c the stomach annis, bishop weed, amomus, smallage, cummin, cardamoms, cubebs, grains of paradise the liver annis, fennel, bishop weed, amomus, smallage, sparagus, cummin, caraway, carrots the spleen annis, caraway, water-cresses the reins and bladder cicers, rocket, saxifrage, nettles, gromwell the womb peony, rue the joints water-cresses, rue, mustard-seed cool the head lettice, purslain, white poppies the breast white poppies, violets the heart orange, lemon, citron and sorrel seeds lastly, the four greater and four lesser cold seeds, which you may findin the beginning of the compositions, as also the seed of white andblack poppies cool the liver and spleen, reins and bladder, womb andjoints according to operation essay seedsbind, as rose-seeds, barberries, shepherd purse, purslain, &c discuss dill, carrots, linseeds, fenugreek, nigella, &c cleanse beans, orobus, barley, lupines, nettles, &c mollify linseed, or flax seed, fenugreek seed, mallows, nigella harden purslain seed, &c suppure linseed, fenugreek seed, darnel, barley husked, commonlycalled french barley glutinate orobus, lupines, darnel, &c expel wind annis, dill, smallage, caraway, cummin, carrots, fennel, nigella, parsley, hartwort, wormseed breed seed rocket, beans, cicers, ash tree keys provoke the menses amomus, sparagus, annis, fennel, bishop weed, cicers, carrots, smallage, parsley, lovage, hartwort break the stone mallows, marsh-mallows, gromwell, &c stop the terms rose seeds, cummin, burdock, &c resist poison bishop weed, annis, smallage, cardamoms, oranges, lemons, citrons, fennel, &c ease pain dill, amomus, cardamoms, cummin, carrots, orobus, fenugreek, linseed, gromwell, parsley, panick assuage swellings linseed, fenugreek seeds, marsh-mallows, mallows, coriander, barley, lupines, darnel, &c * * * * *the college tells you a tale that there are such things in rerumnatura, as these, gums, rozins, balsams, and juices made thick, viz college juices of wormwood and maudlin, acacia, aloes, lees of oil, assafœtida, balsam of peru and india. Bdellium, benzoin, camphire, caranna, colophonia, juice of maudlin, euphorbium, lees of wine, leesof oil, gums of galbanum, amoniacum, anime, arabick, cherry trees, copal, elemy, juniper, ivy, plumb trees, cambuge, hypocystis, labdanum, lacca, liquid amber, manna, mastich, myrrh, olibanum, opium, opopanax, pice-bitumen, pitch of the cedar of greece, liquid and dry rozins offir-tree, larch-tree, pine tree, pine-fruit, mastich venice and cyprusturpentine sugar, white, red, and christaline, or sugar candy whiteand red, sagapen, juniper, gum, sanguis draconis, sarcocolla, scamony, styrax, liquid and calamitis, tacha, mahacca, tartar, frankincense, olibanum, tragaganth, birdlime culpeper that my country may receive more benefit than ever thecollege of physicians intended them from these, i shall treat of themseverally 1 of the juices 2 of the gums and rosins concrete juices, or juices made thick, are eithertemperate, as, juice of liquorice, white starch hot in the first degree sugar in the second labdanum in the third benzoin, assafœtida cold in the third degree sanguis draconis, acacia in the third hypocistis in the fourth opium, and yet essay authors think opium is hot becauseof its bitter taste aloes and manna purge choler gently. And scamony doth purge cholerviolently, that it is no ways fit for a vulgar man use, for itcorrodes the bowels opopoanax purges flegm very gently white starch gently levigates or makes smooth such writings as arerough, syrup of violets being made thick with it and so taken on thepoint of a knife, helps coughs, roughness of the throat, wheezing, excoriations of the bowels, the bloody-flux juice of liquorice helps roughness of the trachea arteria, whichis in plain english called the windpipe, the roughness of which causescoughs and hoarseness, difficulty of breathing, &c it allays the heatof the stomach and liver, eases pains, soreness and roughness of thereins and bladder, it quencheth thirst, and strengthens the stomachexceedingly. It may easily be carried about in one pocket, and eat alittle now and then sugar cleanses and digests, takes away roughness of the tongue, itstrengthens the reins and bladder, being weakened. Being beaten intofine powder and put into the eyes, it takes away films that grow overthe sight labdanum is in operation, thickening, heating and mollifying, itopens the passage of the veins, and keeps the hair from falling off;the use of it is usually external.

