History

Critical Thinking Essay


Oil of critical thinking essay bitter almonds two pounds, let them be set inthe sun, and after forty days strained oleum cicyonium, is made of wild cucumber roots, and their juice, of each equal writings. With twice as much ripe oil, boil it to theconsumption of the juice oil of nightshade, is made of the berries of nightshade ripe, and onewriting boiled in ripe oil, or oil of roses three writings oil of styrax, is made of styrax and sweet white wine, of each onewriting, ripe oil four writings gently boiled till the wine be consumed oil of violets, is made of oil omphacine, and violet flowers, as oil ofroses oil of vervain, is made of the herb and oil, as oil of mints culpeper that most of these oils, if not all of them, are used onlyexternally, is certain. And as certain that they retain the virtues ofthe simples whereof they are made, therefore the ingenious might helpthemselves compound oils by infusion and decoction oleum benedictum or blessed oil college take of the roots of carduus and valerian, of each oneounce, the flowers of st john wort two ounces, wheat one ounceand an half, old oil four ounces, cypress turpentine eight ounces, frankincense in powder two ounces, infuse the roots and flowers, beingbruised, in so much white wine as is sufficient to cover them, aftertwo days’ infusion put in the oil with the wheat, bruised, boil themtogether till the wine be consumed. Then press it out, and add thefrankincense and turpentine, then boil them a little, and keep it culpeper it is appropriated to cleanse and consolidate wounds, especially in the head oleum de capparibus or, oil of capers college take of the bark of caper roots an ounce, bark of tamarisk, the leaves of the same, the seeds of agnus castus, cetrach, orspleenwort, cypress roots, of each two drams, rue one dram, oil ofripe olives one pound, white wine vinegar, and white wine, of each twoounces, cut them and steep them, and boil them two days being elapsedgently in a bath, then the wine and vinegar being consumed, strain it, and keep it culpeper the oil is opening, and heating, absolutely appropriatedto the spleen, hardness and pains thereof, and diseases coming ofstoppings there, as hypocondriac melancholy, the rickets, &c oil of castoreum compound college take of castoreum, styrax calamitis, galbanum, euphorbium, opopanax, cassia lignea, saffron, carpobalsamum or cubebs, spikenard, costus, of each two drams, cypress, squinanth, pepper long and black, savin, pellitory of spain, of each two drams and an half, ripe oilfour pounds, spanish wine two pounds, the five first excepted, let therest be prepared as they ought to be, and gently boiled in the oil andwine, until the wine be consumed, mean time the galbanum, opopanax, andeuphorbium beaten in fine powder, being dissolved in writing of the wine, and strained, let them be exquisitely mixed with it while the oil iswarm by often stirring. The boiling being finished, put in the styraxand castoreum culpeper the virtues are the same with the simple oleum castinum college take of the roots of bitter castus two ounces, cassialignea one ounce, the tops of marjoram eight ounces, being bruised, steep them two days in twelve ounces of sweet white wine. Then withthree pounds of sallad oil washed in white wine, boil it in balneomariæ till the wine be consumed culpeper it heats, opens obstructions, strengthens the nerves, and all nervous writings, as muscles, tendons, ligaments, the ventricle;besides these, it strengthens the liver, it keeps the hairs fromturning grey, and gives a good colour to the body i pray you takenotice that this and the following oils, till i give you warning tothe contrary are not made to eat oleum crocinum, or, oil of saffron college take of saffron, calamus aromaticus, of each one ounce, myrrh, half an ounce, cardamoms nine drams, steep them six days, thecardamoms excepted, which are not to be put in till the last day, in nine ounces of vinegar, the day after put in a pound and an halfof washed oil, boil it gently according to art, till the vinegar, beconsumed, then strain it culpeper it helps pains in the nerves, and strengthens them, mollifies their hardness, helps pains in the matrix, and causes a goodcolour oil of euphorbium college take of stavesacre, sopewort, of each half an ounce, pellitory of spain six drams, dried mountain calamint one ounce andan half, castus two drams, castoreum five drams, being bruised, letthem be three days steeped in three pounds and an half of wine, boilthem with a pound and an half of oil of wall-flowers, adding half anounce of euphorbium, before the wine be quite consumed, and so boil itaccording to art culpeper it hath the same virtue, only essaything more effectualthan the simple oleum excestrense, or, oil of exeter college take of the leaves of wormwood, centaury the less, eupatorium, fennel, hyssop, bays, marjoram, bawm, nep, pennyroyal, savin, sage, thyme, of each four ounces, southernwood, betony, chamepitys, lavender, of each six ounces, rosemary one pound, theflowers of chamomel, broom, white lilies, elders, the seeds of cummin, and fenugreek, the roots of hellebore black and white, the bark ofash and lemons, of each four ounces, euphorbium, mustard, castoreum, pellitory of spain, of each an ounce, oil sixteen pounds, wine threepounds, the herbs, flowers, seeds, and