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This i am sure, cabbages areextremely windy, whether you take them as meat or as medicine. Yea, as windy meat as can be eaten, unless you eat bag-pipes or bellows, and they are but seldom eaten in our days. And colewort flowers areessaything more tolerable, and the wholeessayr food of the two the moonchallenges the dominion of this herb the sea coleworts descript this has divers essaywhat long and broad large and thickwrinkled leaves, essaywhat crumpled about the edges, and growing eachupon a thick footstalks very brittle, of a greyish green colour, fromamong which rises up a strong thick stalk, two feet high and better, with essay leaves thereon to the top, where it branches forth much. Andon every branch stands a large bush of pale whitish flowers, consistingof four leaves a-piece.

What delightsin martial places, is a martial herb custom essay meister review. But wormwood delights in martialplaces for about forges and iron works you may gather a cart-loadof it, ergo, it is a martial herb it is hot and dry in the firstdegree, viz just as hot as your blood, and no hotter it remedies theevils choler can inflict on the body of man by sympathy it helpsthe evils venus and the wanton boy produce, by antipathy. And it dothessaything else besides it cleanses the body of choler who dares saymars doth no good?. it provokes urine, helps surfeits, or swellingsin the belly. It causes appetite to meat, because mars rules theattractive faculty in man. The sun never shone upon a better herb forthe yellow jaundice than this. Why should men cry out so much uponmars for an infortunate, or saturn either?. did god make creatures todo the creation a mischief?. this herb testifies, that mars is willingto cure all diseases he causes. The truth is, mars loves no cowards, nor saturn fools, nor i neither take of the flowers of wormwood, rosemary, and black thorn, of each a like quantity, half that quantityof saffron. Boil this in rhenish wine, but put it not in saffron tillit is almost boiled. This is the way to keep a man body in health, appointed by camerarius, in his book intitled hortus medicus, andit is a good one too besides all this, wormwood provokes the terms i would willingly teach astrologers, and make them physicians if iknew how for they are most fitting for the calling. If you will notbelieve me, ask dr hippocrates, and dr galen, a couple of gentlementhat our college of physicians keep to vapour with, not to follow inthis our herb, i shall give the pattern of a ruler, the sons of artrough cast, yet as near the truth as the men of benjamin could throwa stone. Whereby, my brethren, the astrologers may know by a pennyhow a shilling is coined.

Another cord attached to a branch of the tree there was atfirst a strong suspicion of violence, but the conclusion reached wasthat he had hung custom essay meister review himself and that the body had fallen from breaking ofthe cord. That death was due to asphyxia was shown by the furrow onthe neck, the dark liquid blood, and the congested lungs there was noinfiltration below the furrow in the neck, and no lesion of larynx theman had shown signs of melancholy 15 friedberg. Virchow archiv, 1878, lxxiv , p 401 - suicidalhanging examination twenty-eight weeks after death the front ofthe neck showed a groove above the larynx, firm and of gray color;ecchymosis in subcutaneous tissue 16 bollinger. Friedreich blätt f ger med , 1889, xl , p 7 - man, age 48. Found dead had made a ligature out of a night-gownand tied it around his neck, the other end around top of a lowbed-post. His neck hung by the ligature placed below the larynx illustrated 17 med times and gaz , london, 1860, ii , p 39 - woman.