Complete absence of trypsin in seven out of nine samples, tryptic reaction being obtained in two samples, in one of which thereaction, “slight at best and of no practical import, ” was obtainedonly after treatment for twelve hours or more the presence of tryptic activity in two out of the nine samples maybe due to the fresher condition of these specimens, as indicatedby the serial numbers the evidence shows that it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity it should be reaffirmed that mixtures combining peptic and pancreaticactivities are not feasible, because pepsin cannot act except in thepresence of acid, and pancreatin is destroyed by acid and by pepticactivity furthermore, in conditions in which pancreatin is calledfor, pepsin is not, and vice versa. Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows. 2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine. Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement. ‘careful examination failed to showthe presence of either diastase or pancreatin ’ in this connectioni will cite to you the following experiment carried out by myself:a package containing a 1-ounce bottle of lactopeptine powder withseal unbroken was purchased in the open market and opened in thislaboratory the label bore the special number 6 2382 two hundredmilligrams of this product was dissolved in 50 c c of a 0 25 per cent solution of sodium carbonate in water this solution was divided intotwo portions of 25 c c each one of these portions was boiled at once, and after cooling was added to 1 gm of moist fibrin contained in aflask the other portion unboiled was also added to 1 gm of moistfibrin contained in a flask both flasks after addition of 5 c c of toluene to each were stoppered and placed in an incubator at 37degrees, and left there for twelve hours examination of the two flasksat the end of this period showed that the one to which the unboiledsolution of lactopeptine powder had been added contained much lesssolid protein than did the other although this fact was obvious tothe naked eye, the exact extent of digestion in the two flasks wasdetermined by heating both to boiling, acidifying with acetic acid, diluting to definite volume, filtering and determining the nitrogen inthe filtrate by kjeldahl method subtracting the trace of nitrogencontained in the filtrate of the control flask, the results showedthat 42 per cent of the original fibrin present had been dissolvedby the unboiled lactopeptine solution this can be ascribed only totryptic activity under the conditions of this experiment furthermore, this is not simply a ‘trace’ of activity, but is at least sufficientlymarked to warrant a statement that this sample showed a distincttryptic activity inasmuch as i have obtained exactly similar resultswith two other samples of lactopeptine powder these being the onlyones i have examined, i am inclined to question the correctness ofthe council statement regarding the absence of trypsin from thispreparation as noted above, a fresh preparation was used -- ed “may i again add that i am making no statement regarding therapeuticvalue of preparation, and that i have no opinion upon that matter oneway or the other?.

Or where the carotids are injured or thereis hemorrhage into their walls. Where there are severe wounds, thehemorrhage from which would be sufficient to threaten syncope. Wherethere are thesis marks of violence on the body. Where there is evidenceof a severe struggle in all these paper murder may be reasonablysuspected the number, situation, extent, and direction of mustbe carefully noted and weighed if these are out of proportion tothe ligature, the suspension, etc , they strongly suggest homicide, although they may occur in suicide see paper 4, 11, 18, 20, 28, 29, 44, 52, 55, 59, 66 homicidal hanging may be committed by an assailant who is strong ona subject who is weak, on a child, a woman, an old person. On onestupefied by liquor or narcotic poison.