euphorbium being bruised, theroots, barks, and castoreum cut, all of them infused twelve hours inthe wine and oil, in a warm bath, then boiled with a gentle fire, tothe consumption of the wine and moisture, strain the oil and keep it culpeper thesis people by catching bruises when they are young, cometo feel it when they are old. Others by catching cold, catch a lamenessin their limbs, to both which i commend this sovereign oil to bathetheir grieved members with oleum hirundinum, or, oil of swallows college take of whole swallows sixteen, chamomel, rue, plantain thegreater and lesser, bay leaves, pennyroyal, dill, hyssop, rosemary, sage, saint john wort, costmary, of each one handful, common oil fourpounds, spanish wine one pound, make it up according to art culpeper both this and the former are appropriated to old bruisesand pains thereof coming, as also to sprains oleum hyperici compositum or, oil of st john wort compound college take of the tops of st john wort four ounces, steep themthree whole days in a pound of old sallad oil, in the heat either ofa bath, or of the sun, then press them out, repeat the infusion thesecond or third time, then boil them till the wine be almost consumed, press them out, and by adding three ounces of turpentine, and onescruple of saffron, boil it a little and keep it culpeper see the simple oil of st john wort, than which this isstronger oleum hyperici magis compositum or, oil of st john wort more compound college take of white wine three pounds, tops of st john wortripe and gently bruised, four handfuls, steep them two days in a glass, close stopped, boil them in a bath, and strain them strongly, repeatthe infusion three times, having strained it the third time, add toevery pound of decoction, old oil four pounds, turpentine six ounces, oil of wormwood three ounces, dittany, gentian, carduus, tormentil, carline, or cordus maria, calamus aromaticus, all of them bruised, ofeach two drams, earth-worms often washed in white wine two ounces, setit in the sun five or six weeks, then keep it close stopped culpeper besides the virtue of the simple oil of st john wort, which this performs more effectually, it is an excellent remedy for oldbruises, aches, and sprains oleum irinum, or, oil of orris college take of the roots of orris florentine, three pounds fourounces, the flowers of purple orris fifteen ounces, cypress roots sixounces, of elecampane three ounces, of alkanet two ounces, cinnamon, spikenard, benjamin, of each one ounce.

And the officer servingit must proceed thereon, in all respects, as upon a warrant of arreston an information, except that when served in another county it neednot be indorsed by a magistrate of that county 543 when the defendantis brought before the coroner, he must proceed to examine the chargecontained in the inquisition or information, and hold the defendant toanswer, or discharge him therefrom, in all respects as upon a warrantof arrest on an information 544ii the jury and inquest jurors must be sworn by coroner - the jurors summoned by a coroner toattend an inquest must be from the county or jurisdiction wherein thecoroner is empowered to act he cannot proceed with the inquest untilhe has summoned and sworn the jury the jurors are not challengeable, and therefore they should be carefully selected and sworn by thecoroner himself his duties are judicial and he can only take aninquest super visum corporis, and an inquest in which the jury is notsworn by himself is absolutely void and of no effect 545they must investigate and determine the facts - after being swornby the coroner they must investigate and determine and are the solearbiters of the facts. The coroner duty being to instruct them inthe law they must go, view, and examine the body together, and notseparately it is essential to the validity of the inquest that thejury should view the body 546coroner may compel attendance of witnesses - when the coroner sitsto hold an inquest, he sits as a judicial officer, armed with all theordinary powers possessed by judicial officers he may compel theattendance of jurors whose qualifications are usually such as arerequired of jurors in a court of record it is his duty to presentbefore the jury all the material testimony within his power, touchingthe death as to the manner whereof the jury are to certify, and thatwhich makes for as well as against the writingy accused it is his dutyto summon before his inquest every person whom he has any reason tobelieve possesses any knowledge relative to the death which he isinvestigating he is to summon such persons to attend before him forexamination he has full authority to compel obedience to his subpœnas he has this power by the common law 547 if a post-mortem examinationis made, the examining surgeons should testify before the jury as tothe matters disclosed by the examination 548 the witnesses producedmust be sworn by the coroner, and their testimony reduced to writing byhim or under his direction rights of accused writingy the coroner is not required to take the testimony of the witnesses whoare examined before the jury in the presence of the writingy accused the accused has not the right to be represented by counsel, or tocross-examine the witnesses 549 he is not permitted to producewitnesses before the coroner to show himself innocent of the crime thecoroner