History

Critical Review Essay


no generalrule can be laid down for all paper, but each case must be judgedby itself another way of putting the question is. “which of two ormore wounds was mortal?. ” the questions are not quite synonymous, fortwo or more of the wounds might be “mortal” but not equally the causeof death in fact, as we have already seen, no one of the wounds ifthey are multiple may be of itself mortal, but taken together theyare so consequently we will suppose that there are but two wounds, and not multiple ones, and the question remains which of these woundswas the cause of death a wound may be said to be of itself mortalwhen it is the cause of death directly or indirectly in spite of thebest medical assistance in essay continental states mortal wounds aredivided into two classes, those absolutely and those conditionallymortal, the former including those in which the best medical assistanceis at hand, sent for or timely rendered without everting the result the mortal result in the second class is conditional on want oftreatment, improper treatment, or accidental circumstances as taylorsays, it is better to look at the effect of the wound and the intentof the assailant, as is done in english law, rather than at accidentalrelations of the wound to return to the question, we can readily imagine that a man mayreceive two wounds at different times or from different persons, anddie after the second wound taylor629 mentions the following casein which the question arose as to which of two injuries caused death:in reg v foreman c c c february, 1873 the prisoner had struckthe deceased essay severe blows on the head a fortnight later, havingwritingially recovered, another man gave him essay severe blows on thehead a fortnight later still he had left hemiplegia, and died a fewdays later of a large abscess in the brain the question arose whichset of blows had been the cause of the abscess the prisoner, thefirst assailant, was acquitted, as the deceased had had no serioussymptoms until the second assault, and there was no satisfactorymedical evidence as to the relation of the two assaults to the abscessformation the same author also supposes the following case. A manhaving received a gunshot wound of the shoulder is doing well, whenin another quarrel he receives a penetrating stab-wound of the thoraxand abdomen he dies after lingering for a time, under the effectsof these wounds if the wound of the shoulder could be proven to bethe cause of death, the second assailant could not be convicted ofmanslaughter, and so too with the first assailant if it could be shownthat the victim died of the stab-wound it might be possible for asurgeon to decide the question definitely at once if death occurredsoon after the stab, which was found to have penetrated the heart, alarge blood-vessel, or one of the viscera. Or, on the other hand, ifthe stab-wound was found to be superficial and not penetrating, and thewound in the shoulder had suppurated and caused septicæmia in either or any case, everything would depend upon the evidencefurnished by the medical witness his knowledge and judgment arerequired to distinguish the guilty from the innocent again, essaytimes death may appear to be equally the result of eitheror both wounds, in which case, as far as the medical evidence goes, both assailants would be liable to the charge of manslaughter or thesecond wound may be accidental or suicidal, and again the questionwould arise as to the cause of death a case illustrating this istold by taylor630 substantially as follows. A grocer assistantpursued a thief, who had stolen from a cart, into a coal-shed, wherehe was stabbed twice in the abdomen the larger wound suppurated, the smaller wound healed up, and the man died of peritonitis onpost-mortem examination the suppurating wound was found not to involvea vital writing, while the small healed wound had wounded the liverand gall bladder and had set up the fatal peritonitis the largesuppurating wound had apparently been inflicted purposely.

