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Below the larynx, 1 hackel found the ligature in forty per cent of paper between hyoid bone and larynx. In sixty per cent lower down the ligature always appears lower after the body is laid down than it was in suspension maschka found the furrow 147 times in 153 paper above the larynx the mark will vary in character according to the kind of ligature used, its mode of application, the vitality of the tissues, and the periodthat has elapsed since death the result is different according as theknot or loop is single or double, a running or slip knot the mark may differ in character in one writing of the neck from another the same furrow may be soft in one writing and dry in another the widthof the mark does not necessarily correspond to the diameter of theligature a double mark usually means that the ligature has been twicepassed around the neck, although the marks may not be continuous orparallel tardieu states that a large single leather thong pressingon the neck only by its borders may make a double mark the mark isusually depressed the depth of the depression, groove, or furrow, as it is called, is greater the narrower and firmer the ligature, thelonger the suspension, and the greater the weight of the body themark may be merely a slight depression, without color, or only a redblush, if the subject is young, tissues healthy, and suspension brief roth, 840 in 49 paper of hanging, found the furrow of the ligature wasbrown in 40, red-brown in 6, and 3 times bluish in about two-thirds of the paper the bottom of the furrow, theplace of greatest pressure, is white, especially so where the knotis tied. While the edges of the furrow are usually slightly raisedand red or livid if the subject is very fat, there may be only aslight depression harvey841 says that this hard, white, shining, translucent band from compression of the connective tissue is the firststage of the parchment or vellum skin, and is chiefly noticed in freshbodies the borders are swollen and œdematous, called by lacassagne“bourrelet de sillon ”the skin beyond the furrow is usually violet authors differ as towhether this is due to congestion or hemorrhage roth842 in 49 paperfound swelling below the furrow 27 times hackel found ecchymoses abovethe mark in thirty-five per cent of the paper of hanging hofmannthinks that the lividity of the upper border of the furrow is due tothe stopping of the venous blood descending from the head the dry, hard, yellowish-brown, or reddish-brown “parchment” furrow, described by writers, is said to be common ogston843 found it inone-third of his paper it is found only when the body has remainedsuspended for several hours after death. Indeed, may be produced byapplying the ligature to the cadaver. Is not at all, therefore, a proofof suspension during life liman states that constriction by a ligatureeven for essay time does not necessarily cause a mummified or excoriatedfurrow he saw paper in which the mark was soft, flat, scarcelycolored, but little interrupted, and not parchmenty the parchment skinseems to depend very much upon a previous excoriation of the skin itsappearance can be prevented or delayed by examining a body soon afterdeath or by rehanging it.

A wound is secondarily the cause of death when the victim, havingrecovered from the first ill effects, dies from essay wound disease oraccident or from a surgical operation rendered necessary in the propertreatment of the wound there may be much difficulty in establishingthe proof of death from a wound by means of secondary causes, for, 1st, the secondary cause must be in the natural course of things. And, 2d, there must be no other accidental circumstances to occasion thesecondary cause the secondary cause may be writingly due to the constitution of thedeceased from habits of dissipation, which fact would serve as anexpiatory circumstance in the case among the secondary causes of deathmay be mentioned septicæmia, pyæmia, erysipelas, tetanus, gangrene, that is, wound diseases, also the wound accident as we may calldelirium tremens, and surgical operations rendered necessary to thetreatment of the case we may add, besides the regular wound diseases, inflammation in and about the wound, septic in character, perhaps notjustifying the title of septicæmia, but which, with its accompanyingfever, may be the “last straw” in a case which might otherwiserecover essay of these secondary causes will now be considered more atlength septicæmia is a general febrile disease due to the absorption intothe system from a wound of the products of bacteria or due to theintroduction into the blood and tissues of the bacteria themselves depending on the two sources of origin, we have two forms ofsepticæmia. 1 septic intoxication or sapremia, due to the absorptionof a chemical poison, ptomaïnes, and often readily influenced andcured by the removal of the source of these ptomaïnes in decomposingblood-clots, secretions, etc 2 septic infection comes on less rapidlybut is more serious than the former is, if properly and quicklytreated, because the source of the trouble cannot be removed, but isin the blood and the tissues the latter form is the more common onein wounds, though the former may occur in abdominal wounds, especiallywhen a blood-clot is present the first form begins acutely, thesecond form more gradually the infection in septicæmia takes placethrough a wound and may be due to the weapon which caused the wound, the unclean condition of the writings wounded, or to the subsequenttreatment or want of treatment it may even take place through theintestinal mucous membrane as in paper of tyrotoxicon poisoning itis most likely to occur during the first four or five days before thesurfaces of the wound granulate, and it consists in the introductionof bacteria, especially staphylococci and streptococci