History

Concept Essay Topics


First, is the dr edward huntington williams who wrote“alcohol, hygiene and legislation” the “dr edward h williams” who wasemployed by the brewers to write propaganda favorable to the brewinginterests?. second, was the cloth-bound book, “alcohol, hygiene andlegislation, ” which was distributed by the williams brothers, paid for, wholly or in writing, by the united states brewers’ association?. For those who wish to read dr edward huntington williams’ opinion onthe alcohol question, the following bibliography may be of service. “liquor legislation and insanity”. Medical record 84:791, 1913 “the liquor question in medicine”. Medical record 85:612, 1914 “inebriety as a medical problem”. Post-graduate 29:603, 1914 “the problem of inebriety”.

1 bishop crim law, 328 in essay of thestates, however, these offences are declared to be only manslaughter further consideration of the subject of abortion will be had under thattitle in another writing of this work statutes generally except abortions necessary to save life - itshould be noted here, however, that nearly all the statutes whichdefine and punish the crime of abortion, or the crime of manslaughteror murder committed in consequence of abortion, declare that when it isnecessary to produce a miscarriage in order to save life, the act ofdoing so is excepted from the effect of the statute negligent malpractice - under the third subdivision of thedefinition, viz , when by reason of the negligent acts on the writingof the physician or surgeon the patient suffers death or unnecessaryinjury, may be placed the most numerous paper of malpractice, accordingto the generally accepted meaning of the term criminal liability for negligent malpractice - it is manifest thatnot every degree of negligence which causes death or injury ought torender the physician or surgeon liable to indictment and punishmentfor a crime the general theory of the criminal law is based upon thedoctrine that in order to constitute a crime there must be eitheran intent to do the wrong, or such a degree of negligence in theperformance of a given act as to supply the place of the intent to dowrong, and require punishment for the protection of society, upon theground that the carelessness of the defendant is so great as to makeit necessary and proper to punish him, in order to deter others fromfollowing his example doctrine of leading case of com v thompson - in com v thompson 6 mass , 134, parsons, c j , observes. “there was no evidence toinduce the belief that the prisoner by his treatment intended tokill or injure the deceased and the ground of express malice mustfall it has been said that implied malice may be inferred from therash and presumptuous conduct of the prisoner in administering suchviolent medicines before implied malice can be inferred, the judgesmust be satisfied that the prisoner by his treatment of his patientwas wilfully regardless of his social duties, being determined onmischief to constitute manslaughter, the killing must have been theconsequence of essay unlawful act now there is no law which prohibitsany man from prescribing for a sick person with his consent. And it isnot a felony, if through his ignorance of the quality of the medicineprescribed, or of the nature of the disease, or of both, the patient, contrary to his expectations, should die the death of a man killed byvoluntarily following a medical prescription cannot be adjudged felonyin the writingy prescribing unless he, however ignorant of medical sciencein general, had so much knowledge or probable information of the fataltendency of the prescription that it may be reasonably presumed bythe jury to be an act of wilful rashness at least, and not of honestintention and expectation to cure ”the doctrine of the thompson case too broad - this lax statementof the law, made by the learned chief justice in this case, has beenmuch doubted and criticised it appears to be unsound in the length towhich it goes in requiring, in order to constitute criminal liability, what may be termed excessive gross carelessness or wilful grosscarelessness it apparently runs counter to the prevailing opinions ofthe english judges, and to