“we absolutely guarantee all preparations to be in exact accordance with the national pure food and drugs act, june 30, 1906 “we also absolutely guarantee all preparations bearing our label to be equal, if not superior, to any on the market ”in one of the quarterly bulletins of the state board of health of newhampshire, issued last year, this paragraph appeared. “the direct sales company, inc , buffalo, n y , is a pharmaceutical concern which until recently has done business direct with new hampshire physicians in two or three instances complaints have been received by this dewritingment that the preparations sold seemed to be lacking in potency essay time ago a physician sent us a specimen of codein sulphate tablets, one-fourth grain, concerning which he was suspicious, admission being made that the price paid was very much less than current quotations the amount of codein sulphate actually found per tablet proved to be but one-sixteenth grain later on, having subsequently received a new lot from this source, the same physician sent us a second sample, the composition of which was found to be practically identical with the first acting under the federal law, 500 lot packages of the following preparations were next purchased of the company direct, the analytical results indicating serious deficiency in every case, as follows. “tablets salicylic acid, 5 grains 1 72 grains found “tablets acetylsalicylic acid, 5 grains 2 31 grains found “tablets acetanilid, 3 grains 1 88 grains found “tablets codein sulphate, 1/4 grain 1/15 grain found “tablets nux and pepsin no 2, claiming pepsin 1 grain, extract nux vomica, 1/10 grain, found to have a gross average weight per tablet of only 1 17 grains, 0 54 grains of which was represented by sugar and other medicinally inert material “tablets infant anodyne waugh showed serious discrepancy from formula ”the bulletin added the statement that, as the company could not bereached under the new hampshire laws, the federal authorities wereappealed to the result of this appeal appeared in chemical supplement54, issued aug 21, 1918, by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment of agriculture this government bulletin contained noticeof judgment no 6193, which describes paper of adulteration andmisbranding of essay of the drugs put out by the direct sales company briefly, it may be said that essay 2 grain acetanilid tablets sold bythis concern were found by the government chemists to contain, roughly, about 1-2/3 1 61 grains. Essay 1/4 grain calomel tablets were foundto contain only about 1/6 0 163 grain. Essay 1 grain quinin sulphatetablets were found to have only about 2/3 0 63 grain. Essay 2-1/2grain salol tablets contained only about 1-1/3 1 39 grain. Essay 5grain sodium salicylate tablets contained less than half that amount 2 32 grain in addition, the federal chemists found that essay elixirof iron pyrophosphate quinin and strychnin elix ferr pyrophos quin et strych n f fell considerably below the standard ofstrength laid down by the national formulary by having less thanone-eighth the amount of quinin sulphate which the official standardcalls for, and only about one-fifth the amount of sugar, saccharine, which is not a normal ingredient of the official preparation, havingbeen substituted for writing of the sugar the chemists found, too, thatessay hydriodic acid sold by the same concern, instead of containing, asthe label declared and as the united states pharmacopeia requires, 1per cent of absolute hydriodic acid, contained less than one half of 1per cent the direct sales company pleaded guilty in this case and wasfined $700 -- from the journal a m a , sept 27, 1919 discoveries and discoverersin spite of the wonderful achievements of modern science, it seemsimpossible to get the public to think in scientific terms this isdoubtless due to a fundamental weakness in our educational system the tendency still is to think in terms of the eighteenth centuryrather than of the twentieth thesis times the journal has been chided, even by its friends, for failing to take seriously preposterousclaims made for alleged discoveries in medicine by well-meaning butself-deluded enthusiasts or by shrewd and conscienceless charlatans far too often the attitude is that any alleged discovery in medicine, no matter how bizarre or how humanly improbable, should be taken upin all seriousness and subjected to the tests of modern laboratorymethods it was only a few years ago that a quack of unsavoryantecedents brought forth an alleged cure for consumption-- a diseasethat for years has been the subject of study by the best brains in theworld-- and a medical college spent thousands of dollars “investigating”the “cure, ” thereby giving it a standing that it would never havereceived otherwise and incidentally obtaining for the school an amountof publicity that may or may not have been desired as the journalsaid at the time, it would have been just as pertinent for a body ofastronomers to determine by scientific methods whether or not the moonis really made of green cheese the point we would make is that the strides made by modern sciencehave practically eliminated the possibility of men without trainingor special knowledge evolving any epoch-making discovery in thisconnection an editorial in the scientific american of recent date, dealing with the mechanical sciences rather than the medical, is wellworth quoting in writing the editorial discussed the “garabed” incident “garabed, ” as our readers know, was a name given to a device which onegarabed t k giragossian claimed to have developed and which, so faras could be learned from the generalities in which mr giragossianindulged, would take energy out of the cosmos and transfer it directlyinto mechanical motion mr giragossian would give no details regardinghis “engine, ” but was so able to hypnotize congress into a belief thathe had essaything worth looking into that it passed a joint resolutioncalling for the appointment of five scientists