History

Conflict Essay


“while scientists have been striving through the centuries to compound remedies for man various ills, nature, greatest chemist of them all, has been working wonders in her crucibles and has achieved results far beyond man greatest expectation ” “nature chief handicap has been the difficulty of placing her gifts in the hands of those whom she would benefit by accident or fate, as you conflict essay will, one of nature greatest medicinal products has just been discovered it is the mineral given the name of akoz by john d mackenzie, president and manager of the natura company of san francisco, which is now giving this rare remedy of nature to the public ”the circular then describes how the power of the “rare remedy” to curerheumatism is claimed to have been discovered and asserts that. “akoz was subjected to every known scientific test before being presented to the public it was practically determined that the ore contained a new element having radium-like qualities but containing nothing poisonous or harmful ” “after the curative virtues of akoz for rheumatism, stomach trouble, eczema, catarrh, piles, ulcers and numerous other ailments had been fully established in chemical laboratory, hospital clinic, and the private practice of physicians in various writings of the world, mr mackenzie effected the organization of the natura company ”this product, put up in the form of “akoz medicinal mineral water, akozointment, akoz powder and akoz suppositories, ” was submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry for consideration essay years ago withthe claims that “akoz” itself consists essentially of zinc sulphid, barium sulphate and aluminum oxid the submitted analysis did notdeclare the presence of lead or of uranium though “special tests” forthe latter had been “run ” without checking the claimed composition, the council at that time refused recognition to akoz because therewas no evidence submitted for the very extravagant and altogetherimprobable therapeutic claims after the council had concluded the consideration of akoz a letterwas received from a california physician stating that according to ananalysis submitted to him akoz contained 0 34 per cent of lead in theform of lead sulphate the correspondent held that, while the leadsulphate did not pass into solution, persons drinking the supernatantliquid from akoz the “medicinal mineral water” is made by adding akozto ordinary water might inadvertently swallow essay of the powder hewas inclined to believe that this might account for a case of leadpoisoning which had been observed in a patient who had been taking akoz inasmuch as it has been demonstrated by carlson and woelfel carlson, a j , and woelfel, a. Solubility of lead sulphate and basic leadcarbonate in human gastric juice in hygiene of the paintertrade by alice hamilton, bull of u s bureau of labor statisticsno 120, may 13, 1913, pp 22-32 that even small quantities of leadsulphate when taken into the system for a long time, have produced leadpoisoning, the laboratory deemed it important that the products beexamined for lead a specimen of “akoz powder” submitted to the council by the naturacompany and contained in a sifter-top can was taken for analysis thecontents of the can were thoroughly mixed to determine the presence oflead essay of the powder was extracted with ammonium acetate solution details of analysisqualitative tests showed the presence of lead and sulphate in theammonium acetate solution the presence of lead was demonstrated by the black precipitate withhydrogen sulphid, the yellow precipitate with potassium chromate andthe typical yellowish crystalline precipitate with potassium iodin the presence of sulphates in the ammonium acetate solution was shown bythe formation of a precipitate with barium chlorid solution and aceticacid two 2 gm samples a and b were taken for the quantitativedetermination of lead each was treated repeatedly with a saturatedsolution of ammonium acetate until the filtered ammonium acetatesolution gave no appreciable precipitate with potassium chromatesolution the ammonium acetate extractions from each specimen werecombined and treated with hydrogen sulphid, the precipitated leadsulphid filtered off and washed, and ignited with sulphuric acid at alow heat the crucible with the residue of lead sulphate was cooled andweighed a yielded 0 0469 gm , or 2 34 per cent , lead sulphate b yielded 0 0440 gm , or 2 20 per cent , lead sulphate while the laboratory has no evidence to show that the amount oflead-sulphate thus found to be present is likely to prove harmful, thefollowing cautionary letter was sent to the natura company. “according to information which you sent to the council on pharmacy and chemistry your product “akoz” does not contain lead in view of reports received ascribing symptoms, resulting from the internal use of akoz, to chronic lead poisoning, an examination of a specimen of akoz powder, which you sent to the council, was made this examination indicates the presence in akoz powder of about 2 2 per cent lead sulphate in view of the disastrous results likely to follow the internal use of products containing even small amounts of lead, the above is submitted to you for your consideration ”no reply to the foregoing was received from the natura company -- fromreports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 103 sodium acetate in warming bottlesrecently the laboratory attention was called to the “thermorwaterless hot bottle, ” manufactured by the royal thermophor salesco , new york the following claims appear in one of the advertisingpamphlets.