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Bureau of chemistry, dewritingmentof agriculture, bull 162 203 “assay of aspirin, ” j pharm chem , 15 117, no 7, 213 204 similar observations were made by emery and wright, who state:“an accurate determination of the melting temperature in this way therate of heating was such as to give a rise in temperature of about 1°per minute is rendered difficult by the fact that ‘aspirin’ decomposeson heating, as evidenced in the depression of the melting temperatureof the pure substance of about 1° for every five minutes’ heating justbelow its melting temperature ”the melting point of purified acetylsalicylic acid was found to be131 5 to 132 5 c corr 205 with the exception of one specimen, which was obviously impure, the various specimens examined meltedbetween 128 and 133 c as may be seen in the accompanying table itwould appear that this range of melting points would be more acceptableand reliable than the melting points described in various standards 205 isolated crystals attached to the walls of the melting-pointtube, awriting from the bulk acetylsalicylic custom essays services acid, melted at a lowertemperature presence or absence of free salicylic acidit is generally conceded that the presence of salicylic acid in amountsmore than traces is deleterious furthermore, the amount of salicylicacid is a good index of the purity of the acetylsalicylic acid, becausethe test is so delicate that, under favorable conditions, mere tracesmay be determined and, as a rule, the better the product, the less theamount of free salicylic acid the tests appearing in various pharmacopeias for salicylic acid asan impurity in acetylsalicylic acid do not give concordant results, different workers interpreting the results differently, nor are theydetailed in such a manner as to yield maximum delicacy after experimentation, it was decided to establish a “limit” test ofapproximately 0 1 per cent free salicylic acid, when carried outaccording to the following method. 0 1 gm of the substance was placed in a dry colorimeter tube and 1 c c of alcohol, 206 previously distilled over naoh, was added after the acetylsalicylic acid had dissolved, 48 c c of water and 1 c c of fresh 0 1 per cent ferric chloride fecl₃ 6h₂o solution were added at the same time a control was run by treating 1 c c of a “standard” salicylate solution the same as above 207 if within two minutes the color given by acetylsalicylic acid is not more intense than the color given by the “standard, ” the presence of not more than 0 1 per cent free salicylic acid is proved 208 206 an excess of alcohol destroys or lessens the color when only a very minute amount of salicylic acid is present 207 the control should be made each time as standing in the air changes its tinctorial power 208 the presence of pure acetylsalicylic acid does not seem to affect the iron fe salicylic acid coloration the small amount of acetic acid was added to the sodium salicylate control solution 1 to stimulate an acidity approximating the acidity of the acetylsalicylic acid, and 2 since acetylsalicylic acid gives by hydrolysis both acetic acid and salicylic acid, it was thought advisable to add acetic acid to the standard if there is any free acetic acid in a sample of acetylsalicylic acid containing salicylic acid which i believe is generally the case when salicylic acid is present then it would modify the color given by the same amount of salicylic acid alone for this reason it was thought to be more comparable to have the standard contain a slight amount of acetic acid the solutions used were prepared as follows. Redistilled alcohol was treated with a small amount of sodium hydroxide for twenty-four hours, then again distilled the color standard was made by dissolving 0 116 gm of dried sodium salicylate in water, adding 1 minim of glacial acetic acid, and making up to 1, 000 c c each c c represents 0 1 mg of salicylic acid 209 209 this standard is essaywhat similar to the one proposed by t w thoburn and paul j hanzlik, j biol chem , 23, 175 the ferric chloride solution was made by diluting 1 c c ferric chloride fecl₃ 6h₂o test solution u s p with 99 c c of water the diluted solution must be freshly prepared each day with one exception, all of the commercial specimens examined respondedsatisfactorily to the above test showing less than 1 writing salicylicacid in 1, 000 writings acetylsalicylic acid the individual results aregiven in the accompanying table melting point and salicylic acid determinations melting point free salicylic acid brand corrected colorimetrically acetylsalicylic acid, 130 0-131 0° colored, but showing p w r 1 less than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 130 0-131 0° no color millikin2 acetylsalicylic acid, 129 0-130 0° no color millikin2 5-grain capsules acetylsalicylic acid, 128 0-129 0° a colored, but showing less millikin, 1 than 0 1 per cent a 5-grain capsules3 125 5-126 5° b considerably more than 0 1 per cent b acetylsalicylic acid, 131 0-132 0° no color squibb2 acetylsalicylic acid 131 0-132 0° no color aspirin, 1 monsanto acetylsalicylic acid, 130 5-131 5° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 131 5-132 5° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent acetylsalicylic acid, 131 0-132 0° colored, but showing less m c