History

Concluding An Essay


“in the spring of 1919 a recurrence of the influenza epidemic of the previous winter was experienced during the first period of this second epidemic, prior to april 15th, there were treated one hundred sixteen paper of influenza, fourteen of which developed influenzal pneumonia, with six deaths the pneumonia was of the very virulent type which prevails in this high altitude after april 15th, when the clinical use of leptinol was inaugurated, three hundred and sixty-eight paper of influenza were treated and not a single case developed pneumonia twenty-two paper of influenzal pneumonia were received and treated with leptinol, with a consequent one hundred per cent recovery “in the paper where leptinol was used the treatment was the same as had been previously followed, as to diet, fresh air, etc , but the medication was confined to leptinol syrup leptinol was started immediately in one-dram doses at one-hour intervals, in paper with high temperatures, and this was continued until temperature and pulse subsided it was then used in one-dram doses at three-hour intervals as recovery progressed on admission to the hospital, calomel in 1/4 grain doses, was given at fifteen minute intervals for eight doses the last calomel was followed in six hours by 1/2 ounce magnesium sulphate in saturated solution the second day 1/10 grain of calomel was given at one-hour intervals for ten doses ”medical journals are replete with reports of remarkable resultsobtained with the most varied forms of treatment instituted at the timethat the “influenza epidemic” had been reached in these paper it ismore than probable that the lessened virulence of the causative factorof the disease, the gradually established resistance of those strickenwith it in the latter period and the improved management resultingfrom experience deserve the credit for the successful outcome of thetreatment, rather than the writingicular form of medication employed the report of the tonopah mines hospital association directlyimplies that syrup leptinol prevents the development of pneumoniain practically all paper of influenza in which it would develop andthat it entirely abolishes the mortality of that disease however, it is well known that innumerable remedies have been recommended asspecifics in the treatment of pneumonia on the basis of the treatmentof a limited number of paper which recovered, and that eventually theseasserted specifics have been discarded as of little value in thepresent instance, the recovery of twenty-two paper in succession affordprima facie evidence that those paper were not the virulent type ofpneumonia in which the death rate is very high under any methods oftreatment while no effort appears to have been made to determine thenature of the infecting organism, the records show fairly conclusivelythat they belonged to those causing the milder type of pneumonia the council finds syrup leptinol concluding an essay formerly syrup balsamea inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies because. 1 the information in regardto composition does not state the amount of potent ingredient, norpermit the determination of its identity and uniformity. 2 therecommendation for its use in such infectious diseases as pneumoniaand epidemic influenza is unwarranted and its claimed therapeuticefficacy in other diseases is without satisfactory supporting evidence;and 3 the recommendations for its use which appear on the label andthe circular wrapped with the trade package constitute an indirectadvertisement to the public the council accepts the explanation of the manufacturer that he hasbeen unable to obtain a satisfactory classification of the plant fromwhich syrup leptinol is made it would be undesirable to excludefrom therapeutic use a valuable drug simply because its botanicalcharacter has not been determined or because an exhaustive chemicalexamination had so far not been made however, in the absence of suchinformation the manufacturer should give full information with regardto the preparation or standardization of his remedy and the therapeuticclaims made for it should be accompanied by indisputable, thoroughlycontrolled clinical evidence in the case of syrup leptinol, there isno satisfactory evidence available showing that the preparation hasany value in the treatment of epidemic influenza, pneumonia, whoopingcough, etc while it is probable that a balsamic syrup, such as syrupleptinol, has palliative properties in coughs, such action does not atall justify the claim that it is useful in the contagious diseases forwhich it is proposed the council cannot recognize a syrup presentingan unknown plant in uncertain proportions which is recommended in avariety of dangerous contagious diseases in which it ultimately may beharmful, even though in early stages of these diseases it may serve toallay essay of the milder symptoms concerning the composition of the plant from which syrup leptinol isprepared, the balsamea company states that it contains “alkaloids, acids, glucosides, volatile and fixed oils, gums and resins ” thisinformation is valueless, since no information is given concerning thecharacter, amounts or pharmacologic action of the ingredients further, it is unreliable as far as the presence of alkaloids is concerned sincethe a m a chemical laboratory has been unable to find any alkaloidsin the specimen of the crude drug furnished by the manufacturers in accordance with its regular procedure, the council submitted thepreceding statement to the manufacturer in reply the balsamea company stated that it is more than ever of thebelief that syrup leptinol is deserving of recognition by the council, basing this opinion on further