Mild, 67 critical review essay 5. None, 8 1. unrecorded, 5 5 the manufacturer of biniodol supplied the names of several physicianswho have used that preparation in their practice correspondence withthese elicited the following statements:one had used biniodol in forty-eight paper and states that “only a fewpatients complain of pain at all and then only of a general soreness inthe muscle ” this physician reports a limited experience with the useof another manufacturer “mercury biniodide oil solution” apparentlysix paper, but severe pain following the injections made it necessaryto abandon that preparation another of these physicians named by the manufacturer, withoutreference to any series of paper, reports that “biniodol is superior toany oily solution of mercury biniodid that i have tried ”a third physician has “used it biniodol a few times” and is“convinced that it has no special action or virtue” over “any redmercuric iodide in oil ”this evidence, in its most favorable estimate, shows biniodol to bea good 1 per cent solution of mercuric iodid in oil, but fails tojustify attributing to the preparation any unique characteristics thepreparations made in the laboratory were as satisfactory, or betterthan the biniodol, and the presence or absence of the guaiacol was ofno consequence biniodol conflicts with rule 6, since claims of superior therapeuticefficiency made for it are not established. And with rules 8 and10, since it is an unessential modification of an establishednonproprietary article marketed under a proprietary name in view of the foregoing, the referee recommends that biniodol benot accepted for new and nonofficial remedies, and that this report, including the clinical investigations of drs cole and keidel, beauthorized for publication comparative symptoms resulting from the use of several oily suspensions of red mercuric iodid mercury biniodid report of dr h n colecc from the dewritingment of dermatology and syphilology of the westernreserve university and of the cleveland city hospital at the request of prof torald sollmann of the council on pharmacy andchemistry of the american medical association, we made a comparativestudy of several oily preparations of red mercuric iodid forintramuscular injections in syphilis the information, concerning the preparations submitted to theinvestigators, was as follows. Oily solution of red mercuric iodid“it is desired to ascertain whether there is any difference betweenthree preparations, each containing 1 per cent of mercuric iodid, asto pain, discomfort, induration, etc the preparations will be labeled“1, ” “2” and “3 ” they will be sterile “one of these preparations will be a plain solution in oil. Anotherwill contain, in addition, 2 5 per cent of guaiacol. The third will bea proprietary preparation containing the guaiacol “it is also desirable to know how the oily solution compares with theplain watery solution. But this is of secondary importance ”the preparations all had the same appearance the patients were takenindiscriminately, and we attempted to keep them on the injections aslong as possible, in order to compare symptoms owing, however, todischarge from hospital, symptoms of mercury intoxication, etc , wewere unable in all paper to give a thorough trial with each preparation in all, eleven patients were treated and seventy-one injectionsgiven-- by which time our experimental supply was exhausted in each case the drug was given intramuscularly in the buttocks and thepatients carefully observed for subjective symptoms of pain and forobjective symptoms of swelling, induration, abscess formation, etc thedetails are given in table 1 as will be noted, in several of the paper the patients were more orless confused and gave rather indefinite and conflicting answers inattempting to compare the results from the different drugs, by carefultabulation one finds that symptoms were more marked with the respectivesample as follows. Preparation 1 was worse than preparation 2 or 3 in six paper preparation 2 was worse than preparation 1 in two paper preparation 2 was worse than preparation 3 in five paper preparation 3 was worse than preparations 2 or 1 in one case table 1 -- details of investigation by dr cole* | | | | | | symptoms | | | |prepar-|dose, -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - case|age|sex| date | ation | grain| induration-- | objective | | † | | | | pain | | | | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 25| ♂ | 6/11/16 | 2 | 1/5 |none |still painful | | | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/4 |none |none | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/5 |none |quite painful | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt for essay |very tender | | | | | | time | | | | 6/16/16 | 2 | 1/5 |hurt for essay |very tender | | | | | | time | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so painful |less tender | | | | | | | than with | | | | | | | prepar- | | | | | | | ation 2 | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so painful | can sit on | | |discontinued| | | | area. As | | | salivation| | | | needle prick | | | | | | | is only place | | | | | | | that it hurts | | | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt, but not |slight indur- | | | | | | so long | ation and | | | | | | | slight | | | | | | | tenderness | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt, but not |pain “dead | | | | | | so long | stinging” | | | | | | | lasts 1 hour | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |not so bad |about the same -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 | 32| ♂ | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |no induration | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |more pain |slight indur- | | | | | | | ation -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 | | ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |painful | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no symptoms |painful | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |says the last |painful | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | two have hurt | | | | |benzol | | the more | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |more pain than |small painful | | | | | | previously | area | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 | | | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |essay indur- | | | | | | pain. In | ation at site | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 | fact, patient | of injections | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | says he is | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | over it in a | | | | | | | very short | | | | | | | while. Com- | | | | | | | plained of | | | | | | | last one | | | | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |considerable | | | | | | | tenderness | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |not so much as | now after so | | | | | | previously | thesis injec- | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 | | tions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 4 | 36| ♂ | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no pain |no tenderness | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |essay tender- | | | | | | | ness | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |could not sleep|essay tender- | | | | | | at night | ness. Slight | | | | | | | induration -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 5 | 32| ♂ | 6/20/16 | 3 | 20 |essay pain |no induration | | | | |minims| | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 25 |essay pain | | | | | |minims| | | | | 6/23/16 | 2 | 1/4 |worse pain |no induration | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |worse pain | | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |worse than any |slight tender- | | | | | | |ness -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 6 | 20| ♂ | 6/ 8/16 | 1 | 1/6 |very little | | | | 6/10/16 | 1 | 1/5 |very little | | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 1/4 |very little | | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |bothered more | | | | | | | than others | | | | 6/17/16 | 2 | 1/5 |quite a little |still essay | | | | | | pain | soreness | | | 6/18/16 | 2 | 1/5 |quite a little |still essay | | | | | | pain | soreness | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/4 |considerably |very little | | | | | | less pain than| tenderness | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | with prepar- | | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | ation 2 | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 7 | 30| ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |little pain |none | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no pain | | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/5 |essay pain | | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | | | | | |benzol | | | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |no tenderness | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |no tenderness | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |very little |only slight | | | | | | pain | amount of | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | induration | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | | | | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |essay little | | | | | | | induration | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |considerable |essay indura- | | | | | | pain | tion | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |“fine” |slight indura- | | | | | | | tion -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 8 | 28| ♂ | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/5 |little pain |little pain | | | | | | | afterward | | | 6/15/16 | 2 | 1/5 |little pain |little pain | | | | | | | afterward -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 9 | 28| ♀ | 6/17/16 | 2 | 1/5 |essay complaint |very little | | | | | | of pain | induration | | | 6/18/16 | 2 | 1/5 | fairly severe | | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |essay pain. Says|very slight | | | | | | these have | induration | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | hurt very much| | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | less than | | | | | | | others | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 10 | 37| ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/13/16 | 1 | 1/4 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/14/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/15/16 | 3 | 1/5 |no symptoms |none | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | | | | | |benzol | | | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |“much less pain|none | | | | | | than biniodid | | | | | | | or grey oil” | | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |no complaint |none | | | 6/19/16 | 3 | 1/5 |says he is over|essay indura- | | | 6/20/16 | 3 | 1/4 | it in one hour| tion at site | | | 6/21/16 | 3 | 1/4 | | of injection -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 11 | 30| ♀ | 6/11/16 | 1 | 20 |considerable.

wild tansy stays the lask, and all the fluxes of blood inmen and women, which essay say it will do, if the green herb be worn inthe shoes, so it be next the skin. And it is true enough, that it willstop the terms, if worn so, and the whites too, for ought i know itstays also spitting or vomiting of blood the powder of the herb takenin essay of the distilled water, helps the whites in women, but moreespecially if a little coral and ivory in powder be put to it it isalso recommended to help children that are bursten, and have a rupture, being boiled in water and salt being boiled in water and drank, iteases the griping pains of the bowels, and is good for the sciaticaand joint-aches the same boiled in vinegar, with honey and allum, and gargled in the mouth, eases the pains of the tooth-ache, fastensloose teeth, helps the gums that are sore, and settles the palate ofthe mouth in its place, when it is fallen down it cleanses and healsulcers in the mouth, or secret writings, and is very good for inwardwounds, and to close the lips of green wounds, and to heal old, moist, and corrupt running sores in the legs or elsewhere being bruisedand applied to the soles of the feet and hand wrists, it wonderfullycools the hot fits of agues, be they never so violent the distilledwater cleanses the skin of all discolourings therein, as morphew, sun-burnings, &c as also pimples, freckles, and the like. And droppedinto the eyes, or cloths wet therein and applied, takes away the heatand inflammations in them thistles of these are thesis kinds growing here in england which are so wellknown, that they need no description. Their difference is easily knownon the places where they grow, viz place essay grow in fields, essay in meadows, and essay among thecorn. Others on heaths, greens, and waste grounds in thesis places time they flower in june and august and their seed is ripe quicklyafter government and virtues surely mars rules it, it is such a pricklybusiness all these thistles are good to provoke urine, and to mendthe stinking smell thereof. As also the rank smell of the arm-pits, orthe whole body. Being boiled in wine and drank, and are said to help astinking breath, and to strengthen the stomach pliny saith, that thejuice bathed on the place that wants hair, it being fallen off, willcause it to grow speedily the melancholy thistle descript it rises up with tender single hoary green stalks, bearingthereon four or five green leaves, dented about the edges. The pointsthereof are little or nothing prickly, and at the top usually but onehead, yet essaytimes from the bosom of the uppermost leaves there shootsforth another small head, scaly and prickly, with thesis reddish thrumbsor threads in the middle, which being gathered fresh, will keep thecolour a long time, and fades not from the stalk a long time, while itperfects the seed, which is of a mean bigness, lying in the down theroot hath thesis strings fastened to the head, or upper writing, which isblackish, and perishes not there is another sort little differing from the former, but that theleaves are more green above, and more hoary underneath, and the stalkbeing about two feet high, bears but one scaly head, with threads andseeds as the former place they grow in thesis moist meadows of this land, as well in thesouthern, as in the northern writings time they flower about july or august, and their seed ripensquickly after government and virtues it is under capricorn, and therefore underboth saturn and mars, one rids melancholy by sympathy, the other byantipathy their virtues are but few, but those not to be despised. Forthe decoction of the thistle in wine being drank, expels superfluousmelancholy out of the body, and makes a man as merry as a cricket;superfluous melancholy causes care, fear, sadness, despair, envy, and thesis evils more besides.