is not required to examine any witnesses to establish the guiltof such writingy when brought before him by virtue of process issued afterthe finding of the inquisition 550deliberation by jury and return of an inquisition - after theevidence has been taken, and the jury instructed in the law by thecoroner, the jury should retire to deliberate upon their verdict during such deliberation and until they have arrived at their verdictthe coroner should not be present in the room where the jury isdeliberating after they have agreed on their verdict it should bereduced to writing, and the coroner is bound to accept it as final inhis court the inquisition should then be signed by the coroner andjury 551 if the inquest is signed by the coroner and duly certifiedby him, the jurors having signed by making their cross marks, and thewhole being certified by the coroner, his certificate of the signaturesof the jurors is sufficient and the inquisition is properly made 552if several jurors on the inquest have the same christian and surname, it is not necessary in the caption of the inquisition to distinguishthem by abode or otherwise 553 the law requiring the coroner to makea return of the testimony with the inquisition cannot be satisfiedshort of essay official certificate indicating that the witnesses namedwere sworn before him, to the matter insisted on as evidence against aprisoner at least if there be no formal authentication, there shouldbe proof aliunde that the memorandum presents the testimony of thewitness truly 554iii the effect of the evidence and verdict under the common law formerly, a coroner inquisition was equivalentto an indictment by a grand jury upon which the accused might betried but in this country no person can be tried upon a coronerinquisition, yet the inquisition of a coroner jury finding a personguilty of murder has about the same force against him, until thegrand jury passes upon his case, that an indictment found by them hasthereafter, prior to his trial coroner has power to issue process of apprehension - if a person ischarged with the crime in the inquisition, the coroner has power andhe issues his process for the apprehension of the accused when not incustody solely upon the inquisition the inquisition, though taken inthe absence of the prisoner, and upon the testimony of witnesses hecould not cross-examine, settles the question of his guilt until thegrand jury passes upon the case it justifies the commitment of theprisoner to jail, in the same manner that the testimony of witnessesdoes taken before a justice of the peace the coroner can only examinethe prisoner in the same manner as upon a warrant of arrest or oninformation, and is not authorized to examine witnesses either againstthe prisoner or for him, when he is apprehended by virtue of processissued subsequent to the finding of the inquisition by the jury, or incustody of the coroner without process at the time the same is found privilege of prisoner upon arrest - the prisoner has the privilegeof telling his own story before the coroner, which is to be returnedwith the inquisition, and that is all he cannot be discharged on it, however plausible it may be. And he has not the privilege of proving ittrue before the coroner he should, therefore, not be discharged, andhe cannot have the case investigated again before it is passed upon bythe grand jury 555under the provisions of the new york criminal code the defendantagainst whom an inquisition has been found by a coroner jury isentitled to a hearing before a magistrate, whether he has been arrestedbefore the inquisition has been filed or is arrested after such filing under the provisions of sec 779, in the case of a defendant who hasbeen arrested before the inquisition can be filed, the prisoner isentitled to be examined before the magistrate, before whom he may bebrought, as provided in sec 781, and in the case of a prisoner who hasnot been arrested until after the inquisition was filed, under secs 781 and 783 the defendant is entitled to be heard before a magistratein all respects as upon a warrant of arrest on an information themagistrate must proceed to examine the charge contained in theinquisition, and hold the defendant to answer or discharge himtherefrom 556 the information is the allegation made to a magistratethat a person has been guilty of essay designated crime 557 when evidence taken before coroner of a writingy charged with crime admissible in evidence upon his trial subsequently there is nothing which distinguishes between the proceedings of acoroner inquest and any other official proceedings taken andreturned in the discharge of official duty as to their admissibility inevidence a witness, therefore, may be contradicted by the productionof a deposition thus given by him before a coroner 558 but the lineis sharply drawn in what paper the testimony of a witness examinedbefore a coroner inquest can be used on his subsequent trial, and inwhat paper it cannot when a coroner inquest is held before it hasbeen ascertained that a crime has been committed, or before any personhas been arrested charged with the crime, and a witness is called andsworn before the coroner jury, the testimony of that witness, shouldhe afterward be charged with the crime, may be used against him on histrial, and the mere fact that at the time of his examination