the diseaseis characterized by severe constitutional symptoms, acute continuousfever, inflammation of certain viscera and of the wound, and nervousdisorders a pronounced chill ushering in the fever is generallyabsent prostration is especially marked, the patient finally passinginto a typhoid condition indifferent to surroundings anorexia andheadache are usually present. Diarrhœa is common, vomiting is not theskin is pale and dusky, but not commonly icteric. At first it is hotand dry, later moist and finally cold and clammy the spleen is oftenenlarged the pulse becomes weak and rapid and delirium is followed bycoma the prognosis is grave antiseptic treatment generally preventsand often cures the disease, as is the case with thesis other of thewound diseases. Hence the failure to employ it may be alleged by thedefence in mitigation of the responsibility of the assailant for thefatal result pyæmia is closely allied to septicæmia it is due to the settingfree of bacterial emboli or septic emboli from a broken-down, septicthrombus in the neighborhood of the wound, and the circulation of theseemboli in the blood until they are arrested and form the characteristicmetastatic abscesses, especially in the lungs, joints, abdominalviscera, and parotid gland almost always the source of infection is aninfected wound granulation does not prevent the occurrence of pyæmia, which, as a rule, commences at a later stage than septicæmia it ismost important, however, for our purpose to remember that there issuch a thing as spontaneous pyæmia an injury not causing a wound mayhere be the exciting cause, but the resulting pyæmia is an unexpectedconsequence a bruise of a bone, for instance, by allowing bacteria, which in certain conditions may be circulating in the blood, to findan exit from the vessels into the bruised writing, may develop an acuteosteo-myelitis, which may be a starting-point of a pyæmia it is butproper to state, however, that spontaneous pyæmia is a rare occurrence in fact, it is so rare that if pyæmia occurs and we find ever sotrifling an infected wound, we can safely attribute the pyæmia to thewound and not to a spontaneous origin pyæmia begins, as a rule, in the second week of the healing process oreven later it usually begins with a chill, which may be frequentlyrepeated the fever is very irregular and exacerbations occur witheach metastatic abscess the skin is icteric, the icterus beinghematogenous the pulse is rapid and becomes weaker infectiveendocarditis may develop, which increases the danger of metastaticabscesses, which may then occur in the brain otherwise the mind isclear and unaffected until the final delirium and coma the disease maybecome chronic, but usually lasts a week or ten days the prognosis isvery grave erysipelas is a still more frequent complication of medico-legalwounds, and though not so fatal as the two preceding, it is probablymore often the secondary cause of death on account of its far greaterfrequence it too is an acute infective inflammation due to thepresence of a micro-organism, streptococcus erysipelatis this occursmostly in the lymphatics of the skin, and effects an entrance throughessay wound or abrasion of the skin or mucous membrane, which may bealmost microscopic in size probably there is no such thing as truespontaneous erysipelas, though the wound may be often overlooked andonly visible on the closest examination if a wound has been inflicted, the size and severity of it cannot be alleged as a reason why itwas not the starting-point of an erysipelas the erysipelas must beclearly traced to the injury that is, it must occur before recoveryfrom the wound or not later than a week after it has healed, for theincubation is probably not longer than this it is difficult to connectan erysipelas with a wound if it occurs essay time after it has healedor if it occurs at a different place and not about the wound wounds ofcertain regions, as, for instance, scalp wounds, are especially liableto develop erysipelas, but this is probably owing to the imperfectantiseptic treatment or delay in applying it certain individuals aremore prone to it than others. Thus it has been stated that blondes andthose suffering from bright disease are more susceptible, though howtrue this is it is hard to say it is also probably more prevalent atcertain times of the year, writingicularly in the spring a wound after ithas scabbed over or has begun to granulate, that is, after the firstfour or five days, is very much less apt to serve as the avenue forinfection erysipelas usually begins with a chill, or a convulsion inchildren nausea and vomiting are the rule the fever is remittent andranges from 102° to 104° f , and the temperature may be subnormal whenthe inflammation is subsiding prostration is marked and the pulse moreor less weak there may be delirium while the fever is high locallythere is rarely anything characteristic until twenty-four hours orso after the chill then we have a reddish blush with essay tension, burning and itching of the skin at first the redness is most markedabout the wound, later at the edge of the advancing, serpentine margin it spreads widely and rapidly, and after three or four days the writingfirst attacked begins to improve desquamation follows the durationmay be a week or ten days or as long as a month the inflammation maybe much more severe, involving the subcutaneous connective tissue inphlegmonous erysipelas facial erysipelas is a common variety and was once regarded asidiopathic, but a wound on the skin or mucous membrane is probablyalways present the prognosis of erysipelas is usually favorable since the use of antiseptics it is far less common than formerly, though still the most common of the infective wound diseases if a man wounded in an assault is taken to a hospital where erysipelasprevails, the question of responsibility