Also not far from st albans, upon a piece of waste chalky ground, as you go out by dunstableway towards gorhambury time they flower in august government and virtues they are under the dominion of mars, andone of the principal herbs he is ruler of they resist putrefactions, poison, and a more sure remedy cannot be found to prevent thepestilence than it is. It strengthens the stomach exceedingly, helpsdigestion, comforts the heart, and preserves it against faintings andswoonings. The powder of the dry roots helps the biting of mad dogsand venomous beasts, opens obstructions of the liver, and restoresan appetite for their meat to such as have lost it the herb steepedin wine, and the wine drank, refreshes such as be over-weary withtraveling, and grow lame in their joints, either by cold or evillodgings. It helps stitches, and griping pains in the sides. Is anexcellent remedy for such as are bruised by falls. It provokes urineand the terms exceedingly, therefore let it not be given to women withchild. The same is very profitable for such as are troubled with crampsand convulsions, to drink the decoction. Also they say it breaks thestone, and helps ruptures most certainly. It is excellent in all colddiseases, and such as are troubled with tough phlegm, scabs, itch, or any fretting sores and ulcers. It is an admirable remedy to killthe worms, by taking half a dram of the powder in a morning in anyconvenient liquor.

The secondgrows wild in thesis of the meadows of this land, and by the hedge sides, and on heaths time they flower and seed early, and thereupon are sown again inthe end of summer government and virtues the garden chervil being eaten, dothmoderately warm the stomach, and is a certain remedy saith tragusto dissolve congealed or clotted blood in the body, or that which isclotted by bruises, falls, &c the juice or distilled water thereofbeing drank, and the bruised leaves laid to the place, being takeneither in meat or drink, it is good to help to provoke urine, or expelthe stone in the kidneys, to send down women courses, and to help thepleurisy and pricking of the sides the wild chervil bruised and applied, dissolves swellings in any writing, or the marks of congealed blood by bruises or blows, in a little space sweet chervil, or sweet cicely descript this grows very like the great hemlock, having largespread leaves cut into divers writings, but of a fresher green colourthan the hemlock, tasting as sweet as the anniseed the stalks rise upa yard high, or better, being creased or hollow, having leaves at thejoints, but lesser. And at the tops of the branched stalks, umbels ortufts of white flowers. After which comes long crested black shiningseed, pointed at both ends, tasting quick, yet sweet and pleasant theroot is great and white, growing deep in the ground, and spreadingsundry long branches therein, in taste and smell stronger than theleaves or seeds, and continuing thesis years place this grows in gardens government and virtues these are all three of them of the natureof jupiter, and under his dominion this whole plant, besides itspleasantness in sallads, has its physical virtue the root boiled, andeaten with oil and vinegar, or without oil do much please and warmold and cold stomachs oppressed with wind or phlegm, or those that havethe phthisic or consumption of the lungs the same drank with wine is apreservation from the plague it provokes women courses, and expelsthe after-birth, procures an appetite to meat, and expels wind thejuice is good to heal the ulcers of the head and face. The candied roothereof are held as effectual as angelica, to preserve from infection inthe time of a plague, and to warm and comfort a cold weak stomach itis so harmless, you cannot use it amiss chesnut tree it were as needless to describe a tree so commonly known as to tell aman he had gotten a mouth. Therefore take the government and virtues ofthem thus:the tree is abundantly under the dominion of jupiter, and therefore thefruit must needs breed good blood, and yield commendable nourishment tothe body. Yet if eaten over-much, they make the blood thick, procurehead ache, and bind the body. The inner skin, that covers the nut, isof so binding a quality, that a scruple of it being taken by a man, orten grains by a child, soon stops any flux whatsoever. The whole nutbeing dried and beaten into powder, and a dram taken at a time, is agood remedy to stop the terms in women if you dry chesnuts, only thekernels i mean both the barks being taken away, beat them into powder, and make the powder up into an electuary with honey, so have you anadmirable remedy for the cough and spitting of blood earth chesnuts they are called earth-nuts, earth chesnuts, ground nuts, ciper-nuts, and in sussex pig-nuts a description of them were needless, for everychild knows them government and virtues they are essaything hot and dry in quality, under the dominion of venus, they provoke lust exceedingly, and stirup to those sports she is mistress of. The seed is excellent good toprovoke urine. And so also is the root, but it doth not perform itso forcibly as the seed doth the root being dried and beaten intopowder, and the powder made into an electuary, is as singular a