he wasaware that a crime was suspected, and that he was suspected of beingthe criminal, will not prevent his being regarded as a mere witness, whose testimony may be afterward given in evidence against himself if he desires to protect himself he must claim his privilege butif, at the time of his examination, it appears that a crime has beencommitted, and that he is in custody as the supposed criminal, heis not regarded merely as a witness, but as a writingy accused, calledbefore a tribunal vested with power to investigate preliminarily thequestion of his guilt, and he is to be treated in the same manner asif brought before a committing magistrate, and an examination nottaken in conformity with the statute cannot be used against him on histrial for the offence 559 so the doctrine as to silence being takenas an implied admission of the truth of allegations spoken or utteredin the presence of a person, does not apply to silence at a judicialproceeding or hearing, and since the proceedings at a coroner inquestare of a judicial character, what there transpired must be consideredas a writing of the proceedings 560 the leading paper which have beenbefore the new york court of appeals upon this important question, and from which that court has finally deduced that rule, may be herereferred to hendrickson case - in the first case the wife of the defendant died suddenly in the morning, and in the evening of the same day a coroner inquest was held the defendant was called and sworn as a witness upon the inquest at that time it did not appear that any crime had been committed, or that the defendant had been charged with any crime, or even suspected, except so far as the nature of essay of the questions asked of him might indicate such a suspicion on his subsequent trial on an indictment for the murder of his wife, the statements made by him at the coroner inquest were held admissible, on the ground that he was not examined as a writingy charged with the crime, that it had not appeared even that a crime had been committed, and that he had simply testified as a witness on the inquiry as to the cause of the death 561 mcmahon case - following this came the mcmahon case, in which it appeared that the defendant was arrested by a constable, without warrant, on a charge of having murdered his wife the constable took him before the coroner, who was holding an inquest on the body, by whom he was sworn and examined as a witness it was held that the evidence thus given was not admissible on the prisoner trial for the murder, and his conviction was reversed upon that ground 562 teachout case - the doctrine of this case was more clearly defined and essaywhat limited in a later case, the teachout case in that case the defendant appeared at the coroner inquest in pursuance of a sub-pœna to testify, and voluntarily attended. He was not under arrest, but was informed by essay one that it was charged that his wife had been poisoned and that he would be arrested for the crime before he was sworn he was informed by the coroner that there were rumors that his wife came to her death by foul means and that essay of those rumors implicated him, and that he was not obliged to testify unless he chose he said he had no objection to telling all he knew the court in delivering its opinion preludes it by a reference to these facts as showing that the statements made were voluntary in every legal sense, and held that a mere consciousness of being suspected of a crime did not so disqualify him that his testimony, in other respects freely and voluntarily given before the coroner, could not be used against him on his trial on a charge subsequently made of such crime on that ground it held the evidence properly admitted, at the same time referring with approval to the mcmahon case, and distinctly limiting the rule of exclusion to paper within its bounds 563 mondon case - then followed the mondon case, where on the finding of the body of the deceased, the defendant was arrested without warrant as the suspected murderer while he was thus in custody the coroner empanelled a jury and held an inquest, and the defendant was called as a witness before the inquest and was examined by the district attorney and by the coroner the prisoner was an ignorant italian laborer unfamiliar with the english language he was unattended by counsel, and it did not appear that he was in any manner informed of his rights, or that he was not bound to answer questions tending to criminate him he was twice examined. On the first occasion the examination was taken by questions put either by the district attorney or by the coroner, and the result written down by the coroner, who then read the evidence over to him, line by line, and asked him if he understood it and if it was the truth, and he said it was, and the coroner then reswore him to the deposition the coroner, after taking the defendant testimony on the first day, came to the conclusion that the defendant did not understand english well enough to be examined, and that it ought to be taken through an interpreter, which was done, in order that they might get it a little better and a little fuller it was held that the defendant testimony was not admissible upon his trial on the indictment 564 it will be seen that this latter case follows in direct line with the rule announced in the