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If wind, seehow thesis medicines appropriated to that disease expel wind, and usethem 2 have a care you use not such medicines to one writing of your bodywhich are appropriated to another, for if your brain be over heated, and you use such medicines as cool the heart or liver, you may make badwork 3 the distilled water of any herb you would take for a disease, is afit mixture for the syrup of the same herb, or to make any electuaryinto a drink, if you affect such liquid medicines best. If you have notthe distilled water, make use of the decoction 4 diseases that lie in the writings of the body remote from the stomachand bowels, it is in vain to think to carry away the cause at once, andtherefore you had best do it by degrees. Pills, and such like medicineswhich are hard in the body, are fittest for such a business, becausethey are longest before they digest 5 use no strong medicines, if weak will serve the turn, you had bettertake one too weak by half, than too strong in the least 6 consider the natural temper of the writing of the body afflicted, andmaintain it in that, else you extinguish nature, as the heart is hot, the brain cold, or at least the coldest writing of the body 7 observe this general rule. That such medicines as are hot in thefirst degree are most habitual to our bodies, because they are just ofthe heat of our blood 8 all opening medicines, and such as provoke urine or the menses, orbreak the stone, may most conveniently be given in white wine, becausewhite wine of itself is of an opening nature, and cleanses the veins 9 let all such medicines as are taken to stop fluxes or looseness, betaken before meat, about an hour before, more or less, that so they maystrengthen the digestion and retentive faculty, before the food comeinto the stomach, but such as are subject to vomit up their meat, letthem take such medicines as stay vomiting presently after meat, at theconclusion of their meals, that so they may close up the mouth of thestomach. And that is the reason why usually men eat a bit of cheeseafter meat, because by its sourness and binding it closes the mouth ofthe stomach, thereby staying belching and vomiting 10 in taking purges be very careful, and that you may be so, observethese rules 1 consider what the humour offending is, and let the medicine besuch as purges that humour, else you will weaken nature, not thedisease 2 take notice, if the humour you would purge out be thin, thengentle medicines will serve the turn, but if it be tough and viscous, then such medicines as are cutting and opening, the night before youwould take the purge 3 in purging tough humours, forbear as much as may be such medicinesas leave a binding quality behind them 4 have a care of taking purges when your body is astringent. Yourbest way, is first to open it by a clyster 5 in taking opening medicines, you may safely take them at night, eating but a little supper three or four hours before, and the nextmorning drinking a draught of warm posset-drink, and you need notfear to go about your business in this manner you may take lenitiveelectuary, diacatholicon, pulp of cassia, and the like gentleelectuaries, as also all pills that have neither diagrydium norcolocynthus, in them but all violent purges require a due orderingof the body. Such ought to be taken in the morning after you are up, and not to sleep after them before they are done working, at leastbefore night. Two hours after you have taken them, drink a draughtof warm posset-drink, or broth, and six hours after eat a bit ofmutton, often walking about the chamber. Let there be a good fire inthe chamber, and stir not out of the chamber till the purge have doneworking, or not till next day lastly, take sweating medicines when you are in bed, covered warm, andin the time of your sweating drink posset-drink as hot as you can ifyou sweat for a fever, boil sorrel and red sage in your posset-drink, sweat an hour or longer if your strength will permit, then the chamberbeing kept very warm shift yourself all but your head, about which the cap which you sweat in being still kept on wrap a napkin veryhot, to repel the vapours back i confess these, or thesis of these directions may be found in one placeof the book or other, and i delight as little to write tautology asanother, but considering it might make for the public good, i insertedthem in this place.