w 1 than 0 1 per cent aspirin, bayer1 before patent 131 5-132 5° no color expired aspirin, bayer1 4 after patent 128 5-129 5° colored, but showing less expired than 0 1 per cent aspirin, bayer1 4 after patent 129 5-130 5° colored, but showing less expired than 0 1 per cent aspirin, lehn 130 5-131 5° 0 1 per cent and fink2 aspirin, lehn 130 5-131 5° colored, but showing less and fink2 than 0 1 per cent aspirin, lehn 131 0-132 0° colored, but showing less and fink1 than 0 1 per cent 1 obtained on the open market 2 obtained from manufacturer 3 one-third of the capsules a contained a white powder. Two-thirds of the capsules b contained a pink powder having strong odor of acetic acid and not complying with the tests 4 not described in “new and nonofficial remedies, 1917”. The other products are other testsnew and nonofficial remedies, 1917, requires that acetylsalicylic acidshall form a clear solution with warm sodium carbonate solution. Thatsulfates, chlorides and heavy metals shall be absent. That 0 5 gm shall leave no weighable ash all the brands reported in this papercomplied with these requirements so far there has been no satisfactory quantitative estimation ofacetylsalicylic acid true, various methods have been proposed, but they are objectionable it was thought that hydrolysis ofacetylsalicylic acid and then titrating the solution by comparing thecolor formed by ferric chloride with that of a standard control mightyield interesting results, providing that the conditions were alike for this purpose 1 gm of acetylsalicylic acid was dissolved in 10 c c of alcohol and diluted to 1, 000 c c the solution was then heated at98 to 100 c for two hours, allowing the alcohol to evaporate, thenallowed to stand at room temperature 22 c for twenty-two hours after adding water sufficient to make 1, 000 c c , it was comparedcolorimetrically for salicylic acid strength the amount of hydrolysisvaried so with different samples under the same conditions, that itwas realized that an approximate assay by this method was unreliable if the assay were made under more exact conditions, quantitativecomparisons might be possible in one experiment, after sixty days thehydrolysis of the acetylsalicylic acid was 61 per cent , which is inrough agreement with the work of tsaklatos and horsh 210210 apoth ztg , 1915, p 247. Bull soc chem , 17 1915, 401 “studies of the decomposition of aspirin determined by titrametricmethods and by conductivity measurements indicate that the reaction isexceedingly complex, ” t and h chem abs , 10, 591 discussionawriting from the proposed revision of the standards for the meltingpoint and limit of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid, theexamination shows that there is no appreciable difference between thevarious brands of acetylsalicylic acid examined, all of them with oneexception acetylsalicylic acid, millikin, 5-grain capsules, purchasedon the open market complying with the tests described in this paper the journal of the american medical association, in past years, hasprotested repeatedly against the monopoly given to the bayer companyfor their “aspirin, ” contending that acetylsalicylic acid aspirinwas not new, and that “aspirin, bayer” was simply a good brand ofacetylsalicylic acid which could be bought in foreign countries atmuch lower prices than here although the patent in the united stateshas expired, “aspirin, bayer” is still being retailed at higher pricesthan other products which are now enjoying the privilege of americanmanufacture mr paul bakewell, 211 in an opinion answering the warning circular ofthe bayer co in reference to the use of the word “aspirin” by firmsother than bayer, argues very ably that acetylsalicylic acid, beforethe patent was granted, meant the impure substance which was not usedtherapeutically, while “aspirin” was designated as the improved product a new article of manufacture, the writingicular acetylsalicylic acid madeunder the hoffman patent and “is the substance now known in pharmacyas aspirin” statement made by an officer of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld co in u s circuit court, 1909 the products reportedin this paper are with the one exception the same as described inthe hoffman patent, and, in the sense of mr bakewell argument, are“aspirin ” however, it would seem better if the name acetylsalicylicacid, instead of aspirin, were used, especially by physicians intheir prescriptions because 1 it is a generic, scientific name. 2“aspirin, bayer” is sold at higher prices than other products, whereaschemically equivalent products sold under the descriptive name may bepurchased at a lower price finally, the manufacture of acetylsalicylicacid in this country is another example of the fact that americanchemists can produce the drug synthetics, and at the same time makeproducts as good as, if not better than, those of german origin 211 “in the matter of aspirin answer to the warning circular of thebayer co of june 1, 1917, ” by mr paul bakewell, monsanto chemicalworks i express my appreciation to dr w a puckner for his kindinterest -- from the journal of industrial and engineering chemistry, april, 1918 the standardization of commercial bismuth tribromphenate william rabak, ph g , sc b this work was begun in view of a request received by the council onpharmacy and chemistry