mcmahon case and clearly distinguishes another case, the mcgloin case, upon the authority of which the trial court held the testimony of the prisoner in the mondon case admissible mcgloin case - the case of mcgloin was not that of the examination of a prisoner on oath before a magistrate before whom he was taken involuntarily, while in custody, and interrogated by the magistrate, who to all appearance had power to require him to answer, but while under arrest the prisoner said to the inspector of police who had him in charge that he would make a statement the inspector then said that he would send for a coroner to take it the coroner was then sent for and came to police headquarters and took down in writing the confession dictated by the prisoner, the coroner asking no questions and not acting in any official capacity, but as a mere amanuensis to take down the confession and prove the contents it was held that the confession of the prisoner was admissible in evidence upon his trial for murder 565rule in pennsylvania - the rule in pennsylvania is substantially thatwhen the testimony given by the prisoner under oath before a coronerinquest, previous to him being charged or suspected of the murder ofthe individual upon whose body the inquest was sitting, may afterwardbe given in evidence against him, on his trial for the murder of suchperson 566rule in nebraska - the statements of a prisoner to be competentevidence must have been voluntarily made in paper of declarationmade on an examination before a coroner inquest by a person underarrest or charged with the crime and also under oath, they are notadmissible but when the person, although he be subsequently chargedwith the offence, appears voluntarily, and gives testimony, before anyaccusation has been made against him, his statements are admissible inevidence against him on the trial of an indictment for the crime 567medico-legal autopsies byh p loomis, a m , m d , professor of pathology in the university of the city of new york;visiting physician and curator to bellevue hospital, new york;pathologist to the board of health, new york city. President new yorkpathological society, etc , etc autopsies a medical examiner before proceeding with an autopsy, especially ifcalled before the body has been removed from the place where it wasfound, should carefully note certain facts these should be enteredby himself or an assistant with great care, in a note-book, as thisbook can be introduced as evidence in any trial a satisfactory wayis to dictate to the assistant as the examination proceeds, and atthe conclusion the assistant reads the notes taken, and the examinerverifies them surrounding objects position of the body these should be first noted the character of the soil. The conditionof the ground, and whether it shows footprints. If so, their direction;the evidence of any struggle. The presence of any weapon. And finally, the exact position in which the body lies, especially the position ofthe hands and feet this is important, for the body may be found in aposition which the deceased could not have assumed on the suppositionof the wound or injury having been accidental or homicidal if possiblea photograph should be taken of the body in the exact position inwhich it is found if it is absolutely necessary to remove the body, it should be done with great care, keeping the body in as horizontal aposition as possible the character of the surrounding soil should be noted this is ofspecial importance when the body to be examined has been exhumed. Forthe question of preservation of the body and the ability to recognizepathological changes may be brought up at a trial this was animportant point raised in the buchanan case new york, 1893 if a body be found in the water, examine the character of the water andthe temperature, and if found near the shore, the character of shoreand bottom blood - the situation of blood-stains, and their number and extent, on clothing or surrounding objects should be noted this will oftenshow whether a struggle has taken place after receiving the fatalwound, and is also of medico-legal importance if made at the time thebody is found, for it may be so situated as to show that the body hasbeen interfered with after death again, spots of blood found upon articles of clothing or uponsurrounding objects should be noted as to their form and direction, forthey may serve to furnish an indication of the position of the personwith respect to them when the wound was inflicted for example, if thespot was oval, the presumption is that the person was placed obliquelywith respect to the stain while the hemorrhage was occurring the forcewith which the blood was thrown out will in essay measure be indicatedby the obliquity or length of the spot the amount of blood will alsooften indicate whether the person has died suddenly, the exact spotwhere death occurred, whether a struggle took place, and will alsopreclude the possibility of a person moving after receiving the fatalinjury when we examine a body, especially when found in a room, caremust be taken not to be misled by the accidental diffusion of blood bypersons going in and out, or touching the body see blood-stains, vol ii clothing - the examination of the clothing should be thorough adescription of each article should be noted, and the order in which itis removed.