The muscles always give an acid creative essay titles reaction and areopaque instead of transparent. After putrefaction has set in ammonia isdeveloped, the myosin dissolved, and so flaccidity results rigor mortis occurs first in the muscles of the eyelid, next themuscles of the lower jaw and neck are affected, then the chest andupper extremities. Afterward it gradually progresses from abovedownward, affecting the muscles of the abdomen and lower limbs therigidity disappears in the same sequence the period after deathwhen rigor mortis manifests itself, together with its duration, ischiefly dependent upon the previous degree of muscular exhaustion brown-séquard has demonstrated that the greater the degree of muscularirritability at the time of death, the later the cadaveric rigiditysets in and the longer it lasts he has also shown that the laterputrefaction sets in, the more slowly it progresses the more robust the individual and the shorter the disease, the moremarked and persistent is this muscular rigidity it has been noticedthat the bodies of soldiers killed in the beginning of an engagementbecome rigid slowly, and those killed late quickly this explains thereason why bodies are essaytimes found on the battle-field in a kneelingor sitting posture with weapons in hand if the rigidity of rigor mortis after it is once complete is overcome, as in bending an arm, it never returns. But if incomplete it mayreturn this will serve at times to distinguish real death fromcatalepsy and its allied conditions while the average duration ofrigor mortis has been given as sixteen to twenty-four hours, it mustbe remembered that in essay paper it has been known to last only a fewhours, as in death by lightning or by electrocution in other paper ithas persisted for seven and fourteen days this long continuance of rigor mortis has been noted in death fromstrychnine and other spinal poisons, in suffocation, and in poisoningby veratrum viride atmospheric conditions modify to a large extent the duration of rigormortis dry, cold air causes it to last for a long time, while warm, moist air shortens its duration also immersion in cold water brings onrigor mortis quickly and lengthens its duration cadaveric ecchymosis cadaveric lividity or hypostasis within a few hours after death the skin of the body, which is of apale, ashy-gray color, becomes covered by extensive patches of a bluishor purple color, which are most pronounced and are first seen on theback writing of the trunk, head extremities, ears, face, and neck, and aredue to the blood, before coagulating, settling in the most dependentwritings of the body, producing a mottling of the surface with irregularlivid patches there is also a stagnation of blood in the capillaryvessels, especially in those in the upper layer of the true skin or inthe space between the cuticle and cutis the discoloration continues toincrease until the body is cold, when it is entirely arrested lateron, just before putrefaction begins, the color deepens, and the changeappears to proceed from an infiltration of blood pigment into thedependent writings of the body at the same time the discolorations are appearing on the surface of thebody, internal hypostasis is also taking place, most marked in thedependent portions of the brain, lungs, intestines, kidneys, and spinalcord this condition in the brain may be mistaken for so-called congestiveapoplexy. In the lungs, for pulmonary apoplexy or the first stageof lobar pneumonia. In the intestines and spinal meninges, for thebeginning of inflammatory changes the position of these hypostases will afford the best correction forthis possible error the appearances presented by cadaveric ecchymoseshave often been mistaken for the effects of violence applied duringlife innocent persons have been accused and tried for murder ormanslaughter on charges afterward proved to be groundless therefore itis of the utmost importance that the medical jurist should be able todistinguish between ante-mortem and post-mortem ecchymoses the following are the points of difference:1 situation post-mortem ecchymoses are seen on that portion of thebody which has been most dependent, generally the posterior aspect, and they involve principally the superficial layers of the true skin;ante-mortem ecchymoses may occur anywhere, and generally the deepertissues are discolored 2 in cadaveric lividity there is no elevation of the skin and thediscoloration terminates abruptly 3 after cutting into the tissues where an ecchymosis has been producedby violence, the blood without the vessels is free in the tissue. Thisis not so in cadaveric ecchymosis 4 post-mortem ecchymoses are very extensive, ante-mortem generallylimited in area a peculiar appearance of cadaveric lividity is observed in bodieswhich have been wrapped in a sheet and allowed to cool or that havecooled in their clothing it occurs in the form of bands or stripesover the whole surface, and often gives an appearance as of a personflogged the explanation of this appearance is that the congestion ofthe vessels takes place in the interstices of the folds, while thewritings compressed remain whole the unbroken condition of the cuticle, together with the other characteristics just mentioned, are sufficientto distinguish these ecchymoses from those produced by violence whilecadaveric lividity is seen in all bodies after death, it is especiallypronounced in those persons who have died suddenly in full health orby violence, as from apoplexy, hanging, drowning, or suffocation itis very slight in the bodies of those who have died from hemorrhage oranæmia the time at which cadaveric lividity appears varies greatly casper, who has investigated the subject thoroughly, sets the time at fromtwelve to fifteen hours after death putrefaction at a period varying from a few hours to three days after death, certainchanges are seen in the human body which show that putrefaction hascommenced a change of color appears first upon the middle of theabdomen and gradually spreads over the rest of the body. It is firstpale green, which gradually deepens, and finally becomes purplish orbrown this change in color is due to the action on the hæmoglobin ofthe gases developed by decomposition similar discoloration makes itsappearance on the chest, between the ribs, on the face, the neck, thelegs, and lastly on the arms, where it is more marked along the largevenous trunks, and has essaytimes been mistaken for marks of violence the eyeballs become flaccid, and if exposed to the air the conjunctivaand cornea become dry and brown gases are formed, not only in thehollow organs of the abdomen but also in the skin those developed inthe cavities of the head and face force frothy, reddish fluid or mucusfrom the mouth and nostrils, and may cause swelling of the features andprotrusion of the eyes and tongue it must be remembered that the gaseswhile producing distention of the abdomen may also cause changes in theposition of the blood and slight displacement of the organs. They mayalso force undigested food into the mouth and into the larynx, and solead to suspicion of death from suffocation as putrefaction advances, after a period of five or six days the entiresurface of the body becomes green or brown, the cuticle becomes looseand easily detached.