Phenomena of poisoning geissler. Gastric disturbances engelmann. Renal irritation steinhard. Unsuited for diabetics voit ”26 seifert, otto. Die nebenwirkungen der modernen arzneimittel, 1915 the contention that formamint, when mixed directly with mediumsand left in contact with bacteria, will kill the organisms wascorroborated thus the statements and pictures in the booklet, “thegospel of prevention, ” which is enclosed with each bottle of formamint, showing the inhibition of growth of air bacteria on plates containingformamint are no doubt true and authentic finally, the claim that formamint is an almost perfect throatdisinfectant was by no means confirmed, as a glance at the tables willshow one hour after it is taken, even when a tablet was used eachhalf hour for twelve hours, the number of bacteria in the throat waspractically the same as when formamint was not used even ten minutesafter taking a tablet the number of bacteria in the throat was nevergreatly reduced, as is maintained by the manufacturers has no selective actionformamint exerts no selective action in killing off the very delicateorganisms which are more apt to be pathogenic when the comparativecounts were made on blood agar which would favor the growth of thedelicate parasitic organisms, no reduction whatever was shown by theuse of formamint the number of streptococci was found to be the same, within limits ofexperimental error, ten minutes after taking a tablet as it was beforethe tablet was taken therefore it seems that formamint fails, as any such germicide wouldbe expected to fail, to kill bacteria in the crypts and recesses ofthe throat, for when dissolved in the mouth it cannot reach and remainin contact with the organisms long enough to kill them before it isswallowed summarysummed up, the investigation shows:1 that the claims made for formamint are extravagant and misleading 2 that the recommendations for the use of these tablets may be, inessay paper, fraught with danger and are a menace, not only to thehealth of the individual, but also to the safety of the community 3 that the claim that formamint is a definite chemical compound isfalse 4 that the use of formamint may produce marked irritation of theintestinal tract 5 that formamint is not a throat disinfectant, as the manufacturersmaintain, but its action on the bacteria of the throat is an almostnegligible one and dependence on formamint for the prevention ofinfection and for curing disease is not only unwise but dangerous 6 that formamint conflicts with the rules of the council falsestatements are made with regard to its composition rule 1. Grosslyunwarranted claims are made for its therapeutic properties rule 6, and therefore its exploitation to the public rules 3 and 4 is apublic danger it is recommended that this report be published, to call attention notonly to the falsity of the claims made for, and the danger in the useof, formamint, but also to emphasize the utter inefficiency of all suchmethods of “disinfecting” the throat -- from the journal a m a , aug 28, 1915 hydragogin report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhydragogin c bischoff & co , new york, selling agents is advertisedas “a most powerful diuretic and cardiac tonic ” the composition givenis. “fifteen writings of the remedy contain 0 5 writings oxysaponin, 1 5 writings tincture of digitalis, 2 5 writings tincture of strophanthus, scillipicrin and scillitoxin, the active principles of scilla maritima, and alcohol ”it is not clear from this statement whether 15 writings of hydragogincontain 2 5 writings of tincture of strophanthus, plus unspecifiedamounts of scillipicrin and scillitoxin, or 2 5 writings of a mixture, in unspecified proportions, of tincture of strophanthus, scillipicrinand scillitoxin the activity of strophanthus, after it enters theblood stream, is about fifty times that of digitalis. Hence, if theformer proportion is the true one, in giving an amount of hydragoginwhich ensures the full therapeutic effect of the digitalis, one wouldadminister an almost certainly fatal amount of strophanthus whateverthe proportion of strophanthus may be, however, the administrationof a mixture of digitalis and strophanthus in fixed proportions isindefensible at times it is advisable to follow one of these drugswith the other in the treatment of cardiac disease the simultaneousadministration of the two continuously in fixed proportions, however, is injudicious, because of the great difference between their rates ofabsorption and in their activity after they enter the blood stream theaction of digitalis, moreover, persists much longer than does that ofstrophanthus an advertising circular contains the following claim. “the well-known diuretic properties of digitalis, strophanthus and squills are greatly