arises, for, medicallyspeaking, he is subjected to great and avoidable risks tetanus is an infective bacterial disease affecting chiefly the centralnervous system and almost always, if not always, originating from awound tetanus, like erysipelas, is probably always traumatic and neverstrictly idiopathic the wound may be so slight as to escape notice when it follows such injuries as simple fracture internal infectionprobably occurs, though such paper are extremely rare it is saidthat the weather influences the development of tetanus, and that itis more common in the tropics there are also certain sections wheretetanus is much more common than elsewhere and where it may be said tobe almost endemic punctured wounds are most likely to be followed bytetanus, for they offer the best opportunity for the development of thebacteria, which are anaërobic wounds in dirty writings of the body, likethe hands and feet, are more apt to be followed by tetanus than thoseelsewhere tetanus usually appears about the end of the first weekafter a wound has been received, but it may not appear for a longerperiod, even three or four weeks, so that the wound may have been essaytime healed to connect tetanus with a writingicular wound, note 1 ifthere were any symptoms of it before the wound or injury, 2 whetherany other cause intervened after the wound or injury which would belikely to produce it, and 3 whether the deceased ever rallied fromthe effects of the injury tetanus comes on suddenly without warning the injured person first notices that he cannot fully open the mouth, he has lock-jaw, and the back of the neck is stiff the muscles of theabdomen and back are next involved so that the back is arched in theposition known as opisthotonos, and the abdomen presents a board-likehardness the muscles of the fauces, pharynx, and diaphragm may nextbecome involved, causing difficulty in swallowing and breathing the thighs may or may not be involved, but the arms and legs almostnever owing to the spasm of the abdominal muscles, micturition anddefecation are difficult and respiration is hindered the muscles arein the condition of tonic spasm which permits the patient no rest, theface bears the “risus sardonicus, ” and the suffering is extreme ifthe patient lives more than two or three days the tonic spasm writinglygives way to increased reflex irritability, in which a noise, jar, or draught of air may give rise to clonic and tonic spasms in themuscles affected the patient may die at such times from tonic spasmof the respiratory muscles, or he may die of prostration from wantof food and sleep, worn out by the suffering and muscular spasm themind is usually clear to the last fever is not characteristic of thedisease tetanus may be rapidly fatal. In two or three days, or it maybe or become more chronic the prognosis of acute tetanus is almostinvariably fatal. That of chronic tetanus is grave, but a certainproportion of paper recover diagnosis - this is easy it differs from a true neuritis in theperipheral nerves in that no matter where the wound is situated thefirst symptom is in the muscles of the jaw and the back of the neck, and not at the site of the injury and distally from this point trismus is applied to a milder form of the disease in which onlythe face and neck muscles are involved and “lock-jaw” is a prominentsymptom essay paper of tetany may be mistaken for so-calledspontaneous tetanus tetany may follow child-bed, fevers, mentalshocks, exposure to cold and wet, extirpation of goitre, intestinalirritation, etc it consists of painful tonic spasms of the muscles ofthe arms and feet the attacks last one-half to two hours or more, andmay be preceded by a dragging pain they may be brought on by pressureon the nerve leading to the muscles affected striking the facial nerveoften causes contraction of the face muscles there is no trismus butthere may be opisthotonos the patient seems well between the attacksand most paper recover without treatment delirium tremens may occur as a secondary consequence of injuries, ornecessary surgical operations in the case of those who are habituallyintemperate those who habitually use opium, tobacco, cannabis indica, or even tea or coffee to excess are said to be subject to it itmay, therefore, be justly alleged that death is avoidable in verythesis paper, but for an abnormal and unhealthy state of the body the disease is characterized by delirium, a peculiar tremor of themuscles, insomnia, and anorexia pneumonia may complicate the case the patients die in fatal paper from exhaustion due to insomnia, lack of nourishment, and their constant activity of body and mind the prognosis is usually favorable, taking all paper together, butin delirium tremens secondary to surgical injuries or operations theprognosis is serious death from surgical operations performed for the treatment of wounds the operation is a writing of the treatment, and if it is done withordinary care and skill the accused is responsible for the result the necessity and mode of operation must be left to the operatorjudgment as the defence may turn on the necessity for and the skilfulperformance of the operation, it is well to wait for the advice andassistance of others if practicable, for death is not unusual fromsevere operations the patient may die on the operating-table afterlosing little blood, from fear, pain, or shock or he may die fromsecondary hemorrhage or any of the secondary causes of death fromwounds enumerated above the evidence of the necessity of the operationmust, therefore, be presented by the operator if an operation isnecessary and not performed, the defence might allege that deathwas due to the neglect of the surgeon another question for themedical witnesses to determine is whether the operation was renderednecessary because of improper previous treatment, for if it was theresponsibility of