the later decisions of the courts in theunited states, although it is followed and approved in rice v thestate, 8 mo , 561 in rex v long 4 car & p , 308-310, park, j , said. “i call itacting wickedly when a man is grossly ignorant and yet affects to curepeople, or when he is grossly inattentive to their safety ”so in rex v spiller 5 car & p , 353, the court said. “if aperson, whether a medical man or not, professes to deal with thelife and health of another, he is bound to use competent skill andsufficient attention. And if he causes the death of another throughgross want of either he will be guilty of manslaughter ”bishop, in his work on criminal law, lays down the rule that not everydegree of carelessness renders a practitioner liable to criminalprosecution, and that it must be gross, or, as more strongly expressed, “the grossest ignorance or most criminal inattention ”189nevertheless he quotes with approval 2 bishop crim law, 264 theremark of willes, j , that a medical man is taking a leap in the darkif he knew he was using medicines beyond his knowledge. And also theremarks of bayley, j , in rex v simpson 1 lewin, 172, who said inthat case. “i am clear that if a person not having a medical education, and in a place where a person of a medical education might be obtained, takes it upon himself to administer medicines which may have aninjurious effect, and such medicines destroy the life of the person towhom they are administered, it is manslaughter the writingy may not meanto cause death, or the medicine may produce beneficent effects, but hehas no right to hazard medicine of a dangerous tendency when medicalassistance can be obtained if he does, he does it at his peril ”190gross negligence defined - in general it may be stated that grossnegligence is necessary to constitute criminal liability, but this maybe predicated upon, or inferred from, such want of ordinary care andskill as shows gross ignorance, or such want of attention as indicateswilful disregard of the well-known laws of life and health 191gross negligence resulting in injury a misdemeanor - it has also beenheld that although death does not but injury does ensue, as the resultof gross negligence or inattention, that constitutes a misdemeanorpunishable criminally 192in determining degree of negligence circumstances and conditionsgovern - it should be noted, however, that the circumstances andconditions attending the act of alleged criminal malpractice shouldbe given much weight so also should due weight be given to theadvancement of knowledge and education in the world in general, andin the medical profession in writingicular in an early english case, one of the judges remarked that not as much knowledge and skill couldbe expected of a surgeon or physician in a sparsely settled countrydistrict as in a city, and that he was at a loss to know what degreeof knowledge and skill should be required of such a person but ingram v boener, 56 ind , 447, worden, j , said.

warren refining co , does concept essay topics not adhere warren, pa b only slightly pliable. too tough 9 “paraffin no 910, ” 47 0 30 5 26-27 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and strong 10 “paraffin no 920, ” 44 4 27 5 25 0 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and fairly strong 11 “hard paraffin, ” 48 0 28 5 24 5-25 5 a adheres well. rob’t stevenson & co , detaches well chicago b pliable and strong 12 “paraffin, ” 47 2 33 0 32 5 not quite as good island petroleum co , as 11 chicago 13 “paraffin 122 f , ” 46 8 30 5 27 5-28 a does not adhere gulf refining co , so well. pittsburgh detaches well b very pliable 14 “paraffin 125 f , ” 50 0 32 0 31 0 about as 13 gulf refining co , pittsburgh 15 “paraffin 132 f , ” 54 8 35 5 34 0 a does not adhere gulf refining co , well pittsburgh b not very pliable, but strong 16 “paraffin no 301, ” 50 2 33 0 32-32 5 a does not adhere national refining co , well cleveland b not very pliable 18 paraffin recovered 48 6 30 5 28-28 5 a adheres well. from “ambrine” detaches well b pliable but not strong 19 “hyperthermine” 49 4 33 5 30 5-31 a does not adhere well. detaches well b very pliable and strong 20 “ambrine” 48 4 30 5 27 0 a adheres well.