J pharmacol and exper creative essay titles therap 16. 449, 1921 the findings that sodium dimethylarsenate sodium cacodylate, sodiummethylarsenate, and sodium ethylarsenate are devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action and the conclusion that sodium cacodylate isinefficient in the treatment of human syphilis does not provethat mon-arsone is without effect on the disease these findings, however, certainly demand convincing therapeutic evidence to warrantthe recommendation for the use of the drug in the treatment ofsyphilis-- writingicularly because the drug is proposed as a substitute forarsphenamine, the value of which is established when the council first took up the consideration of mon-arsone, theonly evidence for the claim that it “has a therapeutic value at leastequal to that of arsphenamine” consisted, with one exception, ofreports from those who had experimented with the drug for the harmerlaboratories company, including a report by b l wright, l a kennell, and l m hussey, 144 the latter of the harmer laboratoriescompany these reports appeared to show that the administration ofmon-arsone caused less reaction than arsphenamine, and that theimmediate effects, judged by clinical symptoms and the response to thewassermann test, appeared to be good these trials extended over tooshort a period of time to permit judgment as to the permanence of theresults a report by an independent observer seemed to indicate thatmon-arsone does not have the sterilizing action on syphilitic lesionswhich it is usually believed arsphenamine exercises 144 wright, b l. Kennell, l a , and hussey, l m. M rec 97. 607 april 10 1920 after examining the available evidence, the council advised the harmerlaboratories company that the claim that mon-arsone has a therapeuticvalue equal to arsphenamine appeared unwarranted. That, in the opinionof the council, mon-arsone should not be used except under conditionsthat justify the experimental trial of an unproved drug, and should notbe used in a routine way until the permanence of its effects has beenestablished. And consequently any advertising propaganda for the drugby the harmer laboratories company was to be deprecated in its reply the harmer laboratories company admitted that itsadvertising claim, that mon-arsone was at least equal to arsphenaminetherapeutically, had been based on reports on fifty paper and onadditional reports that were beginning to come in at that time the harmer laboratories company submitted a list of hospitals andphysicians using mon-arsone a letter of inquiry sent by the council tothose who, according to the names in the list supplied by the harmerlaboratories company, had used mon-arsone, brought seven replies the clinical evidence contained in these replies was to the effect thatmon-arsone had been used in the various types of syphilis and thatthere was a certain beneficial effect, both clinically and as shown bythe wassermann reaction in certain instances the wassermann reactionchanged from a four plus to a negative reaction the reports showedthat the efficiency of mon-arsone as compared with that of arsphenaminepreparations has not been adequately studied one physician who hasused mon-arsone extensively reports that in thesis of the paper treatedthere seemed to be nearly as good results from the use of mon-arsone asis frequently obtained in the use of arsphenamine he reports, however, that it was necessary in eleven out of one hundred paper to change frommon-arsone to neoarsphenamine in view of the fact that there is definite lack of evidence to showthat mon-arsone is the equal of arsphenamine therapeutically, andbecause of the reports that in essay paper it is inferior, mon-arsoneshould not be used in the treatment of syphilis generally until itstherapeutic status has been more rigidly investigated and conclusiveevidence of its superiority to arsphenamine preparations obtained the council voted not to admit mon-arsone to new and nonofficialremedies and reaffirmed its conclusion that the claim that mon-arsonehas a therapeutic value equal to that of arsphenamine is premature andunwarranted. That mon-arsone should not be used except under conditionsthat justify the experimental trial of an unproved drug. And that theadvertising propaganda for the drug by the harmer laboratories companyis to be deprecated * * * * *when the preceding report was sent to the harmer laboratories company, the firm submitted a reply in which it was stated:1 that in certain instances patients improved under mon-arsone who, previously, had not improved under arsphenamine, and that this shouldbe taken to offset the report of the one hundred paper in which the useof mon-arsone had to be abandoned in 11 per cent of the paper 2 that the harmer laboratories company has abandoned the claim thatmon-arsone is therapeutically equal to arsphenamine and that it nowfurnishes the drug to such men as care to use it simply on the basis ofits special and useful characteristics the council heartily endorses the recent warning against the useof untried medicaments which was issued by the u s public healthservice 145145 j a m a june 12, 1920, p 1654 since the council report was prepared a report on the effects ofmon-arsone on experimental syphilis has been published by nichols, 146from the division of laboratories, army medical school, which concludes:1 disodium-ethylarsinate, or mon-arsone, tested on rabbits infectedwith syphilis shows no spirocheticidal power the tissues are fatallypoisoned as soon as or before the spirochetes are affected “2 for its practical use in syphilis there is no such germicidal basisas exists in case of the arsphenamine group ”-- from the journala m a , june 18, 1921 146 nichols, h j. The spirocheticidal value of disodium ethylarsenate mon-arsone, j a m a 76. 