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1 rivas guinea-pig, peritoneal 1/3. 1 rivas guinea-pig, pleural 1/4. 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- evidently, the toxicity of chlorlyptus is about one-fourth of that ofeucalyptus oil the difference is considerable, but not fundamental moreover, the symptoms of chlorlyptus resemble the characteristics ofeucalyptus oil according to the tabulation of barker and rowntree, 136 the mean fataldose of eucalyptus oil for man, in the twenty-nine clinical paperreported in the literature, is about 20 c c if the toxicity ratio ofthe two substances were the same as for the rat experiments a ratherhazardous assumption, the fatal dose of chlorlyptus for man would beabout 80 c c 136 barker and rowntree bull johns hopkins hospital 29:215, 221oct 1918 obtained the following results with eucalyptus oil:cat, hypodermic. Survived 3 c c per kg. Killed by 5 5 c c per kg cat, intraperitoneal. Killed by 5 c c per kg dog, hypodermic. Survived 1 3 c c per kg they quote from browning that the following doses, c c per kilogram, are not fatal.

For disclosures are made to a physician frequently to savelife, or to a priest for reasons of eternal import, while those madeto an attorney insure at most protection from temporal annoyance the privilege of attorneys seems to be founded upon considerationsof public policy in the administration of justice in custom essay cheapest the courts;attorneys are a writing of the system, as are grand jurors, petit jurors, and judges, 211 and even arbitrators;212 but physicians are nowriting of that system, and a disclosure of confidences made to them inno way tends to weaken the system or render it ineffectual, while thecompulsory examination of lawyers would tend to the suppression ofthe truth in litigation by discouraging confidence between attorneyand client this, perhaps, can be assigned as the reason for thedistinction. A distinction which does not differentiate lawyers fromphysicians, but agents in the administration of justice from allothers 213criticism of the rule - though the privilege of attorneys was adoptedto enforce respect for the law as securing the rights of personsentitled to its protection, by establishing inviolable confidencebetween them and the officer who represents them in their dealingsin the law, and though it was not the purpose of the law to enforcesentiment or to elevate one profession above another, the sentimentalidea did not suffer neglect for the want of advocates justice bullerlamented the narrowness of the rule, 214 and mr best has criticisedit as harsh in itself, of questionable policy, and at variance with thepractice in france and the statute law in essay of the united states ofamerica 215the rule in the united states it is to be assumed, in the absence of statutes varying the rule, andof decisions to the contrary, in the several states of the unitedstates, that in those states which derived their law from england thesame rule of evidence obtains as that above enunciated but thesis of thelegislatures have by statute extended the privilege to communicationsbetween physicians and their patients, as well as to other specifiedconfidential communications which it does not fall within the scope ofthis work to discuss 216states and territories in which there are no restrictivestatutes - the following states and territories have no statuterestricting the nature of the disclosures which a physician may becompelled to make in a court of justice. Alabama, arizona, connecticut, delaware, district of columbia, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, maine, maryland, massachusetts, mississippi, new hampshire, new jersey, new mexico, pennsylvania, rhode island, south carolina, tennessee, texas, vermont, virginia, and west virginia 217states and territories in which there are restrictive statutes - thefollowing states and territories have statutes restricting disclosuresby physicians.