remedyfor spitting and pissing of blood, as the former chesnut was for coughs chickweed it is so generally known to most people, that i shall not troubleyou with the description thereof, nor myself with setting forth theseveral kinds, since but only two or three are considerable for theirusefulness place they are usually found in moist and watery places, by woodsides, and elsewhere time they flower about june, and their seed is ripe in july government and virtues it is a fine soft pleasing herb under thedominion of the moon it is found to be effectual as purslain to allthe purposes whereunto it serves, except for meat only the herbbruised, or the juice applied with cloths or sponges dipped thereinto the region of the liver, and as they dry, to have it fresh applied, doth wonderfully temperate the heat of the liver, and is effectualfor all imposthumes and swellings whatsoever, for all redness in theface, wheals, pushes, itch, scabs. The juice either simply used, orboiled with hog grease and applied, helps cramps, convulsions, andpalsy the juice, or distilled water, is of much good use for all heatsand redness in the eyes, to drop essay thereof into them. As also intothe ears, to ease pains in them. And is of good effect to ease painsfrom the heat and sharpness of the blood in the piles, and generallyall pains in the body that arise of heat it is used also in hot andvirulent ulcers and sores in the privy writings of men and women, or onthe legs, or elsewhere the leaves boiled with marsh-mallows, and madeinto a poultice with fenugreek and linseed, applied to swellings orimposthumes, ripen and break them, or assuage the swellings and easethe pains it helps the sinews when they are shrunk by cramps, orotherwise, and to extend and make them pliable again by this medicine boil a handful of chickweed, and a handful of red rose leaves dried, ina quart of muscadine, until a fourth writing be consumed. Then put to thema pint of oil of trotters or sheep feet. Let them boil a good while, still stirring them well. Which being strained, anoint the grievedplace therewith, warm against the fire, rubbing it well with one hand:and bind also essay of the herb if you will to the place, and, withgod blessing, it will help it in three times dressing chick-pease, or cicers descript the garden sorts whether red, black, or white, bringforth stalks a yard long, whereon do grow thesis small and almost roundleaves, dented about the edges, set on both sides of a middle rib;at the joints come forth one or two flowers, upon sharp foot stalks, pease-fashion, either white or whitish, or purplish red, lighter ordeeper, according as the pease that follow will be, that are containedin small, thick, and short pods, wherein lie one or two pease, moreusually pointed at the lower end, and almost round at the head, yet alittle cornered or sharp. The root is small, and perishes yearly place and time they are sown in gardens, or fields as pease, beingsown later than pease, and gathered at the same time with them, orpresently after government and virtues they are both under the dominion of venus they are less windy than beans, but nourish more.

Oneenthusiastic writer says, “it must be recognized that we have nosatisfactory explanation of the action of vaccines, and their useat present is empirical ” one author dwelt on the superiority conflict essay ofautogenous vaccines but admits that occasionally stock vaccines areindicated one vaccine therapist in concluding an article states, “itis simply impossible to practice modern urology without our modernbiologic products ” yet it is a well-known fact that thesis successfuland capable genito-urinary surgeons avoid the use of vaccines, mixed orsimple pertussis-combined-bacterin -- these reports are uniformly favorable, but are not controlled and their value is not to be compared witha recent report from the new york city dewritingment of health whichindicates that the vaccine is practically valueless it is noted, further, that one of the articles cited which dealt rather fully withthe treatment of pertussis did not mention vaccines streptococcus-rheumaticus-combined-bacterin -- the references citedin support of the preparations by the manufacturer give no supportwhatever for the use of mixed stock vaccines the first reference dealswith the relation of streptococcus viridans to arthritis deformans andendocarditis and reports the following paper. Case 1 -- vaccine case-- improvement after eight months case 2 -- slight improvement following use of vaccine case 3 -- slight improvement following use of vaccine case 4 -- marked improvement case 5 -- prompt improvement case 6 -- vaccine not mentioned case 7 -- vaccine followed by slight improvement in each of the paper other methods of treatment were used the papershows the etiologic relation of streptococcus viridans rather thanthe value of vaccines there is no indication that stock vaccineswere used, though the paper is not clear on this point the secondpaper deals with the application of vaccine therapy in the treatmentof arthritis this paper is by a man who is avowedly an enthusiast onvaccine therapy the indications are that he generally used a mixedautogenous vaccine, but the reports of