1335 may 14 1921 oxyl-iodide not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry“oxyl-iodide” eli lilly and co is said to be the hydroiodid ofcinchophen and the claim is made that it exerts the effects ofcinchophen and of iodid because of inquiries which have been receivedthe council decided to determine the eligibility of “oxyl-iodide” fornew and nonofficial remedies dr p j hanzlik-- formerly associateprofessor of pharmacology at western reserve university school ofmedicine, now professor of pharmacology at leland stanford junioruniversity medical school-- who has made a study of the action ofsalicylates and cinchophen, was asked to report on the therapeuticvalue and the rationality of “oxyl-iodide ” this he consented to do andhis report appears below after considering doctor hanzlik report, the council declared“oxyl-iodide” inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because itis an irrational combination, marketed under claims that are unprovedand consequently unwarranted w a puckner, secretary “oxyl-iodide, ” marketed by eli lilly & co , is claimed to be thehydroiodid of phenylcinchoninic acid, containing 33 per cent of iodinand 67 per cent of phenylcinchoninic acid cinchophen its solubilityresembles that of cinchophen, being low in water and acid mediums, andhigher in the presence of alkalis whether “oxyl-iodide” is decomposedinto its constituents in the presence of alkalis does not appear tohave been determined however, if this were the case, the intestine, after administration of “oxyl-iodide, ” would contain cinchophen andsodium iodid in the same forms as if these agents were administeredindividually so that nothing would be gained by administering“oxyl-iodide ” being, like cinchophen, practically insoluble in acidmediums, “oxyl-iodide” would have no advantage over the latter so faras gastric irritation is concerned dosagethe dosage advised is from one to three tablets containing 3 grains 0 2 gm each of “oxyl-iodide ” the total dosage would depend onthe condition to be treated in rheumatic fever, which requires afull therapeutic or so-called, “toxic” dose of cinchophen, about 12to 13 gm would be administered intensively since each tablet of“oxyl-iodide” contains 0 13 gm of cinchophen, the total number oftablets of “oxyl-iodide” required would be 100, or two and one-halfbottles of forty tablets each at the same time the patient wouldreceive 6 6 gm of iodin as iodid this might be distinctlyobjectionable because of the production of the disagreeable symptoms ofiodism in essay persons, and indicates that the fixed proportion of theiodin constituent would be objectionable even a smaller dosage, such as 5 gm of cinchophen, which gives writingialrelief in rheumatism and similar conditions, would still require apatient to take a full bottle, or forty tablets, of “oxyl-iodide, ” andat the same time about 2 7 gm of iodin would have to be ingested furthermore, rheumatic fever, the arthritides, gout and relatedconditions in which cinchophen is indicated do not require iodid therefore, “oxyl-iodide” would not be the remedy of choice in theseconditions, and its use would be irrational and illogical actionsno data on the pharmacologic actions of “oxyl-iodide” are presentedin the manufacturer literature presumably, the compound wouldexhibit the actions of its individual components, i e , cinchophen andiodin as iodid, though probably less efficiently, owing to its lowsolubility this is also indicated by the following statements of themanufacturer. “the analgesic action of ‘oxyl-iodide’ is gradual a wordof caution is necessary to those who may expect immediate relief frompain ” therefore, why use “oxyl-iodide” in place of more dependableanalgesics, such as salicylate or cinchophen the following statementsappear far-fetched. “there is a stimulation of the endocrines whichis perhaps more marked in the thyroid gland, although it is probablyshared by the pituitary and other glands which function in a chain-likecontrol there is stimulation of cells with increased flow ofsecretion, visibly demonstrated by the nasal mucous membrane after‘oxyl-iodide’ has been taken for essay time the general action onmucous membranes favors elimination of toxins and waste products ”it is probable that “oxyl-iodide” acts as a uric acid eliminant, thoughthere is no reason to suppose that it is more effective than cinchophenalone no data are given for this in the manufacturer literature usessuccessful use of “oxyl-iodide” is claimed in brachial and sciaticneuritis, lumbago, muscular