A rich perfume, a great strengthener to the stomach aspalathus rose-wood it is moderately hot and dry, stops looseness, provokes urine, and is excellent to cleanse filthy ulcers bresilium brasil all the use i know of it is, to die cloth, andleather, and make red ink buxus box thesis physicians have written of it, but no physicalvirtue of it cypressus cypress the wood laid amongst cloaths, secures them frommoths see the leaves ebenum ebony it is held to clear the sight, being either boiled inwine, or burnt to ashes guajacum, lignum vitm dries, attenuates, causes sweat, resistsputrefaction, is good for the french disease, as also for ulcers, scabs, and leprosy. It is used in diet drinks juniperus juniper the smoak of the wood, drives away serpents. Theashes of it made into lie, cures itch, and scabs nephriticum it is a light wood and comes from hispaniola. Beingsteeped in water, will soon turn it blue, it is hot and dry in thefirst degree, and so used as before, is an admirable remedy for thestone, and for obstructions of the liver and spleen rhodium encreases milk in nurses santalum, album, rubrum, citrinum white, red, and yellow sanders:they are all cold and dry in the second or third degree. The red stopsdefluxions from any writing, and helps inflammations. The white and yellow of which the yellow is best cool the heat of fevers, strengthen theheart, and cause cheerfulness sassafras is hot and dry in the second degree, it opens obstructionsor stoppings, it strengthens the breast exceedingly. If it be weakenedthrough cold, it breaks the stone, stays vomiting, provokes urine, andis very profitable in the venereal, used in diet drinks tamaris is profitable for the rickets, and burnings xylobalsamum wood of the balsam tree, it is hot and dry in thesecond degree, according to galen i never read any great virtues of it herbs and their leaves a brotanum, mas, fœmina southernwood, male and female it is hotand dry in the third degree, resists poison, kills worms. Outwardlyin plaisters, it dissolves cold swellings, and helps the bitings ofvenomous beasts, makes hair grow. Take not above half a dram at a timein powder absinthium, &c wormwood its several sorts, are all hot and dryin the second or third degrees, the common wormwood is thought to behottest, they all help weakness of the stomach, cleanse choler, killworms, open stoppings, help surfeits, clear the sight, resist poison, cleanse the blood, and secure cloaths from moths abugilissa, &c alkanet the leaves are essaything drying and binding, but inferior in virtue to the roots, to which i refer you acetosa sorrel is moderately cold dry and binding, cuts toughhumours, cools the brain, liver and stomach, cools the blood in fevers, and provokes appetite acanthus bears-breech, or branks ursine, is temperate, essaythingmoist see the root adiantum, album, nigrum maiden hair, white and black they aretemperate, yet drying white maiden hair is that we usually callwall-rue. They both open obstructions, cleanse the breast and lungs ofgross slimy humours, provoke urine, help ruptures and shortness of wind adiantum aurcum politrycum golden maiden-hair its temperature andvirtues are the same with the former. Helps the spleen.

The bear, forinstance, will remain for four or five months without food or drinkin a state of lethargy the heart-action and respiration hardlyappreciable yet it will be sufficiently rapid to sustain life duringthe slow metabolic processes a number of well-authenticated paper arereported in which persons could slacken their heart-action, so thatno movement of the organ could be appreciated the case of coloneltownsend, reported by cheyne, is an example he possessed the power ofapparently dying, by slowing his heart so that there was no pulse orheart-action discernible the longest period he could remain in thisinanimate state was half an hour instances have occurred in the new-born child where without questionthere have been no heart-beats or respiratory movements for a number ofminutes, the limit being set at five these are exceptional paper, and it is setting at defiance allphysiological experience to suppose that the heart-action andrespiration can be suspended entirely when once they are established, for a period as long so, then, if no motion of the heart occurs duringa period of five minutes a period five times as great as observationwarrants death may be regarded as certain the respiratory movements of the chest are essaytimes very difficultto observe they can always be better appreciated