If one draught suffice not, let her drink critical thinking essay thesecond, and it will be effectual. The spaniards used to eat a piece ofthe root thereof in the morning fasting, thesis days together, to helpthem when troubled with the stone in the reins or kidneys coltsfoot called also coughwort, foal-foot, horse-hoof, and bull-foot descript this shoots up a slender stalk, with small yellowishflowers essaywhat earlier, which fall away quickly, and after they arepast, come up essaywhat round leaves, essaytimes dented about the edges, much lesser, thicker, and greener than those of butter-bur, with alittle down or frieze over the green leaf on the upper side, which maybe rubbed away, and whitish or meally underneath the root is smalland white, spreading much under ground, so that where it takes it willhardly be driven away again, if any little piece be abiding therein;and from thence spring fresh leaves place it grows as well in wet grounds as in drier places time and flowers in the end of february, the leaves begin to appearin march government and virtues the plant is under venus, the fresh leavesor juice, or a syrup thereof is good for a hot dry cough, or wheezing, and shortness of breath the dry leaves are best for those that havethin rheums and distillations upon their lungs, causing a cough, forwhich also the dried leaves taken as tobacco, or the root is verygood the distilled water hereof simply, or with elder flowers andnightshade, is a singularly good remedy against all hot agues, to drinktwo ounces at a time, and apply cloths wet therein to the head andstomach, which also does much good, being applied to any hot swellingsand inflammations. It helps st anthony fire, and burnings, and issingularly good to take away wheals and small pushes that arise throughheat. As also the burning heat of the piles, or privy writings, cloths wettherein being thereunto applied comfrey this is a very common but a very neglected plant it contains verygreat virtues descript the common great comfrey has divers very large hairy greenleaves lying on the ground, so hairy or prickly, that if they touch anytender writings of the hands, face, or body, it will cause it to itch. Thestalks that rise from among them, being two or three feet high, hollowand cornered, is very hairy also, having thesis such like leaves as growbelow, but less and less up to the top. At the joints of the stalks itis divided into thesis branches, with essay leaves thereon, and at theends stand thesis flowers in order one above another, which are essaywhatlong and hollow like the finger of a glove, of a pale whitish colour, after which come small black seeds the roots are great and long, spreading great thick branches under ground, black on the outside, and whitish within, short and easy to break, and full of glutinous orclammy juice, of little or no taste at all there is another sort in all things like this, only essaywhat less, andbears flowers of a pale purple colour place they grow by ditches and water-sides, and in divers fieldsthat are moist, for therein they chiefly delight to grow the firstgenerally through all the land, and the other but in essay places bythe leave of my authors, i know the first grows in dry places time they flower in june or july, and give their seed in august government and virtues this is an herb of saturn, and i supposeunder the sign capricorn, cold, dry, and earthy in quality what wasspoken of clown woundwort may be said of this the great comfreyhelps those that spit blood, or make a bloody urine the root boiledin water or wine, and the decoction drank, helps all inward hurts, bruises, wounds, and ulcer of the lungs, and causes the phlegm thatoppresses them to be easily spit forth. It helps the defluction ofrheum from the head upon the lungs, the fluxes of blood or humours bythe belly, women immoderate courses, as well the reds as the whites, and the running of the reins happening by what cause soever a syrupmade thereof is very effectual for all those inward griefs and hurts, and the distilled water for the same purpose also, and for outwardwounds and sores in the fleshy or sinewy writing of the body whatsoever, as also to take away the fits of agues, and to allay the sharpnessof humours a decoction of the leaves hereof is available to allthe purposes, though not so effectual as the roots the roots beingoutwardly applied, help fresh wounds or cuts immediately, being bruisedand laid thereto. And is special good for ruptures and broken bones;yea, it is said to be so powerful to consolidate and knit together, that if they be boiled with dissevered pieces of flesh in a pot, itwill join them together again it is good to be applied to womenbreasts that grow sore by the abundance of milk coming into them. Alsoto repress the over much bleeding of the hæmorrhoids, to cool theinflammation of the writings thereabouts, and to give ease of pains theroots of comfrey taken fresh, beaten small, and spread upon leather, and laid upon any place troubled with the gout, doth presently giveease of the pains. And applied in the same manner, gives ease to painedjoints, and profits very much for running and moist ulcers, gangrenes, mortifications, and the like, for which it hath by often experiencebeen found helpful coralwort it is also called by essay toothwort, tooth violet, dog-teeth violet, and dentaria descript of the thesis sorts of this herb two of them may be foundgrowing in this nation. The first of which shoots forth one or twowinged leaves, upon long brownish foot-stalks, which are doubled downat their first coming out of the ground.