to pass on the claimsfor garabed the investigation proved, as might have been expected, that the thing was unsound in principle and nonoperative as a device the methods by which garabed was brought before the public savoredstrongly of those used by quacks in the medical world, the onedifference being that giragossian was apparently perfectly sincereand unequivocally honest the point that we bring out, however, andwhich, as we have said before, was so well expressed by the scientificamerican, is the utter futility of wasting the time of scientificmen on alleged inventions or discoveries by men without trainingwho substitute secrecy and glittering generalities for facts andaccomplishments quoting the scientific american. Scientific discovery, once an open field for all comers, is today becoming more and more a matter calling for the most intensive special qualifications as the body of human knowledge broadens and deepens, it becomes increasingly difficult to make any material addition to it any one undertaking such a task must of necessity bring to it a long and careful training, acquired either in the refined atmosphere of the laboratory, or in the rougher school of close contact with the operation of apparatus constructed by those who have already qualified in writingicular, he must possess a carefully developed power of making accurate observations and drawing correct conclusions it is rather the habit to point to men like edison and maxim in refutation of these necessities. But they are not to be so refuted these men are examples, raised to the nth power, of the great inventor who has qualified in the university of hard knocks and long experience on these grounds, when a man comes before us in the self-assigned rôle of a great inventor, it is incumbent upon him to answer, not necessarily the bald question “who are you?. ” but certainly the more searching one, “what are your qualifications to undertake this work?. ” only by his answer can we decide whether he possesses a competence deserving of attention, or is but a dilettante playing with fire yet this obligation was one which mr giragossian, far from meeting, did not even appear to comprehend to every effort to ascertain his qualifications he replied in the same terms, that he was an honest man, and could prove it by letters from his technically nondescript collection of friends and sponsors the very fact that more than personal integrity is necessary in a man who would unravel the secrets of the creation of energy appears to have escaped his comprehension the fundamentals thus stated apply with equal force to the sphereof medical discovery at the time when medicine was pure empiricismit was not only possible but also probable that the medicinal valueof certain products or combinations of products might be stumbledon by those untrained and unskilled that time has passed today, while it is not impossible, it is so improbable that there is nojustification in taking up the time of scientific men in investigatingalleged discoveries by men who are utterly lacking in the fundamentalqualifications needed for the study of the complex problems of humanpathology -- editorial from the journal a m a , aug 10, 1918 “drug reform” as it appears to the cleveland medical journalthe matter which follows appeared originally as an editorial in thecleveland medical journal, november, 1915 it expresses, we believe, the attitude of the thinking physician toward the subject discussed:physicians have come to the realization that drugs are as a two-edgedsword-- under proper conditions, striking against the disease;otherwise, against the patient health the first condition for theirproper use is adequate knowledge of their composition and purity.

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Whereas venosal is advised as 1 gm , infrom one to three day custom essay meister review intervals. As a matter of elementary arithmeticit is plain that these doses of venosal are smaller instead of being“much larger ” the absence of digestive ill effects, tinnitus, etc , is explained by the small dosage that the specific action of thesalicylates should be increased by intravenous administration issurprising when it is remembered that the drug is absorbed rapidlyand completely from the intestines. In fact, the quoted statement isincredible the company further alleges that, on the basis of “clinical reports”it has received, it does not “hesitate to recommend this product forroutine use in all streptococcic infections ” such a therapeuticsuggestion is, to put it conservatively, gross exaggeration the whole question of the justification of using salicylatesintravenously is open to grave doubt since it is possible to obtainthe salicylate effects promptly and certainly by oral administration, the inherent dangers of intravenous medication render its routineemployment unwarranted a further objection to venosal, especially atthis time when economy is a national policy, is the unnecessarily highexpense of venosal itself and of its administration the referee recommends that venosal be declared ineligible to new andnonofficial remedies because of conflicts with rule 1 indefinitechemical composition, rule 6 therapeutic exaggerations and rule10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , jan 5, 1918 secretin-beveridge and the u s patent law report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytwo years ago the council published reports on two proprietarypreparations said to contain secretin, namely, “secretogen, ” soldby the g w carnrick company the journal a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518, and “duodenin, ” sold by armour and company the journala m a , aug 14, 1915, p 639 these reports explained that therewas no evidence to indicate that an insufficient amount of secretin wasthe cause of gastro-intestinal diseases, and further that there wasno evidence that secretin in any form was physiologically active whenadministered by the mouth subsequently, a