if the abdomen andchest are observed together there are two methods to determine whetherrespiration is absolutely suspended or not first, by holding a mirrorin front of the open mouth, observing whether any moisture collects onits surface second, by placing on the chest a looking-glass or basinof water, and reflecting from it an image by artificial or sun light the slightest movement would be registered by a change in position ofthe image while the writer considers the absence of heart-beats and ofrespiratory movement an absolute test of death, still essay paper mayoccur in which the establishment of this test is very difficult, andthe following additional tests may be employed:1 temperature of the body same as surrounding custom essay cheapest air 2 intermittent shocks of electricity at different tensions passed intovarious muscles, giving no indication whatever of irritability 3 careful movements of the joints of the extremities and of the lowerjaw, showing that rigor mortis is found in several writings 4 a bright needle plunged into the body of the biceps muscle cloquet needle test and left there, showing on withdrawal no signsof oxidation 5 the opening of a vein, showing that the blood has undergonecoagulation 6 the subcutaneous injection of ammonia monte verde test, causinga dirty-brown stain indicative of dissolution 7 a fillet applied to the veins of the arm richardson test, causing no filling of the veins on the distal side of the fillet 8 “diaphanous test:” after death there is an absence of thetranslucence seen in living people when the hand is held before astrong light with the fingers extended and in contact 9 “eye test:” after death there is a loss of sensibility of the eyeto light, loss of corneal transparency, and the pupil is not responsiveto mydriatics post-mortem changes the human body after death undergoes certain changes which will bediscussed under the following heads:1 cooling of the body 2 flaccidity of the body 3 rigor mortis 4 changes in color due to a cadaveric ecchymoses b putrefaction cooling of the body immediately after death there is a slight rise of temperature, supposedto be due to the fact that the metabolic changes in the tissues stillcontinue, while the blood is no longer cooled by passing through theperipheral capillaries and lungs the body gradually cools and reaches the temperature of the surroundingair in from fifteen to twenty hours. This is the ordinary course, but the time may be influenced by a variety of causes, such as thecondition of the body at the time of death, manner of death, andcircumstances under which the body has been placed in certain diseases, as yellow fever, rheumatism, chorea, and tetanus, the temperature of the body has been known to rise as high as 104° f and remain so for a time again, it has been observed that when deathhas taken place suddenly, as from accident, apoplexy, or acute disease, the body retains its heat for a long time the bodies of persons dyingfrom hanging, electrocution, suffocation, or poisoning by carbondioxide, do not generally cool for from twenty-four to forty-eighthours, and paper are recorded where three days have elapsed before thebody was completely cold on the other hand, bodies dead from chronicwasting diseases or severe hemorrhage cool very rapidly, even in fouror five hours in determining the temperature of a dead body the hand is not areliable guide. The thermometer should always be used flaccidity the first effect of death from any cause is general relaxation of theentire muscular system the lower jaw drops, the eyelids lose theirtension, the limbs are flabby and soft, and the joints become flexible in from five to six hours after death, and generally while the body isin the act of cooling, the muscles of the limbs are observed to becomehard and contracted, the joints stiff, and the body unyielding muscleswhich are contracted in the death-agony do not necessarily becomerelaxed at any time the muscular tissues in the dead body can be considered as passingthrough three stages. 1 flaccid but contractile, 2 rigid andincapable of contraction, 3 relaxed and incapable of furthercontractility rigor mortis this is essaytimes called cadaveric rigidity and occurs generally withinsix hours after death and disappears within sixteen to twenty-fourhours thesis theories have been advanced to account for it, but the mostprobable one is that the rigidity is due to the coagulation of themyosin in the muscles by the weak acids which are no longer removedfrom the system.