the assailant may be influenced the meaning of theterm “necessity” is here a matter of importance unless an operationis necessary to the preservation of life, if death occurs there isessay doubt whether the assailant is responsible but, medicallyspeaking, we would not hesitate to urge an operation on a wounded manin order to preserve function, or even to save deformity as well as tosave life in the case of operations done under a mistaken opinion, neither necessary to save life nor, as the result proves, to savefunction or guard against deformity, if death follows the assailantmay be relieved from responsibility thus an aneurism following aninjury might be mistaken for an abscess and opened with skill butwith a fatal result it is also for the medical experts to determinewhether an operation was unnecessary or unskilfully performed, forif it were and death resulted from it, the responsibility of theprisoner is affected unless the original wound would be likely to befatal without operation according to lord hale, if death results froman unskilful operation and not from the wound, the prisoner is notresponsible but yet death may occur as the result of the most skilfuloperation necessary to the treatment of a wound, and not be dependentat all on the wound itself if the operation is skilfully performed, and yet the patient dies from secondary causes, such as those aboveenumerated or any others, the prisoner is still responsible, and themedical testimony is concerned with the performance of the operationand the secondary causes of death the relative skill of the operatoror surgeon is probably not a question for the jury in criminal paper, on the ground that the man who inflicts the injury must take all theconsequences, good or bad in a civil suit, for instance an actionfor malpractice, the case is otherwise, and all the medical facts andopinions are submitted to the jury the law regards three circumstancesin death after surgical operations. 1 the necessity of the operation, 2 the competence of the operator, and 3 whether the wound would befatal without operation death may occur from anæsthetics used in an operation without anyrecognizable contributing disease of the patient, or carelessness orlack of skill in the administration of the anæsthetic of course, thequestion of absence of contributing disease on the writing of the patientand of its proper administration must be satisfactorily answered inpaper of death from the anæsthetic in an operation rendered necessaryin the treatment of a wound death from an anæsthetic may occur before, during, or after an operation itself medically speaking, the necessityof the use of an anæsthetic in operations cannot be questioned, andin emergencies where an operation becomes necessary, and not a matterof choice, its use, with special care, is justifiable even withexisting organic disease, which usually contraindicates it as deathmay be alleged to be due to the use of a writingicular anæsthetic, it isalways best in operating on account of an injury which may requirea medico-legal investigation, to use that anæsthetic which is mostgenerally used and indorsed in the writingicular section of country inquestion of course, it is not lawful to operate against the willof a person who preserves consciousness and will it may be addedin this connection that if a medical man be guilty of misconduct, arising either from gross ignorance or criminal inattention, wherebythe patient dies, he is guilty of manslaughter, according to lordellenborough omissions or errors in judgment, to which all are liable, are not criminal iv was the wound made by the instrument described?.

In 19 sitting, and 3were huddled up or custom essay org coupons squatting fatal hanging may, therefore, occur inalmost any position of body he shows incomplete hangings by thirteenplates taylor also collected reports of 11 paper in a few years. In 3the subjects were nearly recumbent. In 4, in a kneeling position. In 4, sitting remer in 101 paper of suicidal hanging found in 14 that thebody was either standing or kneeling.

Take six writings of this liquor, and with fourwritings of white sugar, boil it to a syrup according to art culpeper it loosens the belly, and gently brings out choler andflegm, but leaves a binding quality behind it syrupus e succo rosarum or syrup of the juice of roses college it is prepared without steeping, only with the juice ofdamask roses pressed out, and clarified, and an equal proportion ofsugar added to it culpeper this is like the other syrupus rosaceus solutivus cum agarico or syrup of roses solutive with agarick college take of agarick cut thin an ounce, ginger two drams, sal gem one dram, polipodium bruised two ounces, sprinkle them with whitewine and steep them two days over warm ashes, in a pound and an half ofthe infusion of damask roses prescribed before, and with one pound ofsugar boil it into a syrup according to art culpeper it purges flegm from the head, relieves the sensesoppressed by it, provokes the menses, purges the stomach and liver, and provokes urine syrupus rosaceus solutivus cum helleboro or syrup of roses solutive with hellebore college take of the bark of all the myrobalans, of each fourounces, bruise them grossly, and steep them twenty-four hours in twelvepounds of the infusion of roses before spoken, senna, epithimum, polypodium of the oak, of each four ounces, cloves an ounce, citronseeds, liquorice, of each four ounces, the bark of black helleboreroots six drams, let the fourth writing of the liquor gently exhale, strain it, and with five pounds of sugar, and sixteen drams of rhubarbtied up in a linen rag, make it into a syrup according to art culpeper the syrup, rightly used, purges melancholy, resistsmadness syrupus rosaceus solutivus cum senna or syrup of roses solutive with senna college take of senna six ounces, caraway, and sweet