4 threetablets of duodenin in 15 c c sodium chlorid 0 9 per cent table 5 -- summary of experimentsdogs with pancreatic fistula, weight 14 kg secretin given by mouth | |rate of secretion| | | of pancreatic | | | juice in | no of | | c c per hour |increase experi-| material fed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- in ment | | three | three | c c | | hours | hours | | | before | after | | |feeding |feeding | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 |secretin slightly acid | 5 | 11 | 6 5 |secretin slightly alkaline | 24 | 30 | 6 4 |secretin passed through berkefeld| 18 | 23 | 5 1 |secretin exposed to sun for 4 hrs| 16 | 29 | 13 2 |extract of colon rabbit | 19 | 29 | 10 3 |extract of gastric mucosa | 14 | 23 | 9 3 |extract of muscle | 8 | 16 | 8 2 |mixture of gelatin, peptone and | 23 | 33 | 10 | salt | | | 1 |1 per cent peptone solution | 6 | 8 | 2 4 |0 2 per cent hydrochloric acid | 13 | 37 | 24 3 |milk and bread | 7 | 20 | 13 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- it is possible by large doses of sodium bicarbonate given shortlybefore the administration of a preparation so to depress the stomachthat it does not respond with the usual production of hydrochloricacid under these conditions the administration of secretin isuniformly negative, but the administration of hydrochloric acid on thecontrary still serves to increase the pancreatic secretion table 6 table 6 -- secretin in experimental “achylia gastrica” | | rate of secretion of pancreatic juice | | in c c per hour | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - exp | material fed |continuous secretion| secretion after no | | before feeding* | feeding | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - | |first |second|third |first |second|third -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 1 |} {| 8 7 | 7 5 | 6 8 | 3 0 | 1 0 | 4 8 2 |} 150 c c secretin {| 4 5 | 6 5 | 10 0 | 6 0 | 7 5 | 7 6 3 |} {| 15 6 | 8 1 | 16 0 | 3 9 | 4 9 | 2 9 | | | | | | | 1 |} 150 c c 4% hcl {| 9 8 | 7 0 | 6 0 | 65 1 | 28 0 | 7 1 2 |} diluted to 250 c c {| 17 4 | 18 5 | 17 0 | 34 0 | 18 0 | 20 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -* five gm na hco₃ given at beginning of each first two hours commercial preparations of secretinsecretogen and elixir secretogen -- the carnrick company offerssecretogen90 for use in a large number of conditions the followingindications for the use of the preparation purport to be based onclinical tests covering a period of several years. Dyspepsia, andthe indigestions generally, fermentative disorders, gastric catarrh, flatulence, nausea. Pancreatic insufficiency, intestinal indigestion;gastric secretory deficiencies, apepsia. Constipation and hepatictorpor. Intestinal stasis. Diarrhea. Infantile diarrhea, “summercomplaint, ” marasmus, inanition and malnutrition. Gastric atony anddilatation. Cholecystitis and gallstones. Nephritis, neurasthenia, cachexia and cancer. Epilepsy and high blood pressure testimonials arepresented as to results in most of these conditions 90 secretogen, report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, j a m a , may 1, p 1518, 1915 a quantity of “secretogen” and “elixir secretogen” was bought inthe open market, and the preparations were tested on suitablyprepared dogs the tablets were ground, thoroughly macerated with thesolvent used water, normal salt solution, alcohol, or 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid, and filtered if hydrochloric acid was used, thepulverized tablets were boiled with it, in the manner that secretin ismade from duodenal mucosa, and the preparations neutralized previousto injection the injections were made in from 15 to 20 c c of thesolvent all the operations were carried on immediately before theexperiment, and as rapidly as possible, so as to avoid oxidation theelixir secretogen was injected directly, without dilution table 7 -- summary of typical experiments showing the absence ofsecretin in “secretogen” and “elixir secretogen” except in occasionaltests when administered in enormous dosesdogs under ether anesthesia | | secretion of pancreatic juice in drops, | quantity of | following intravenous injection exp | secretogen -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - no | and elixir | | secretogen in | | | secretogen |control -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- |control | used* |10 c c |distilled|0 4%| 70% |0 9%|elixir|10 c c | |secretin| water |hcl |alcohol|nacl| |secretin -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 1 |secretogen, | | | | | | | | 1 tablet. | 109 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 59 | elixir, | | | | | | | | 15 c c | | | | | | | 1 |secretogen, | | | | | | | | 6 tablets | | | 0 | | | | 2 |secretogen, | | | | | | | | 3 tablets. | 16 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 ?. | 16 | elixir, | | | | | | | | 15 c c | | | | | | | 3 |secretogen, | | | | | | | | 5 tablets | | |1 ?. | | | | 4 |secretogen, | | | | | | | | 25 tablets | 14 | |1 ?. | | | | 8 5 |secretogen, | | | | | | | | 100 tablets | 110 | | | | 21 | | 67 6 |secretogen, | | | | | | | | 100 tablets;| 19 | | 5 | | 1 | 2 ?. | 8 | elixir, | | | | | | | | 125 c c | | | | | | | 7 |elixir, | | | | | | | | 50 c c | | | | | | 1 ?. | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -* one to three tablets is according to the label the therapeutic doseof secretogen. 4 to 12 c c the dose of elixir secretogen results -- in only one case was a slight response obtained, the othersgave none small and large doses were equally inert table 7, figs 2, 3 the preparations, though inert, always produced a depressionin blood pressure, essaytimes even greater than that caused by activesecretin among our thesis tests, one bottle was found, however, to be alittle different from the rest experiment 4 its entire content, 100tablets, had been ground and boiled in 0 9 per cent sodium chlorid the extract on injection was found to have a small but unmistakablesecretin reaction, equivalent to about 2 c c of the control secretinused but repeated experiments were unable to duplicate this result the “secretogen” and “elixir secretogen” were all supposedly freshpreparations, the retail drug store informing us that a fresh supplywas obtained from the wholesale house each week secretogen, then, contains practically no secretin, and even if it didcontain secretin, it can have no effect on the pancreas when taken bymouth the indications for secretogen, therefore, are based on falsepremises, and the testimonials are worthless illustration.