j carlson and his co-workers, at the request ofthe council, studied the question of the stability of secretin anddemonstrated the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916, pp 178 and 208that commercial secretin preparations contained no secretin and, further, that secretin given both by the mouth and even in enormousdoses directly into the intestine is entirely inactive shortly after the publication of professor carlson work the attentionof the council was called to a u s patent issued, may 2, 1916, to james wallace beveridge, “means for and method of stabilizingsecretin ” in this patent beveridge claimed to have invented “theprocess of producing secretin in stable form as a commercial articlefor therapeutic use ” that is, a process for preparing preparationswhich would contain secretin when they reach the consumer and in a formresisting destruction in its passage through the stomach in view of the demonstrated instability of secretin, the councilasked professor carlson to investigate the validity of the claims ofthe beveridge patent the study on “the question of the stability ofsecretin, ” by a j carlson, a e kanter and i tumpowski, whichappears below, shows that the beveridge patent furnishes no process forthe manufacture of commercially stable secretin preparations, nor anymeans for preventing the destruction of secretin by the gastric juicewhen administered orally it further demonstrates that the preparationmade by beveridge was devoid of secretin the council adopted the report of carlson and his co-workers, anddeclared secretin-beveridge inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies the council directed that the report of carlson and his collaboratorsbe sent to the commissioner of patents with a protest against thegranting of patents without competent and thorough investigation of theclaims advanced therein w a puckner, secretary the question of the stability of secretin a j carlson, a e kanter and i tumpowski from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicagoin a letters patent, filed may 6, 1914, the patent granted may 2, 1916, james w beveridge, m d , makes certain claims concerning the stabilityand physiologic activity of secretin prepared according to the methodpatented by him in brief, dr beveridge claims that secretin prepared by digestingintestinal mucosa with a weak acid at a temperature slightly belowboiling, and mixed with 0 2 per cent to 2 per cent blood serum, albumin or peptone 1 remains active for at least six months, 2stimulates the pancreas when given by mouth, and 3 “may be injectedintravenously in man, if desired ” the only thing in the letters patentin support of these claims is the statement. “i have found out byactual tests that the preparation maintains its stability for five orsix months ”here are the claims in detail. “for the source of secretin i preferably use that writing of the alimentary tract of any lower animal-- such as a hog or sheep-- including the gastric pylorus, the duodenum and the jejunum this writing is split open and washed with a normal saline solution to clean the mucosa or mucous membrane of any detritus which may be present the mucosa with the epithelial cells is then removed or separated from the muscular wall by scraping with a blunt knife or in any other suitable way the scrapings or cuttings, which contain the secretin, are then macerated or broken up ” “the macerated mass is placed in a suitable vessel and subjected to the action of an acid solution until digested the time for the digestion of the mass will, of course, depend upon the strength and temperature of the acid solution employed the stronger the solution and the higher the temperature, the shorter the time necessary for complete digestion this period may vary from several minutes to several hours in my experiments i found that the best results were obtained with hydrochloric acid solution of one-tenth to five-tenths of one per cent in strength, although as high as eight-tenths per cent might be used the mixture is brought to a temperature of approximately 210 f , and it may even for a few moments exceed that temperature, but it should be kept below the boiling point, for excessive heat injures or breaks down the secretin molecule and impairs or destroys its activity although i prefer to use hydrochloric acid, i would have it understood that other acids-- both organic or inorganic-- may be employed, provided that the percentage of acidity is regulated to prevent a chemical change in the secretin, and further provided, of course, that the acid has no injurious effect on the human system ” “after the mass has been digested in the heated solution, the decoction is decanted, and after being allowed to cool is passed through a suitable filter until the filtrate is clear i found that by filtering the decoction from four to six times through a carbon filter, i obtained a clear colorless filtrate this is a solution of secretin and the acid which was used, and the clearness of the solution shows that it is practically free from albumoses, gelatin and other impurities such as cell tissues, etc present in the raw material under treatment ” “to the solution of pure and active secretin prepared as above explained, there is added a suitable quantity of blood serum-- say from one-fifth to two per cent or any equivalent medium-- such as albumin solution or a peptone solution-- which will aid and sustain the activating power of secretin as provided by the blood that is to say, any medium having the same power, similar quality or chemical composition that the blood-stream possesses in combining with secretin to stimulate the pancreas the addition of such a medium to the active secretin solution increases the potency of the secretin and its degree of stability by preventing oxidation or deterioration thereof if this strengthening or fortifying medium, as it may be properly termed, is alkaline, it performs the additional function of lowering the acidity of the