clinical experience with it in thetreatment of influenza the manufacturer stated that the use of the words “leptinol” and “syrupleptinol” interchangeably was due to an oversight and promised to limitthe use of the word “leptinol” to an alcoholic extract of the plant concerning the method of preparation of this alcoholic extract and theamount used in the preparation of syrup leptinol the balsamea companyreplied as follows. “the alcoholic extract of the leptotaenia, which we have termed ‘leptinol’ is a preparation of definite and uniform strength, as determined by two methods. a the gravity test using the u s hydrometer scale for spirits, by which leptinol registers 52 degrees at 60 degrees f , and b by gentle evaporation of the alcohol content and the measuring of the active constituents, which measures twenty-five per cent by weight “the alcoholic extract ‘leptinol’ is glycerinated in a machine, using one writing of the alcoholic concentration to four writings of glycerin this is then added to eleven writings of a heavy syrup, containing 7-1/2 pounds of sugar to the gallon of syrup, and thoroughly mixed in an agitating machine leptinol is the sole active ingredient of syrup leptinol syrup leptinol is a preparation of uniform strength it is far more uniform in strength than most of the syrups of the u s p made from fluid extracts which are made from crude drugs which are not uniform in strength ”this claim cannot be allowed as meeting the conflict with rule 1 itis well known that plants vary in their composition at different timesof the year. Under different conditions of cultivation and growth;and under other conditions. Hence the claim that alcoholic extractsof equal specific gravity insure uniformity of composition in activeprinciples must be considered entirely illogical, especially since theexact nature of the active principles, if any be present, is unknown if these are known their nature should be stated and tests for theiridentity be given if they are unknown it is manifestly misleading tostate that the preparation is of uniform strength it is evident that the council cannot approve of the use of apreparation of unknown composition without satisfactory evidence ofits value, especially when it is recommended in a variety of seriousinfectious diseases such as influenza and pneumonia the mere factthat a small number of patients who have received the drug recoveris no evidence of its curative value, and until carefully controlledclinical tests of the preparation are made, it is not entitled to theconsideration of physicians -- from the journal a m a , june 5, 1920 formitol tablets, ii report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following supplementaryreport on formitol tablets w a puckner, secretary in the council report the journal a m a , oct 4, 1919, p 1077 onthe ineffectiveness of lozenges claimed either to contain formaldehydor to liberate formaldehyd in the mouth, the composition of formitoltablets of the e l patch co was briefly discussed in the followingterms.

And because both mouth and nostrils are ways by which the brainis cleansed, therefore are they infected with such vices as need almostcontinual cleansing, and let the medicines you apply to them be eitherpleasant, or at least, not ingrateful medicines appropriated to the ears the ears are easily afflicted by cold, because they are always open, therefore they require hot medicines and because they are ofthemselves very dry, therefore they require medicines which dry much medicines appropriated to the concluding an essay teeth vehement heat, and vehement cold, are inimical to the teeth, but theyare most of all offended by sharp and sour things, and the reason is, because they have neither skin nor flesh to cover them, they delight insuch medicines as are cleansing and binding, because they are troubledwith defluxions and rheums upon every light occasion. And that thereason the common use of fat and sweet things, soon rots the teeth chapter ii of medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs the medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs, you shall findcalled all along by the name of pectorals that the termphysicians give them, when you heat them talk of pectoral syrups, pectoral rows, or pectoral ointments they are divers, essay of which regard the writing afflicted, others thematter afflicting but although essaytimes in ulcers of the lungs, we are forced touse binding medicines, to join the ulcer, yet are not these calledpectorals, because binding medicines are extreme hurtful to the breastand lungs, both because they hinder one fetching his breath, and alsobecause they hinder the avoiding that flegm by which the breast isoppressed such medicines are called pectorals, which are of a lenifying nature besides, those which make thin matter thicker are of two sorts, viz essay are mild and gentle, which may safely be administered, be thematter hot or cold which offendeth. Others are very cold, which areused only when the matter offending is sharp but because such medicines as conduce to the cure of the phthisics which is an ulceration of the lungs, and the disease usually called, the consumption of the lungs, are also reckoned in amongst pectorals, it is not amiss to speak a word or two of them in the cure of this disease are three things to be regarded 1 to cut and bring away the concreted blood 2 to cherish and strengthen the lungs 3 to conglutinate the ulcer and indeed essay writingicular simples will perform all these, andphysicians confess it. Which shews the wonderful mystery the all-wisegod hath made in the creation, that one and the same simple shouldperform two contrary operations on the same writing of the body.