fennel seeds, of each three drams, sprinkle them with white wine, and infuse them twodays in three pounds of the infusion of roses aforesaid, then strainit, and with two pounds of sugar boil it into a syrup culpeper it purges the body of choler and melancholy, and expelsthe relics a disease hath left behind it. The dose is from one ounceto two, you may take it in a decoction of senna, it leaves a bindingquality behind it syrupus de spina cervina or syrup of purging thorn college take of the berries of purging thorn, gathered inseptember, as thesis as you will, bruise them in a stone mortar, andpress out the juice, let the fourth writing of it evaporate away in abath, then to two pounds of it add sixteen ounces of white sugar, boil it into a syrup, which perfume with mastich, cinnamon, nutmegs, anni-seeds in fine powder, of each three drams syrups made with vinegar and honey mel anthosatum or honey of rosemary flowers college take of fresh rosemary flowers a pound, clarified honeythree pounds, mix them in a glass with a narrow mouth, set them in thesun, keep them for use culpeper it hath the same virtues with rosemary flowers, to which irefer you, only by reason of the honey it may be essaywhat cleansing mel helleboratum or honey helleborated college take of white hellebore roots bruised a pound, clear waterfourteen pounds, after three days infusion, boil it till half beconsumed, then strain it diligently, and with three pounds of honey, boil it to the thickness of honey mel mercuriale or honey of mercury college boil three pounds of the juice of mercury, with two poundsof honey to the thickness of honey culpeper it is used as an emollient in clysters mel mororum, vel diamoron or honey of mulberries college take of the juice of mulberries and blackberries, beforethey be ripe, gathered before the sun be up, of each a pound and ahalf, honey two pounds, boil them to their due thickness culpeper it is vulgarly known to be good for sore mouths, as alsoto cool inflammations there mel nuceum, alias, diacarion et dianucum or honey of nuts college take of the juice of the outward bark of green walnuts, gathered in the dog days two pounds, boil it gently till it be thick, and with one pound of honey, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper it is a good preservative in pestilential times, aspoonful being taken as soon as you are up mel passalatum or honey of raisins college take of raisins of the sun cleansed from the stones twopounds, steep them in six pounds of warm water, the next day boil ithalf away, and press it strongly, and with two pounds of honey, let theexpressed liquor boil to its thickness culpeper it is a pretty pleasing medicine for such as are inconsumptions, and are bound in body mel rosatum commune, sive foliatum or common honey of roses college take of red roses not quite open two pounds, honey sixpounds, set them in the sun according to art mel rosatum colatum or honey of roses strained college take of the best clarified honey ten pounds, juice of freshred roses one pound, set it handessayly over the fire, and when itbegins to boil, put in four pounds of fresh red roses, the whites beingcut off. The juice being consumed by boiling and stirring, strain itand keep it for use culpeper they are both used for diseases in the mouth mel rosatum solutivum or honey of roses solutive college take of the often infusion of damask roses five pounds, honey rightly clarified four pounds, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper it is used as a laxative in clysters, and essay use it tocleanse wounds college after the same manner is prepared honey of the infusion ofred roses mel scilliticum or honey of squils college take one squil full of juice, cut in bits, and put it in aglass vessel, the mouth close stopped, and covered with a skin, set inthe sun forty days, to wit, twenty before and after the rising of thedog star, then open the vessel, and take the juice which lies at thebottom, and preserve it with the best honey college honey of violets is prepared like as honey of roses oxymel, simple college take of the best honey four pounds, clear water and whitewine vinegar, of each two pounds, boil them in an earthen vessel, taking the scum off with a wooden scummer, till it be come to theconsistence of a syrup culpeper it cuts flegm, and it is a good preparative against avomit oxymel compound college take of the bark of the root of fennel, smallage, parsley, bruscus, asparagus, of each two ounces, the seeds of fennel, smallage, parsley, annis, of each one ounce, steep them all the roots beingfirst cleansed and the seeds bruised in six pounds of clear waterand a pound and a half of wine vinegar, the next day boil it to theconsumption of the third writing, boil the rest being strained, with threepounds of honey into a liquid syrup according to art culpeper first having bruised the roots and seeds, boil them in thewater till half be consumed, then strain it and add the honey, and whenit is almost boiled enough, add the vinegar oxymel helleboratum or oxymel helleborated college take of rue, thyme, dittany of crete, hyssop, pennyroyal, horehound, carduus, the roots of celtick, spikenard without leaves, the inner bark of elders, of each a handful, mountain calaminth twopugils, the seeds of annis, fennel, bazil, roman nettles, dill, ofeach two drams, the roots of angelica, marsh-mallows, aron, squillsprepared, birthwort, long, round, and climbing, turbith, english orris, costus, polypodium, lemon pills, of each an ounce, the strings of blackhellebore, spurge, agerick, added at the end of the decoction, of eachtwo drams, the bark of white hellebore half an ounce, let all of thembeing dried and bruised, be digested in a glass, or glazed vesselclose stopped, in the heat of the sun, or of a furnace, posca, made ofequal writings of water and vinegar, eight