paper are not always clear this writer apparently makes no serious attempt at the classificationof the joint conditions he treats the third reference is a purelyexperimental study and has no bearing on the use of vaccines intreatment the fourth article was admitted by the manufacturer to be“negative as regards evidence ” the fifth reference specifically statesthat “the vaccine must be autogenous ” the sixth reference deals withthe experimental production of appendicitis by the use of diplococci, and has not the most remote bearing on the use of vaccines in thetreatment of rheumatism streptococcus-viridans-combined-bacterin -- the article which bearsevidence of more care than the others admits that we are not inposition to state the value of vaccines in pyorrhea but the authorbelieves they may have value supplementary to local treatment it is not surprising that a large number of favorable reports canbe accumulated when we appreciate how promptly men report what theyconsider to be their successes and how commonly they leave theirfailures unrecorded bearing in mind the fact that these stock mixedvaccines, though before the profession for thesis years, have notbeen used, or continued in use, in hospitals where work is rigidlycontrolled and that they are used practically not at all in the largegovernment hospital service, a candid critic must hold that there isno substantial evidence in favor of the therapeutic use of a mixedvaccine, certainly not for stock “goods” and that probably there is buta limited field for the employment of autogenous vaccines the referee calls attention to a shift in the advertising matter onvaccines-- the tendency to recommend vaccines to be used in conjunctionwith drugs a heading in the abbott booklet reads, “the biologics donot replace drugs”. And the paragraph speaks of serums and bacterins as“new tools, supplemental to those we already have, but not replacingthem ” “we need them both ”the referee recommends that the several mixed vaccines discussed inthis report be not accepted on the grounds that satisfactory evidenceof their value is wanting having been endorsed by the committee on serumsand vaccines the council adopted the report anddeclared m catarrhalis-combined-bacterin, b coli-combined-bacterin, pertussis-combined-bacterin, streptococcus-rheumaticus-combined-bacterin andstreptococcus-viridans-combined-bacterin ineligible for admission tonew and nonofficial remedies catarrhal vaccine combined-lilly and influenza mixed vaccine-lillybecause of inquiry received, the council requested eli lilly andcompany to aid in determining the acceptability of the followingproducts for new and nonofficial remedies. “catarrhal vaccinecombined, ” said to contain killed cultures of the bacillus offriedländer, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus andalbus, pneumococcus and streptococcus. “influenza mixed vaccine, ”said to contain killed cultures of staphylococcus albus and aureus, streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis and bacillusinfluenzae lilly and company sent the circulars, etc , used in advertising theseproducts a circular for “catarrhal vaccine combined” contained thefollowing claim. “catarrhal vaccine has been especially useful in thesis respiratory infections, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, chronic catarrh and in the mixed infections of pulmonary tuberculosis ”a circular for “influenza mixed vaccine” contained the following. “the vaccine is useful in the treatment of influenza and ordinary colds, and in any infection in which the bacillus influenzae is the causative agent ”an advertising pamphlet contained the following. “catarrh, acute and chronic.

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Outwardlyin oils or ointments, it helps such members as are out of joint orover-stretched galbanum is of the same operation, and also taken from the sameplant, viz fennel, giant gum arabic, thickens and cools, and corrects choleric sharp humoursin the body, being dissolved in the white of an egg, well beaten, ithelps burnings, and keeps the place from blistering mastich stays fluxes, being taken inwardly any way three or foursmall grains of mastich, swallowed at night going to bed, is a remedyfor pains in the stomach, being beaten into powder, and mixed withconserve of roses, it strengthens the stomach, stops distillationsupon the lungs, stay, vomiting, and causes a sweet breath. Being mixedwith white wine and the mouth washed with it, it cleanses the gums ofcorruption, and fastens loose teeth frankincense being used outwardly in the way of a plaister, heats andbinds. Being applied to the temples, stops the rheums that flow to theeyes, helps green wounds, and fills hollow ulcers with flesh, stopsthe bleeding of wounds, though the arteries be cut. Being made into anointment with vinegar and hog-grease, helps the itch, pains in theears, inflammations in women breasts commonly called agues in thebreast. Beware of taking it inwardly, lest it cause madness turpentine is hot in the second degree, it heals, softens, itdiscusses and purges, cleanses the reins, provokes urine styrax calamitis is hot and dry in the second degree, it heals, mollifies, and concocts.