Distillate not completed was neutral distillation not completed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the addition of chlorlyptus to a mixture of 10 per cent potassiumiodide, 10 per cent potassium iodate solution, brings about theliberation of iodine, increasing perceptibly on standing this showsthat the hydrogen chloride is gradually split off, and in time willcause a solution having a considerable degree of acidity when thistest is carried out on chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott, a small amountof iodine is liberated in a few minutes but does not increase, showinga slight initial acidity without further hydrolysis chlorinatedeucalyptol-squibb yields no free iodine after standing three hours when the chlorine content of chlorlyptus is determined according tothe method of carius, the amount is found to be 29 6 per cent themanufacturers give a method of determining chlorine by hunter fusionmethod it is believed that in this method hydrogen chloride maybe lost, and this opinion is substantiated by the firm statement, “chlorlyptus analyzed in this manner shows approximately 25 per cent of chlorine ” the chlorine content of chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott isfound to concluding an essay be 0 67 per cent , and that of the squibb brand to be 0 62 percent about one-fiftieth as much as in chlorlyptus to sum up. Chlorlyptus differs from chlorinated eucalyptol in odor, color, density, in reaction to silver nitrate, potassium iodide, sulphuric acid and the aqueous solution of potassium iodate andpotassium iodide the distillation of the two products occursdifferently chlorlyptus contains nearly 30 per cent of chlorine, which is approximately fifty times as much as in chlorinatedeucalyptol thus it appears to have considerable chlorine in thenegative form cl^- which may be relatively easily split off ashydrogen chloride b the persistence of the acid reaction of chlorlyptus in the body by the refereethis “chlorinated ozonized eucalyptus oil” is distinctly acid to litmuspaper it is claimed that further quantities of acid are liberated oncontact with water this is credited with producing a continuous acidreaction on the surface of tissues to which the oil may be applied andthis in turn is stated to be antiseptic or germicidal this theoretical speculation does not take into account the largequantity of reserve alkali in the body by which it combats attempts toalter its normal reaction it is therefore not convincing, unless it issupported by direct evidence in the absence of such data on the writing of the promoters of thepreparation, experiments were made to determine whether the oilpreserves its acid reaction in contact with mucous and serousmembranes the answers were clearly in the negative in the mouth, the reaction becomes neutral within ten or fifteenminutes. In the pleura and peritoneum within half an hour, and probablyin much shorter periods more detailed data follow. Series a. Behavior in the mouth.