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You may boil the leavesinto a poultice, or make an ointment of them when time of year serves bilberries, called by essay whorts, and whortle-berries descript of these i shall only speak of two sorts which are commonin england, viz the black and red berries and first of the black the small bush creeps along upon the ground, scarcely rising half ayard high, with divers small green leaves set in the green branches, not always one against the other, and a little dented about the edges:at the foot of the leaves come forth small, hollow, pale, bluishcoloured flowers, the brims ending at five points, with a reddishthread in the middle, which pass into small round berries of thebigness and colour of juniper berries, but of a purple, sweetish sharptaste. The juice of them gives a purplish colour in their hands andlips that eat and handle them, especially if they break them theroot grows aslope under ground, shooting forth in sundry places as itcreeps this loses its leaves in winter the red bilberry, or whortle-bush, rises up like the former, havingsundry hard leaves, like the box-tree leaves, green and round pointed, standing on the several branches, at the top whereof only, and not fromthe sides, as in the former, come forth divers round, reddish, sappyberries, when they are ripe, of a sharp taste the root runs in theground, as in the former, but the leaves of this abide all winter place the first grows in forests, on the heaths, and such likebarren places. The red grows in the north writings of this land, aslancashire, yorkshire, &c time they flower in march and april, and the fruit of the black isripe in july and august government and virtues they are under the dominion of jupiter itis a pity they are used no more in physic than they are the black bilberries are good in hot agues and to cool the heat of theliver and stomach. They do essaywhat bind the belly, and stay vomitingand loathings. The juice of the berries made in a syrup, or the pulpmade into a conserve with sugar, is good for the purposes aforesaid, as also for an old cough, or an ulcer in the lungs, or other diseasestherein the red worts are more binding, and stops women courses, spitting of blood, or any other flux of blood or humours, being used aswell outwardly as inwardly bifoil or twablade descript this small herb, from a root essaywhat sweet, shootingdownwards thesis long strings, rises up a round green stalk, bare ornaked next the ground for an inch, two or three to the middle thereofas it is in age or growth. As also from the middle upwards to theflowers, having only two broad plaintain-like leaves but whiter setat the middle of the stalk one against another, compassing it round atthe bottom of them place it is an usual inhabitant in woods, copses, and in thesisplaces in this land there is another sort grows in wet grounds and marshes, which isessaywhat different from the former it is a smaller plant, and greener, having essaytimes three leaves. The spike of the flowers is less thanthe former, and the roots of this do run or creep in the ground they are often used by thesis to good purpose for wounds, both green andold, to consolidate or knit ruptures. And well it may, being a plant ofsaturn the birch tree descript this grows a goodly tall straight tree, fraught with thesisboughs, and slender branches bending downward. The old being coveredwith discoloured chapped bark, and the younger being browner by much the leaves at the first breaking out are crumpled, and afterwardslike the beech leaves, but smaller and greener, and dented about theedges it bears small short cat-skins, essaywhat like those of thehazelnut-tree, which abide on the branches a long time, until growingripe, they fall on the ground and their seed with them place it usually grows in woods government and virtues it is a tree of venus. The juice of theleaves, while they are young, or the distilled water of them, or thewater that comes from the tree being bored with an auger, and distilledafterwards. Any of these being drank for essay days together, isavailable to break the stone in the kidneys and bladder, and is goodalso to wash sore mouths bird foot this small herb grows not above a span high with thesis branches spreadupon the ground, set with thesis wings of small leaves the flowers growupon the branches, thesis small ones of a pale yellow colour being seta-head together, which afterwards turn into small jointed pods, wellresembling the claw of small birds, whence it took its name there is another sort of bird foot in all things like the former, but a little larger.