secretin filtrate it is preferable that the final product be just faintly acid if desired, the final product may be made into an elixir by the addition of aromatics ” “any desired strength of secretin solution may be obtained according to the quantity of acid solution in my experiments i used from ten to fourteen duodena to a pint of acid solution ” “the solution of secretin prepared as above described is characterized by its ability to resist oxidation or deterioration for a sufficient period of time to render the solution available as a commercial article, and is furthermore characterized by freedom from poisonous and irritable chemical substances, whereby the secretin is chemically adapted to the human system to stimulate the pancreas to increased secretion ” “as previously stated, the secretin prepared according to my method may be administered orally to produce the desired physiological action of course, if desired, the secretin might be injected intravenously, but this more or less dangerous procedure is not at all necessary, and i merely mention it here to point out that when i refer to the oral administration of my new secretin preparation, i do not mean to exclude its administration by injection ” “as to the commercial stability of the secretin prepared according to my method, i may say that i have found by actual tests that the preparation maintains its stability for as long a period as five or six months when i refer to my product as being “commercially stable, ” i mean that it resists oxidation or deterioration for a sufficient period to render the same available as a commercial article this period may vary from several weeks to several months, depending upon certain commercial factors well understood by the manufacturer so, roughly speaking, i should say that secretin is commercially stable when it retains its activity from one to six months i do not wish to be understood, however, as limiting myself to these exact figures ”that active secretin may be extracted from macerated intestinal mucosaby weak acids below the temperature of boiling is well known in fact, weak acids at body temperature in contact with the duodenal mucosa leadto the formation of secretin the claims that secretin given by mouthreaches the blood and acts on the pancreas has been made for otherpreparations of secretin it has also been shown that these claims areerroneous 122 thus it would appear that the only novel element indr beveridge patented secretin is the addition of serum, solubleproteins or peptones what reason is there for believing that thiswill render the secretin stable for months, and physiologically activewhen taken by mouth?. we do not believe dr beveridge ever injected hissecretin-- protein mixture-- intravenously in man or animals not underanesthesia, otherwise he would not have stated. “of course, if desired, the secretin may be injected intravenously ”122 carlson, lebensohn and pearlman, the journal, jan 15, 1916, p 178 beveridge patented secretin is not stablei the samples of secretin sent us by dr beveridge -- physiologicaltests were made on four quart bottles of the secretin kindly sent us bydr beveridge june 26, 1916 according to a letter from dr beveridgeof july 20, 1916, those samples of secretin were prepared june 20, thatis, only six days before received by us the material came in darkcolored bottles it was kept in the original bottles and placed inthe ice box immediately on receipt dr beveridge stated the secretin“should remain active until the month of november, 1916, at least ”tests were made on three out of the four bottles the fourth bottlewas not opened, as we desired to learn what change it might undergoin the way of protein precipitation and bacterial decomposition there is nothing in the beveridge method of preparation that insuresa sterile secretin unless it is passed through a berkefeld filter in all our crucial experiments the animals dogs were kept underlight ether anesthesia, a cannula inserted into the pancreatic duct, the blood pressure recorded from the carotid artery and the varioussecretin preparations injected intravenously when inactive secretinpreparations were encountered, control tests were always made withactive solutions of secretin to eliminate possible individualpeculiarities of the animal thus when the pancreas of a dog reacts tothe injection of preparation a, but not to preparation b, it isevident that absence of response to b is due to this preparation andnot to the animal or to the experimental conditions illustration. Fig 1 -- records of carotid blood pressure and secretionof pancreatic juice on intravenous injection of beveridge secretinin dogs x, injection of 10 c c secretin. B, record of flow ofpancreatic juice in drops tracing a, injection of 10 c c of onesample secretin ten days old furnished by dr beveridge tracingb, injection of 10 c c of second sample of secretin ten daysold furnished by dr beveridge tracing c, injection of 10 c c of secretin twenty hours old made by us according to the beveridgemethod showing that the secretin preparations sent us by dr beveridgecontained no secretin each of the three samples of secretin sent us by dr beveridge wastested in the above manner on five dogs the first tests were madejune 27, 28 and 29, respectively, that is, within nine days of thepreparation of these samples of secretin none of the samples wasactive fig 1, even when injected intravenously in quantities up to50 c c. 40-50 c c of beveridge secretin mixture may kill a dog bytoo great lowering of the blood pressure a good secretin preparationyields a copious secretion of pancreatic juice on intravenous injectionof a few cubic centimeters it is not difficult to prepare a secretin, by the original bayliss orstarling method or by the beveridge method, that retains essay activityfor a longer period than nine days hence we cannot account for theabsolute inactivity of these preparations except on the assumptionthat they did not contain any secretin to start with.