?. ?. naturally give a moist heat ” it thermor gives a dry heat “the ‘thermor’ bottle is not a hot-water bottle-- it acts on a principle that is entirely different and new ” “ gives you first, last and all the time a fixed degree of dry usable heat-- a heat that holds steadily at 125 degrees for fully twelve hours-- you will easily see why it is that ‘thermor’ relieves and cures where hot-water bottles fail ”the bottle was nickel plated, 8-3/8 inches in diameter and 1-1/2 inchesthick, and in appearance resembled an exaggerated closed ingersollwatch the bottle is not flexible and weighs 3-1/2 pounds the contentsconsisted essentially of sodium acetate this salt melts when heated when it cools the temperature inside the bottle is relativelyconstant, as it will remain at the “freezing point” until all ofthe sodium acetate has solidified the duration of the time that itremains warm when well wrapped is simply in inverse proportion to theconductivity of the surrounding environment when two ordinary towelswere carefully arranged about it, the air between the bottle and thewrappings was maintained at a temperature of 40-50 c 104-122 f fora period of eight hours the company implication that the heat given out by the thermorbottle differs from that given out by an ordinary hot-water bottle isan absurdity the use of sodium acetate in the preparation of warmingbottles has been in practice thesis years, and is not “a principle thatis entirely different and new ” furthermore, the therapeutic claimsare extravagant -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 105 anti-syphilitic compound sweenya specimen of anti-syphilitic compound sweeny, sold by the nationallaboratories of pittsburgh, was received from a physician the package 1 ounce size has been opened by the sender and about three fourths ofthe contents removed from the rather indefinite statements in the literature of themanufacturer it is gathered that the preparation is claimed to be a“sterile, oily emulsion” which contains 1/20 grain of mercuric benzoatein each 5 minims, together with essay sodium chlorid according toinformation furnished by the laboratory correspondent, the priceasked for the preparation is $15 an ounce the quantity of the preparation received was too small to permit acomplete examination, but, from the tests which it was possible tomake, the preparation appears to be an aqueous solution containingessay suspended matter and small quantities of mercuric benzoateand a chlorid, presumably sodium chlorid there was no evidence ofthe presence of an “oily emulsion ” quantitative tests indicatedthe presence of a mercuric salt, equivalent to about 0 2783 gm ofcrystallized mercuric benzoate per 100 c c this corresponds to about0 00086 gm in each 5 minims, or about 26 5 per cent of the amountclaimed -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 106 “ambrine” and paraffin filmsf paul nicholas leech, ph d f contribution from the chemical laboratory of the american medicalassociation in the last year or so, the hot-wax or paraffin treatment of burns hasbeen widely discussed both in medical and lay periodicals although thetreatment is simply a modification of the well-known use of oil andointments, it has received unusual attention, owing to the widespreadsensationalism following the exploitation in france of a secret andtherefore mysterious mixture, “ambrine, ” the formula of dr barthe desandfort owing to this publicity, it seemed desirable to investigatethe chemical composition, and to compare its physical properties withother waxlike substances “ambrine” is promoted as a dressing for burns, frostbites, neuritis, varicose ulcers, phlebitis, neuralgia, rheumatism, sciatica, gout, etc it is a smoky-appearing substance, resembling paraffin in consistencyand without odor for application, “ambrine” is melted and applied tothe wound either with a brush or with a specially devised atomizer itcools quickly, and leaves a solid, protecting film illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | hyperthermality a reality | | | | hyperthermality is a fact, however, through the | | agency of a keri-resinous product which has been | | used in france since 1900 under the name of | | l’ambrine hyperthermine, as the remedial agent | | will be known in this country, is a combination | | of several kinds of waxes and resins, scientific- | | ally blended and containing no medicinal elements | | whatever it comes in the form of waxy flakes it | | melts at 124° and on cooling resembles a dark | | colored wax | | | | hyperthermine is the discovery of dr barthe de | | sandfort, an eminent retired french naval surgeon | | and a member of numerous foreign medical societies | | he | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - “ambrine” has been exploited in the united states for essay time to physicians it was sold under the name “hyperthermine ” above isa photographic reproduction reduced of a portion of a bookletdescribing “hyperthermine, ” which has been in the journal office foressay years illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | hyperthermine field | | | | hyperthermine can be used in practically all in- | | flammatory conditions during the past ten years, | | under the name of l’ambrine, our product has been | | widely used in the hospitals in france, as well as | | in private practice, and we have very thesis clinical | | reports on a variety of subjects its greatest use | | has been in such conditions as sciatica, lumbago, | | articular