rheumatism, arthritis deformans, chronicarthritis “ in essay instances were apparently cured”, subacutebronchitis, circumflex neuritis, traumatic orchitis, eczema andrheumatism however, a careful reading of the protocols of seven paper, representing these conditions, gives an unfavorable impression as tothe real contribution to the recovery by, or value received from, “oxyl-iodide ” summarized, the opinions as quoted by the manufacturersin support of their claims for “oxyl-iodide” are briefly as follows:case 1 “of course, the case is not complete yet, but i am looking forcontinued betterment ”case 2 “for two weeks past her improvement has been marvelous ”case 3 “the joints are still enlarged and we do not hope to clear thementirely ”case 4 “undoubtedly, removal of the kidney had much to do withimprovement ”case 5 “i think i have gotten very good results ”case 6 “essay apparent benefit ”case 7 “she is practically free from pain, and the muscle and jointstiffness is now slight ”these inconclusive opinions certainly do not agree with the favorableimpression which other portions of the manufacturer literaturecreate if the factor of natural recovery in the conditions representedby these seven paper is given due weight, little, if anything, isleft to the credit of “oxyl-iodide ” such clinical evidence as issupplied by the manufacturer indicates that the therapeutic efficiencyof “oxyl-iodide” is doubtful, and not an improvement over eithercinchophen or iodid iodismiodism cannot be avoided by the use of “oxyl-iodide, ” for themanufacturer literature states that “the dosage of ‘oxyl-iodide’may be pushed to iodism as manifested by skin symptoms to avoidiodism there should be an occasional interruption of treatment ”“oxyl-iodide, ” therefore, has no advantage over ordinary sodium iodidto avoid iodism usually, the conditions which require cinchophendo not require the simultaneous administration of iodids, and viceversa if administration of iodid and cinchophen together should beindicated or desirable, these can be given separately with the addedadvantage that the iodid can be easily reduced or withdrawn in caseiodism supervenes, and the cinchophen could be continued if necessary since conditions do not arise frequently enough to warrant the useof iodid and cinchophen together, the existence of such a product as“oxyl-iodide” is unwarranted finally, the manufacturer himself recognizes that phenylcinchoninicacid cinchophen can take the place of “oxyl-iodide ” under“dosage, ” the circular states. “a few patients may be idiosyncraticto the iodides and find they cannot take ‘oxyl-iodide ’ for thelatter chloroxyl, the hydrochloride of phenylcinchoninic acid, isrecommended ” the action of the hydrochlorid of phenylcinchoninic aciddoes not differ, of course, from that of cinchophen the difficultiesof assigning a clear-cut, definite, therapeutic rôle to “oxyl-iodide”in order to justify its existence, alongside well-known and triedremedies are self-evident conclusion“oxyl-iodide” is pharmacologically and therapeutically an illogical, irrational and unjustified substitute for cinchophen and iodids theconditions which require the administration of cinchophen do not asa rule require the administration of iodid and vice versa if it isdesirable to secure the effects of iodid and cinchophen together, thesecan be more conveniently and advantageously administered as separateagents, permitting in that way a better control of their actions thiscannot be accomplished with “oxyl-iodide, ” in which the proportion ofiodid and cinchophen are fixed symptoms of iodism cannot be avoidedby the administration of “oxyl-iodide ” the objective evidences forits actions and uses are totally lacking. And the clinical opinionsconcerning its therapeutic benefits in different disease conditionsare inconclusive and hedging, and, if anything, contradictory to thefavorable impressions which the language of the advertising matter islikely to create -- from the journal a m a , july 2, 1921 quassia compound tablets report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report, declaring that quassia compound tablets flint, eaton and company areinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary quassia compound tablets, marketed by flint, eaton and company, decatur, ill , according to the label on a trade package submitted tothe council, contain in each tablet.

Also to agar kept melted at 45 c tubes were inoculated with typhoid bacillus. Plates were made of the inoculated agar tubes. All plates and tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours in an atmosphere of nitrogen gas duplicate experiments were made with cultures of typhoid bacillus as above in bouillon and agar plates containing the same amount of chlorlyptus and incubated at 37 c in ordinary atmosphere as control result. Nitrogen gas did not show any appreciable increase of the germicidal action of typhoid bacillus when grown in medium containing chlorlyptus growth was about the same in cultures supplied with nitrogen gas as in those growing in ordinary atmosphere experiment 7 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on pyogenic bacteria