pounds, sapa two ounces, threedays being expired, boil it little more than half away, strain it, pressing it gently, and add to the liquor a pound and a half of honeyroses, wherein two ounces of citron pills have been infused, boil it tothe thickness of honey, and perfume it with cloves, saffron, ginger, galanga, mace, of each a dram oxymel julianizans college take of the bark of caper roots, the roots of orris, fennel, parsley, bruscus, chicory, sparagus, cypress, of each half anounce, the leaves of harts-tongue, schænanth, tamarisk, of each half ahandful, sweet fennel seed half an ounce, infuse them in three poundsof posca, which is essaything sour, afterwards boil it till half beconsumed, strain it, and with honey and sugar clarified, of each half apound, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper this medicine is very opening, very good againsthypocondriac melancholy, and as fit a medicine as can be for thatdisease in children called the rickets college oxymel of squills simple, is made of three pounds ofclarified honey. Vinegar of squills two pounds, boil them according toart culpeper it cuts and divides humours that are tough and viscous, and therefore helps the stomach and bowels afflicted by such humours, and sour belchings if you take but a spoonful in the morning, an ablebody will think enough oxymel scilliticum compositus or oxymel of squills compound college take of origanum, dried hyssop, thyme, lovage, cardamomsthe less, stœchas, of each five drams, boil them in three pounds ofwater to one, strain it and with two pounds of honey, honey of raisinshalf a pound, juice of briony five ounces, vinegar of squills a poundand a half, boil it, and scum it according to art culpeper this is good against the falling-sickness, megrim, head-ache, vertigo, or swimming in the head, and if these be occasionedby the stomach as thesis times they are, it helps the lungs obstructed byhumour, and is good for women not well cleansed after labour, it opensthe passage of the womb syrup of purslain mesue college take of the seeds of purslain grossly bruised, half apound, of the juice of endive, boiled and clarified, two pounds, sugartwo pounds, vinegar nine ounces, infuse the seeds in the juice ofendive twenty-four hours, afterwards boil it half away with a gentlefire, then strain it, and boil it with the sugar to the consistence ofa syrup, adding the vinegar towards the latter end of the decoction culpeper it is a pretty cooling syrup, fit for any hot diseaseincident to the stomach, reins, bladder, matrix, or liver. It thickensflegm, cools the blood, and provokes sleep you may take an ounce of itat a time when you have occasion compound syrup of colt-foot renod college take six handfuls of green colt-foot, two handfuls ofmaiden-hair, one handful of hyssop, and two ounces of liquorice, boilthem in four pints, either of rain or spring water till the fourth writingbe consumed, then strain it, and clarify it, to which add three poundsof white sugar, boil it to the perfect consistence of a syrup culpeper the composition is appropriated to the lungs, andtherefore helps the infirmities, weaknesses, or failings thereof aswant of voice, difficulty of breathing, coughs, hoarseness, catharrs, &c the way of taking it is with a liquorice-stick, or if you please, you may add an ounce of it to the pectoral decoction before mentioned syrup of poppies, the lesser composition college take of the heads of white poppies and black, when both ofthem are green, of each six ounces, the seeds of lettice, the flowersof violets, of each one ounce, boil them in eight pints of water tillthe virtue is out of the heads. Then strain them, and with four poundsof sugar boil the liquor to a syrup syrup of poppies, the greater composition college take of the heads of both white and black poppies, seedsand all, of each fifty drams, maiden-hair, fifteen drams, liquorice, five drams, jujubes, thirty by number, lettice seeds, forty drams, ofthe seeds of mallows and quinces, tied up in a thin linen cloth ofeach one dram and an half, boil these in eight pints of water tillfive pints be consumed, when you have strained out the three pintsremaining, add to them, penids and white sugar, of each a pound, boilthem into a syrup according to art culpeper all these former syrups of poppies provoke sleep, butin that, i desire they may be used with a great deal of caution andwariness. Such as these are not fit to be given in the beginning offevers, nor to such whose bodies are costive, yet to such as aretroubled with hot, sharp rheums, you may safely give them. The last isappropriated to the lungs. It prevails against dry coughs, phthisicks, hot and sharp gnawing rheums, and provokes sleep it is an usualfashion for nurses when they have heated their milk by exercise orstrong liquor then run for syrup of poppies to make their young onessleep i would fain have that fashion left off, therefore i forbear thedose. Let nurses keep their own bodies temperate, and their childrenwill sleep well enough syrup of eupatorium or maudlin mesue college take of the roots of smallage, fennel, and succory, ofeach two ounces, liquorice, schænanth, dodder, wormwood, roses, ofeach six drams, maidenhair, bedeguar, or instead thereof, the rootsof carduus mariæ, suchaha or instead thereof the roots of avens, theflowers or roots of bugloss, annis seeds, sweet fennel seeds, ageratum, or maudlin, of each five drams, rhubarb, mastich, of each three drams, spikenard, indian leaf, or instead of it put roman spike, of eachtwo drams, boil them in eight pints of water till the third writing beconsumed, then strain the decoction, and with four pounds of sugar, clarified juice of smallage and endive, of each half a pound, boil itinto a syrup culpeper it amends infirmities of the liver coming of cold, opens obstructions, helps the dropsy, and evil state of the