enhanced by the addition of the oxysaponin ”this is not true saponins are not synergistic with digitalistherapeutically. On the contrary, they exert a purely deleteriousaction on the heart when they enter the circulation the symptoms of cardiac disease are often difficult to distinguishfrom the toxic actions of the digitalis bodies since these bodiesmust often be given to the point of beginning toxic action in orderto induce the full therapeutic effects, it is obvious that theadministration of a mixture of digitalis, strophanthus, saponin andactive principles of squill is especially liable to induce serioustoxic effects which cannot be distinguished from the symptoms of thedisease hydragogin is a shotgun mixture of semisecret composition. It ismarketed under a therapeutically suggestive name, and advertised bymeans of unwarranted therapeutic claims it is therefore in conflictwith rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 the council held hydragogin ineligible fornew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 4, 1915 filudine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfiludine is said to be prepared by j l chatelain, paris, and issold in this country by geo j wallau, inc , new york it is offeredas a remedy for “biliary insufficiency, ” “hepatic insufficiency, ”“intestinal dyspepsia, ” “all affections of the liver diabetes, cirrhosis, cancer, etc , ” “malaria, ” “obesity” and “tuberculosis ”no quantitative information is furnished as to the composition of thepreparation and there are noteworthy discrepancies in the variousstatements regarding the ingredients in one number of “treatment, ”a self-styled “review” of medical literature actually devoted toadvertising the preparations sold by wallau, we are told that “this product filudine is a more concentrated and potent extract of the liver, with which is combined an extract of the spleen the liver and the spleen are so intimately interdependent, that the addition of a splenary extract to the liver extract is a signal improvement from which a synergistic action results thiarféine is also added, as it helps essaywhat to combat the anaemia from which all diabetics suffer more or less ”thiarféine is said to be “thiomethylarsinate of caffein, a new salt discovered by m chatelain ”another circular, which gives an imposing formula for “thiarféine” or“thiomethylarsinate of caffein, ” states that “sulphurated methylarsinate is an arsenical preparation devoid of all toxicity on account of the intimate joining of its composing writings ”and that “filudine can never be contraindicated ”a statement of composition in a later number of “treatment, ” however, says that biliary extracts are components, in addition to the liver andspleen extracts moreover, thiarféine, the “new salt discovered by m chatelain, ” is no longer “thiomethylarsinate, ” but “thiocinnamate ofcaffein”. And a new formula is furnished for it we are told that “methyl-arsinate cannot be used in paper where fever is present ” “m chatelain at first studied the action of thiomethylarsinate. Clinical and physiological experimentation led him, however, to adopt thiocinnamate of caffein, of greater activity and with no contraindications ”nevertheless the same absence of contraindications was urged infavor of filudine when it was said to contain the now discardedthiomethylarsinate of caffein the following are essay of the unwarranted and even absurd claims. “filudine restores the liver functions it is to the liver what digitalis is to the heart. It overcomes the insufficiency and stimulates the debilitated organ ” in malaria “it is the only true specific when associated with quinine ” “filudine is the ideal medication for tuberculosis, conforming as it does with the most recent researches in the therapeusis of this affection ” “we will not go as far as to say that opotherapy completely restores unhealthy livers, for although the lesions of the hepatic parenchyma may be obliterated by regeneration, the lesions of the connective tissues are permanent, and may be observed at the postmortem examination the new cells, however, do not present the same unhealthy conditions as those of the former diseased gland which they have replaced, and the liver can therefore function normally, so that the patient lives on.

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A greenish stuff was found in the mouth and stomach the third in bran confessed to by the mother critical review essay. The nose and mouth were full, but there was none in the throat. A few grains in the trachea tardieu experimented on rabbits and guinea pigs by burying them in bran, sand, and gravel, essay of them being alive and the others dead in those buried alive he found the substance filling the mouth and nose to the base of the tongue.