suspended in an oily medium -- experiment with streptococcus. Cultures of streptococcus in blood agar three days old were suspended in olive oil sterile, and chlorlyptus was added in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent and inoculated in trypsinized bouillon at different intervals, namely. At once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes, after thirty minutes, and after one hour tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours result. All tubes remained sterile the germicidal action of chlorlyptus on streptococcus suspended in oil was almost at once and with certainty after five minutes when added in the proportion of 1, 5 and 10 per cent experiment 8 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus, suspended in sterile olive oil -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 5, except that a culture of staphylococcus was used result. All tubes remained sterile the germicidal action of chlorlyptus was almost at once in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent remarks. By repeating this experiment the result showed essay variations the discrepancy was probably due to an imperfect suspension of the micro-organism in the oil experiment 9 -- germicidal action of carbolic acid on streptococcus suspended in olive oil -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 5, except that carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result. The germicidal action of carbolic acid of streptococcus suspended in olive oil was almost at once in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 experiment 10 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 6 except that the carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result. The germicidal action of carbolic acid on staphylococcus suspended in olive oil was almost at once, in proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent experiment 11 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on pyogenic bacteria suspended in pus -- chlorlyptus was added to sterile pus in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent , and then inoculated with staphylococcus and cultures were made in bouillon at once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes, after thirty minutes, after one hour and after two hours, respectively, and tubes incubated for forty-eight hours at 37 c result. Growth was shown in all tubes except those inoculated from tubes in which chlorlyptus was added in the proportions of 10 per cent after one hour experiment 12 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on streptococcus suspended in sterile human blood serum -- staphylococcus culture in agar forty-eight hours old was suspended in sterile human blood serum, and to the suspension chlorlyptus 5 per cent in paraffin oil was added in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent inoculations were made at intervals, at once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes and after one hour in trypsinized bouillon tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours result. Chlorlyptus showed inhibitory action on the growth of staphylococcus in the strength of 10 per cent , but did not produce complete sterilization similar results were shown with the 5 per cent , and in the 1 per cent chlorlyptus did not show any inhibitory action at all experiment 13 -- germicidal action of carbolic acid on staphylococcus suspended in human blood serum sterile -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 10 except that carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result. Carbolic acid produced a complete sterilization in the strength of 10 per cent almost at once, and with certainty after five minutes similar results were produced with the 5 per cent the 1 per cent carbolic acid did not show any appreciable germicidal action on staphylococcus experiment 14 -- toxic and irritant action of chlorlyptus -- six normal guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected peritoneally with 1 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 2 with 2 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 3 with 3 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 4 with 4 c c and guinea-pig 5 with 5 c c 5 per cent respectively guinea-pig 6 was used as a control and not injected result. Guinea-pigs 1 and 2 did not show any appreciable disturbance guinea-pig 3 was sick for four days, after which it gradually recovered but it became sick again after one week and died ten days after the injection guinea-pig 4 died over night guinea-pig 5 died six hours after injection guinea-pig 5 was injected at 11:30 with 5 c c chlorlyptus ten minutes after the injection it was lying relaxed, respiration and heart normal, conjunctive reflex present one hour after the injection the animal seemed to present symptoms resembling those of narcosis. Respiration and heart were normal after four hours there was no change in the condition of the guinea-pig except that the respiration was irregular five and a half hours after it showed prostration with irregular respiration and heart action six hours after injection the animal was dead autopsy.