body. Itextenuates gross humours, strengthens the liver, provoake urine, and isa present succour for hypocondriac melancholy you may take an ounce ata time in the morning, it opens but purges not honey of emblicks augustanus college take fifty emblick myrobalans, bruise them and boil them inthree pints of water till two be consumed, strain it, and with the likeweight of honey, boil it into a syrup culpeper it is a fine gentle purger both of flegm and melancholy:it strengthens the brain and nerves, and senses both internal andexternal, helps tremblings of the heart, stays vomiting, provokesappetite you may take a spoonful at a time rob, or sapa. And juices culpeper 1 rob, or sapa, is the juice of a fruit, made thick bythe heat either of the sun, or the fire, that it is capable of beingkept safe from putrefaction 2 its use was first invented for diseasesin the mouth 3 it is usually made, in respect of body, essaywhatthicker than new honey 4 it may be kept about a year, little more orless rob sive sapa, simplex or simple rob, or sapa college take of wine newly pressed from white and ripe grapes, boilit over a gentle fire to the thickness of honey culpeper whenever you read the word rob, or sapa throughout thedispensatory, simply quoted in any medicine without any relation ofwhat it should be made, this is that you ought to use rob de barberis or rob of barberries college take of the juice of barberries strained as much as youwill, boil it by itself or else by adding half a pound of sugar toeach pound of juice to the thickness of honey culpeper it quenches thirst, closes the mouth of the stomach, thereby staying vomiting, and belching, it strengthens stomachsweakened by heat, and procures appetite of any of these robs you maytake a little on the point of a knife when you need rob de cerasis or rob of cherries college take of the juice of red cherries essaywhat sowerish, asmuch as you will, and with half their weight in sugar boil them likethe former culpeper see the virtue of cherries, and there you have a method tokeep them all the year rob de cornis or rob of cornels college take of the juice of cornels two pounds, sugar a pound andan half, boil it according to art culpeper of those cornel trees are two sorts, male and female, thefruit of the male cornel, or cornelian cherry is here to be used thefruit of male cornel, binds exceedingly, and therefore good in fluxes, and the immoderate flowing of the menses rob cydoniorum or rob of quinces college take of the clarified juice of quinces, boil it till twowritings be consumed and with its equal weight in sugar boil it into a rob miva vel gelatina eorundem or jelly of quinces college take of the juice of quinces clarified twelve pounds, boilit half away, and add to the remainder, old white wine five pounds, consume the third writing over a gentle fire, taking away the scum allyou ought let the rest settle, and strain it, and with three pounds ofsugar boil it according to art culpeper both are good for weak and indisposed stomachs college rob of sour plums is made as rob of quinces, the use ofsugar is indifferent in them both rob of english currants is made in the same manner, let the juice beclarified culpeper the virtues are the same with rob of barberries rob baccarum sambuci or rob of elder berries college take of the juice of elder berries, and make it thick withthe help of a gentle fire, either by itself, or a quarter of its weightin sugar being added culpeper both rob of elder berries, and dwarf-elder, are excellentfor such whose bodies are inclining to dropsies, neither let themneglect nor despise it they may take the quantity of a nutmeg eachmorning, it will gently purge the watery humour college in the same manner is made rob of dwarf-elder, junipers, and paul betony, only in the last, the sugar and juice must be equalin weight succus glycyrrhizæ simplex or juice of liquorice simple college infuse liquorice roots cleansed and gently bruised, threedays in spring water, so much that it may over-top the roots thebreadth of three fingers, then boil it a little, and press it hard out, and boil the liquor with a gentle fire to its due thickness culpeper it is vulgarly known to be good against coughs, colds, &c and a strengthner of the lungs succus glycyrrhizæ compositus or juice of liquorice compound college take of the water of tender oak leaves, of scabious, ofeach four pounds, english liquorice scraped and bruised two pounds, boil them by degrees till they be soft, then press out the liquorstrongly in a press, to which add three pounds of juice of hyssop, anddry it away in the sun in a broad earthen vessel culpeper the virtues are the same with the former succus pronorum sylvestrum or juice of sloes, called acacia college take of sloes hardly ripe, press out the juice, and make itthick in a bath culpeper it stops fluxes, and procures appetite college so are the juices of wormwood, maudlin, and fumitory madethick, to wit, the herbs bruised while they be tender, and the juicepressed out and after it be clarified, boil over the fire to its justthickness lohoch, or eclegmata culpeper because this word also is understood but by few, we willfirst explain what it is 1 the word lohoch is an arabick word, called in greek eclegma, in latin linctus, and signifies a thingto be licked up 2 it is in respect of body, essaything thicker thana syrup, and not so thick as an electuary 3 its use was against theroughness of the windpipe, diseases, and inflammations of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, colds, coughs, &c 4 its manner of receptionis with a liquorice stick, bruised at the end, to take up essay andretain it in the mouth, till it melt of its own accord lohoch de farfara or lohoch of coltsfoot college take of colts-foot roots cleansed eight ounces, marsh-mallow roots four ounces cleansed, boil them in a