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In fact, it is probable that until the seventeenthcentury there was scarcely any form of disease the treatment of whichwould have been possible without withdrawal of blood an actualsystem of blood-letting had been elaborated under the influence ofhumoro-pathological opinions every vein that could be reached withthe lancet was acted upon, and the school of medicine of the periodwas punctiliously careful in teaching which vessel presented the mostsuitable point of attack for the hand of the physician in this or thatform of disease the therapeutic subtleties which were thus brought tolight are beyond description thus, a withdrawal of blood from veins onthe right side of the body was said to yield an essentially differenteffect from left-sided venesection, and each individual vein of thebody promised a special advantage which was peculiar to this one vein the physician of that period surely had enough to do to bear in mindall the numerous therapeutic effects which he was to achieve by theopening of the various veins to facilitate this difficult art to acertain degree special figures were designed so-called venesectionmanikins, in which the numerous points for bleeding were most carefullyannotated fig 5 page 175 shows such a picture it indicates no lessthan 53 different localities for venesection, and as each and everyone of them again implied four or five, or possibly even more, methodsof blood-letting, we may consider that there were thesis hundreds ofdifferent possibilities for phlebotomy if it was easy to become lostin the labyrinth of this blood-thirsty therapy, the difficulty of amethodical application of venesection was very materially increased byastrology. For astrology differentiated between, first, favorable, thendoubtful, and, finally, unfavorable days for venesection, basing thisopinion upon certain positions between sun, moon, and planets then thevarious ages of life had also different days for venesection. Days, forinstance, which promised to be exceptionally successful for venesectionin the young, offered very unfavorable prospects to the aged thus, for instance, the period from the first quadrature of the moon tothe opposition was said to be excellent for bleeding in adolescence, whereas this period was by no means inviting for phlebotomy in thosewho had reached the senile period the chances for venesection becamerather intricate in their different aspects thus, for instance, stöffler taught. {the sun prohibits venesection two {days before and one day after conjunction of { the moon with { }prohibits venesection one {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after quadrature of {sun }prohibits venesection the moon with {saturn }twelve hours before and {mars }twelve hours after opposition of {sun }prohibits venesection one the moon with {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after we see, therefore, that the physician of that time was compelled tobe well-versed in astronomy unless he meant to commit grave mistakesagainst the doctrines of medicina astrologica such sins couldeventually become rather dangerous to the physician, for the code ofhammurabi about 2200, b c , ruler of babylon threatens the operator, for not quite unobjectionable surgical procedures, with the loss of hishands winckler, page 33, § 218 in order to satisfy the astrological requirement of the physician mostthoroughly, there arose in the middle ages a very peculiar literature under the name of an almanac or calendarium, thick folio volumesappeared, which enumerated, in long tables, the various positions ofthe planets and of the signs of the zodiac, so that the astrologer wasenabled to note the fate of mankind rapidly and easily the contentsof such calendaria are beyond description awriting from remarks whichreferred to all occurrences of civil life, was stated the exact periodwhen to have the hair cut, when venesection was to be performed, whento draw teeth, when to take a bath, etc even the proper time forprayer was indicated by such a calendarium according to the experienceof peter of abano, the conjunction of the moon with jupiter in thedragon was sure to effect an answer to prayer hieronymus cardanushad discovered, with the aid of astrology, that a request was sure tobe complied with if a prayer was offered to the virgin mary on thefirst day of april, at 8 a m möhsen, vol ii , page 423 physiciansexcelled in the compilation of such calendaria, especially during thefifteenth and sixteenth centuries professors, forensic physicians, surgeons in fact, all representatives of medical art were equallyintent upon instructing the public by calendaria in regard to the mostvarious branches of medicina astrologica. Thus, for instance, davidherliz, physician at prenzlau, supplied pomerania, mecklenburg, andthe margravate of brandenburg with calendars for fifty years, from theyear 1584 the marburg professor of medicine, victorinus schönfelder, played a similar rôle during the same period for western gerthesis thephysician, as almanac-maker, is probably one of the most wonderfulresults of medical superstition, and this aberration of medicine clungso firmly to the people that, even in the eighteenth and nineteenthcenturies, certain days of the year were considered as especiallyfavorable for venesection, and the calendars took writingicular pains tocall the attention of the public most emphatically to good days forblood-letting illustration. Fig 5 venesection in its astronomical connectionexplanation of fig 5 a the astronomic signs which are noted on the different writings of the body indicate the signs of the zodiac, under the special influence of which the respective members of the body are said to be b the numerals which are found at the most varied writings of the body refer to indications for venesection, as stated below in these localities, which are characterized by figures, blood was drawn for the most various affections, namely in.