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Like most secret mixtures, itscomposition varies 2 a simple formula for a paraffin film, similar in chemicalcomposition but superior in physical properties to “ambrine, ” is thatdescribed as formula 21 the superiority is due to using a grade ofparaffin that is better adapted to the purpose the cost of materialsis about 10 cents a pound 3 the properties of the paraffin used for a surgical dressing areimportant a number of different grades have been examined, in order todetermine the ones that appear most promising paraffins nos 3, 4, 10, 11 and 25 are the best in the table, and surpass “ambrine” itself 4 it is exceedingly probable that further experience will show thatfor most purposes simple paraffin will serve just as well as themixtures-- if, indeed, not creative essay titles better addenda reprinted from the annual report of the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association, vol 10 1917, p 32since the foregoing was published, two other products-- “cerelene” and“stanolind surgical wax”-- were submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for investigation as to their acceptability for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies in this connection the laboratory wasrequested to examine them “cerelene” is manufactured by the holliday laboratories, pittsburgh according to the manufacturers, “cerelene” is a compound composed of84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate and 1 per cent elemi gum as ordinarily marketed, “cerelene” contains the followingmaterials. To the beeswax is added oil of eucalyptus, u s p , 2 percent , and betanaphthol, u s p , 0 25 per cent the manufacturerfurther states that the myricyl palmitate is a purified form ofbeeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solelymanufactured by this company and for which patents are pending theproperties described for “cerelene” were as follows. When cold, cerelene is a solid wax-like cake of a fine yellow brown color on exposure to air for long periods, the amber color darkens to essay extent it is entirely free from solids, odorless and tasteless. Does not separate or change when melted repeatedly, and cannot in the melted state be separated by fractional crystallization it is entirely neutral to indicators being perfectly free from both acids and bases tests. Melting point, u s p method, 126 f density, u s p method, 0 907 iodin value, 0 5 saponification number, 0 9 “stanolind surgical wax” is manufactured by the standard oil company ofindiana in the submission of the product to the council on pharmacyand chemistry, it was stated that the product was a specially preparedparaffin “free from dirt or other deleterious matter it hasbeen steamed and resteamed to drive out any free oil and repeatedlyfiltered ”the examination of the foregoing products yielded the figures describedin table “b ”-- from the journal a m a , may 19, 1917 the stability of iodine ointments l e warren, ph c , b s in general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine ointment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, isconfusing the recorded evidence is often contradictory the attentionof the writer was brought to this condition by studies of severalproprietary preparations, iodex, 184 iod-izd-oil, 185 iocamfen, andiocamfen ointment 186184 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 89 185 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 106 186 rep chem lab , a m a , 1916, 9, 118 iodex was sold under the claim that it is “ an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced and standardized at 5 per cent by incorporation with a refined petroleum product ”the exact composition of iodex is a trade secret analysis showed thatit contains petrolatum-like substances and combined iodine, the latterprobably in combination with oleic acid tests for free iodine weremade in five specimens of iodex in one of these no free iodine waspresent.