sufficientquantity of water, and press the pulp out through a sieve, dissolvethis again in the decoction, and let it boil once or twice, then takeit from the fire, and add two pounds of white sugar, honey of raisinsfourteen ounces, juice of liquorice two drams and an half, stir themstoutly with a wooden pestle, mean season sprinkle in saffron andcloves, of each a scruple, cinnamon and mace, of each two scruples, make them into a lohoch according to art culpeper it was invented for the cough lohoch de papavere or lohoch of poppies college take white poppy seeds twenty four drams, sweet almondsblanched in rose water, pine-nuts cleansed, gum arabick and tragacanth, of each ten drams, juice of liquorice an ounce, starch three drams, theseeds of lettuce, purslain, quinces, of each half an ounce, saffron adram, penids four ounces, syrup of meconium three pounds, make it intoa lohoch according to art culpeper it helps salt, sharp and thin distillations upon thelungs, it allays the fury of such sharp humours, which occasion bothroughness of the throat, want of sleep, and fevers. It is excellent forsuch as are troubled with pleurises to take now and then a little ofit lohoch e passulis or lohoch of raisins college take of male peony roots, liquorice, of each half an ounce, hyssop, bawm, hart-tongue, or cetrach, of each half a handful, boilthem in spring water, and press them strongly, and by adding a pound ofraisins bruised, boil it again, pressing it through a linen cloth, thenwith a pound of white sugar, make it into a lohoch according to art culpeper it is very good against coughs, consumptions of the lungs, and other vices of the breast, and is usually given to children forsuch diseases, as also for convulsions, and falling-sickness lohoch e pino or lohoch of pinenuts college take of pine-nuts, fifteen drams, sweet almonds, hazelnuts gently roasted, gum arabick and tragacanth, powder and juice ofliquorice, white starch, maiden-hair, orris roots, of each two drams, the pulp of dates seventeen drams, bitter almonds one dram and an half, honey of raisins, white sugar-candy, fresh butter, of each two ounces, honey one pound and an half, dissolve the gums in so much decoction ofmaiden-hair as is sufficient.

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They are essaything hot, not very custom essay org coupons hot. Thejuice stops bleeding. They provoke lust, help difficulty of breathing, pleurisies, inflammations of the lungs, that troubleessay cough thatwomen call the chincough. They exceedingly break the stone, provokeurine, and help such as cannot hold their necks upright boil them inwhite wine usnea moss. Once before flowers borage, and bugloss flowers strengthen the brain, and are profitable infevers chamomel flowers, heat and assuage swellings, inflammation of thebowels, dissolve wind, are profitably given in clysters or drink, tosuch as are troubled with the cholic, or stone stæchea, opens stoppings in the bowels, and strengthens the wholebody saffron powerfully concocts, and sends out whatever humour offendsthe body, drives back inflammations. Applied outwardly, encreasesvenery, and provokes urine clove-gilliflowers, resist the pestilence, strengthen the heart, liver, and stomach, and provoke venery schœnanth which i touched slightly amongst the herbs provokes urinepotently, provokes the menses, breaks wind, helps such as spit or vomitblood, eases pains of the stomach, reins, and spleen, helps dropsies, convulsions, and inflammations of the womb lavender-flowers, resist all cold afflictions of the brain, convulsions, falling-sickness, they strengthen cold stomachs, and openobstructions of the liver, they provoke urine and the menses, bringforth the birth and placenta hops, open stoppings of the bowels, and for that cause beer is betterthan ale balm-flowers, cheer the heart and vital spirits, strengthen thestomach rosemary-flowers, strengthen the brain exceedingly, and resistmadness. Clear the sight winter-gilliflowers, or wall-flowers, help inflammation of the womb, provoke the menses, and help ulcers in the mouth honey-suckles, provoke urine, ease the pains of the spleen, and suchas can hardly fetch their breath mallows, help coughs red roses, cool, bind, strengthen both vital and animal virtue, restore such as are in consumptions, strengthen there are so thesiscompositions of them which makes me more brief in the simples violets, to wit, the blue ones, cool and moisten, provoke sleep, loosen the belly, resist fevers, help inflammations, correct the heatof choler, ease the pains in the head, help the roughness of thewind-pipe, diseases in the throat, inflammations in the breast andsides, plurisies, open stoppings of the liver, and help the yellowjaundice chicory, or succory as the vulgar call it cools and strengthens theliver, so doth endive water lilies, ease pains of the head coming of choler and heat, provoke sleep, cool inflammations, and the heat in fevers pomegranate-flowers, dry and bind, stop fluxes, and the menses cowslips, strengthen the brain, senses, and memory, exceedingly, resist all diseases there, as convulsions, falling-sickness, palsies, &c centaury, purges choler and gross humours, helps the yellow jaundice, opens obstructions of the liver, helps pains of the spleen, provokesthe menses, brings away birth and afterbirth elder flowers, help dropsies, cleanse the blood, clear the skin, openstoppings of the liver and spleen, and diseases arising therefrom bean-flowers, clear the skin, stop humours flowing into the eyes peach-tree flowers, purge choler gently broom-flowers, purge water, and are good in dropsies the temperature of all these differ either very little or not at allfrom the herbs the way of using the flowers i did forbear, because most of them may, and are usually made into conserves, of which you may take the quantityof a nutmeg in the morning.