Special reports a comparison of chlorlyptus with chlorinated eucalyptol from the chemical laboratory of the american medical associationaccording to the label, “chlorlyptus” is a “synthatized chlorinatedoil of eucalyptos, with acid reaction, containing approximately 30per cent chlorine and possesses excellent germicidal properties, when made under our special process ” it is manufactured by the weekschemical company, philadelphia, pa this product was submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry by the manufacturers, and in turnthe laboratory was asked to examine it with the idea of comparing itwith the nonproprietary brands of “chlorinated eucalyptol” used as asolvent for dichloramine-t. See new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, p 70 in the submission, certain tests were described, most of whichwere followed among the statements given under the chemical propertiesof chlorlyptus are. “on distillation, chlorlyptus begins to boil at about 100 c the temperature rises as the distillation continues, accompanied by the decomposition of the chlorlyptus and the evolution of hydrochloric acid and chlorine ” “when brought into contact with water, chlorlyptus undergoes a process of hydrolysis ”notwithstanding the foregoing the statement is made on the label thatchlorlyptus “is a stable compound, not affected by heat, light orwater ”the following comparisons of chlorlyptus, chlorinated eucalyptol-abbottand chlorinated eucalyptol-squibb were made:chlorlyptus is a viscous, dark brown liquid, with an acrid odor andhaving a specific gravity of 1 2098 chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott is amobile, light yellow liquid, with a eucalyptus odor, having a specificgravity of 0 9317 chlorinated eucalyptol-squibb is a mobile, colorlessliquid, and its specific gravity is 0 9303 an alcoholic solution of silver nitrate added to an alcoholic solutionof chlorlyptus yields a heavy precipitate of silver chloride in thecase of the abbott chlorinated eucalyptol a slight turbidity is causedby this test. The squibb product shows no reaction a 10 per cent solution of potassium iodide is overlaid with an equalvolume of chlorlyptus iodine is slowly liberated, being noticeablein one-half hour with chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott, a trace offree iodine is discernible after four hours, while with chlorinatedeucalyptol-squibb there is no free iodine present when the respectiveproducts are shaken with an alcoholic solution of potassium iodide, noiodine is immediately liberated, thus showing the absence of “activechlorine” difference from the hypochlorite derivatives when chlorlyptus is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, essayblackening occurs and the odor of hydrogen chloride is very noticeable both the abbott and squibb brands of chlorinated eucalyptol give areddish mixture, with no perceptible evolution of hydrogen chloride, and still retain the characteristic eucalyptol odor on heating, chlorlyptus decomposes and begins to boil at from 103 to105 c then a higher fraction comes over at 178 c the distillate hasa sharp odor, is acid, and frees very little iodine from potassiumiodide chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott does not seem to decompose essaygaseous substance is given off at 80 c, but the liquid distills at173 c the distillate has no acid odor, is neutral, and liberates noiodine from potassium iodide in both paper the distillation was notcarried to completion, approximately only about half of the volumebeing distilled over preliminary tests on chlorlyptus and chlorinated eucalyptol chlorinated chlorinated chlorlyptus eucalyptol-abbot eucalyptol-squibb odor acrid like eucalyptus like eucalyptus density and dark brown. light yellow. colorless. Color viscous, mobile. Lighter mobile. Lighter heavier than water than water than water agno₃ added heavy ppt slight turbidity clear to alcoholic solution equal writings gives free gives free iodin no free iodin with ki iodin slowly, in 4 hours. In 4 hours solution noticeable not much in 1/2 hour equal writings much iodin small amount of no free iodin with 10% ki, immediately free iodin in in 3 hours 10% kio₃  few numbers. solution does not noticeably increase equal writings essay blackening. Reddish mixture. same with conc odor of hcl no hcl.

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688 march 9 concluding an essay 1918 leech, p n. The vindication of the american chemist;synthetic drugs, chicago chem bull january, 1918, p 230 in september, 1917, it was announced219 that the a m a chemicallaboratory would make studies of american-made synthetics just priorto this announcement, the national research council established acommittee on synthetic drugs220 “to facilitate the manufacture ofsynthetic drugs in this country and thus to relieve shortage and reducethe exorbitant prices which have resulted from the war ”221 alsoduring this time congress was considering the “trading with enemy” act, first known as the adamson bill-- the purpose of which was to conferauthority on the president to license american firms to use u s patents owned by german subjects the act became law, september 28. Thefederal trade commission was designated by the president to carry outthe provisions of the law as it referred to enemy-owned patents as aresult of a conference, oct 30, 1917, 222 with various agencies, thefederal trade commission decided to consider licenses for manufacturersof synthetic drugs, after recommendations had been made by thecommittee on synthetic drugs of the national research council.