from the medical section of the council ofnational defense for a report on the quality of bismuth tribromphenate, offered to the government by a certain firm in submitting a specimen of its product, “bismuth tribromphenolate, ”the firm claimed that “it is of high character, matching exactly thegerman product formerly imported into this country, ” and expressed thebelief that it would be found to conform to the standards for thispreparation in new and nonofficial remedies later a second specimenwas received from the same company, with the request that this besubstituted for that first received it was explained that the firsthad been taken from an experimental lot, and that the second, takenfrom the regular factory output, was identical with the first exceptthat it was free from odor because of the more thorough washing towhich it had been subjected accordingly, the examination which isreported below refers to the second specimen only new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, defines bismuth tribromphenate asbasis bismuth tribromphenate having the formula bi c₆h₂br₃o₂oh bi₂o₃, and it is required to yield not less than 49 5 per cent of bismuthoxid the chemical formula requires 46 2 per cent bismuth, or 51 6per cent bismuth oxid, bi₂o₃, and 49 2 per cent tribromphenate, c₆h₂br₃ oh it describes it as a “fine, yellow, nearly odorless andtasteless powder, neutral in reaction, ” and “only slightly soluble inwater, alcohol, chloroform, liquid petrolatum and vegetable oils ” itis required to yield tribromphenol to which a melting point of 95 c is assigned when decomposed by alkali and the alkali tribromphenatedecomposed by acid, the separated tribromphenol purified and dried as the new and nonofficial remedies description appeared looselydrawn-- it had been based on information furnished for the productxeroform when this, because of patent protection, was the only bismuthtribromphenate on the market-- it was decided to include in theexamination also specimens of the two brands of bismuth tribromphenateincluded in new and nonofficial remedies, namely, bismuthtribromphenate-merck merck and company and xeroform-heyden theheyden chemical works the merck specimen had been received by thecouncil from merck and company in 1915, while the heyden preparationwas obtained direct from the firm chicago branch in april, 1918 atthis time bismuth tribromphenate-merck could not be obtained from thechicago wholesale houses all three specimens were nearly odorless two of the specimens theresearch council specimen and merck products were of a lemon-yellowcolor, while the heyden preparation was of a grayish color bismuth determinationfour methods for the determination of the bismuth content of thespecimens were tried. A direct ignition to bismuth oxid -- this method was abandonedbecause of the tendency to ignite suddenly during the incineration andthe consequent loss of material b the method of the japanese pharmacopeia, third revised edition, translated by the pharmaceutical society of japan -- the methodconsists in treatment of the product with nitric acid, evaporation andsubsequent heating to bismuth oxid this method also was abandonedbecause of tendency toward sudden ignition with loss of material c the method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 -- themethod consists in decomposition of the product by heating on waterbath with normal sodium hydroxid solution, with formation of solublesodium tribromphenate and insoluble bismuth hydroxid the bismuthhydroxid is collected on a filter, washed with hot water until a fewdrops of the filtrate no longer turn litmus paper blue, dried andheated to constant weight and weighed as bismuth oxid d a m a method reports a m a chem lab , 1911, p 18 -- this method consists in dissolving the product in hot, stronghydrochloric acid, diluting, filtering and precipitating by saturationwith hydrogen sulphid the bismuth sulphid obtained is dissolved innitric acid and from the solution obtained the bismuth is precipitatedby addition of an excess of ammonium hydroxid and ammonium carbonate the precipitate is collected and converted to bismuth oxid by heat the following tabulation shows the results obtained by methods “c” and“d”:table 1 -- bismuth content of bismuth tribromphenate gm of gm of per cent method salt bi₂o₃ of bi₂o₃ no 1 research council spec c 2 1312 1 1754 55 1 no 1 research council spec d 0 5151 0 2772 50 03 no 2 merck & company c 2 0287 1 2543 61 8 no 2 merck & company d 0 5064 0 2634 52 01 no 3 heyden chem works c 2 0472 1 6020 78 2 no 3 heyden chem works d 0 5227 0 3546 67 8it is seen from the tabulation that the results obtained by the kollomethod method c are higher than those by the sulphid method methodd and that duplicate determinations show a rather wide variation theresults by the sulphid method are essaywhat lower than those by thekollo method, but duplicates agree fairly well in view of the factthat the kollo method will give excessive results if impurities suchas talcum, etc , are present and in consideration of the satisfactoryresults obtained in previous work with the sulphid method, the figuresobtained by this method are taken as indicative of the bismuth contentof the specimens examined calculating the per cent of bismuth oxidobtained to bismuth bi, the following values are obtained.