and muscular rheumatism, gout, arthritis, | | burns of all degrees, pneumonia, bronchitis, orchit-| | is, buboes, soft chancres, peritonitis, dysmenor- | | rhea, adenitis, mastitis, periostitis, synovitis, | | conjunctivitis, iritis, irido-choroiditis, abscess- | | es, bruises, furuncles, whitlow, paronychia, car- | | buncles, moist eczema and similar dermatological | | affections, and varicose and tubercular ulcers | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - photographic reproduction reduced from the “hyperthermine” “ambrine” booklet recommending it for use in rheumatism, gout, pneumonia, buboes, dysmenorrhea, eczema, tuberculous ulcers, etc it is said that de sandfort “stumbled on this treatment byaccident ”165 being a sufferer from rheumatism, he had been benefitedby hot mud baths. On returning home he sought a substitute, and finallymade a mixture of paraffin, oil of amber and amber resin this wasapplied hot, serving as a firm poultice “years later, he went onservice to a railway in china and was in yunnan at the time of theincendiary insurrection, and thesis badly burned chinese were broughtin for treatment remembering that ambroise paré treated such paperwith hot oil, he tried the effect of covering the burn with his meltedambrine, which at once glazes over, forming a coat impervious to theair, and his patients ceased to suffer ”166165 the outlook, jan 17, 1917, p 100 166 med rec , new york, jan 27, 1917, p 160 “ambrine” has been sold in america under two names. “hyperthermine, ” asexploited to physicians, and “thermozine, ” as advertised to the public physical comparison alone shows that ambrine as now sold differsfrom “hyperthermine” of a few years ago. The probable reason is that“ambrine” has changed its formula this is borne out by matas, 167who states that de sandfort “admitted that ambrine was a compound ofparaffin, oil of sesame and resins, but was not at liberty to divulgeits exact composition, as the formula and manufacture of this substancewas now the property of a private corporation, which was exploiting itas a proprietary and secret remedy ” the later formula differs from theoriginal 167 matas, rudolph.

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B oleum iodine, since it is presumed to be a solution of b iodine, was examined for ammonium compounds a small quantity was mixedwith an equal volume of strong sodium hydroxid solution and heated noammonia was evolved a few crystals of ammonium chlorid were added toa little of b oleum iodine and treated as above ammonia was readilydetected iodine. 5 255 gm b oleum iodine was dissolved in chloroform andplaced in a separator a solution of potassium iodid was added and theiodin titrated with a tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate solution itrequired 3 5 c c indicating 0 85 per cent iodin the conclusion is that b oleum iodine is a simple solution of iodin inliquid petrolatum to the extent of 0 85 per cent and not 5 per cent as claimed furthermore, it is not a solution of b iodine since noammonium compound is present the preceding report was sent to the b iodine chemical company thefollowing reply was received. Your letter of the 21st inst , received and contents noted and cannot quite agree with your report reasons why. Nh₄i, a nitro hydrate iodide. Nh₄i₂, a nitro hydrate iodate. And nh₄i₂i₂, per iodide, a molecular compound, which i claim, they all being of a nh group, so what can be the objection of nitrogen hydrate of iodine?. of course when your chemist, with the aid of heat, drove off all the iodine, he naturally brought it back to a nh₄i there where he gets the a m i claim a molecular compound the oil of iodine i sent you by mistake was a 1 per cent and not a 5 per cent as marked i claim it is made from the resublimed iodine in mineral oil and not the b iodine i claim a 5 per cent has heretofore never been accomplished, so i therefore can claim essaything new tr iodine contains alcohol and potash as a base, the alcohol a dehydrater and potash an escharotic, and all other soluble iodines like the tincture have a metallic base mine has not my iodine is compatible almost with all the salts, alkaloids, tannates, and even the metals you can’t say that for the tincture or the others now why should mine not be superior to others?. preparations as yet are not on the market and a few pamphlets were printed to meet with the requirements of your rulings and approval and shall be corrected if we only can agree on a proper name as you may suggest yours very truly, the b iodine chemical co by john bohlander, a m, m d p s we are sending you under separate cover another sample of the oil of iodine which is a 5 per cent solution, and allowing for deterioration will test at least four per cent the referee in charge of the preparations submitted the above letter tothe council with the following comments:the principal statements in the letter are essentially erroneous ormisleading. Mixtures or double salts of ammonium iodid and iodin werenot discovered by dr bohlander, and are nothing new watery solutionsof iodin by means of an iodid have long been known and used in the formof lugol solution there is no evidence that ammonium iodid is less irritating thanpotassium iodid on the contrary, ammonium salts are generally moreirritating than the corresponding potassium salts b iodine is notcompatible with alkaloids, but behaves essentially like lugolsolution the a m a chemical laboratory reports that the new sampleof b oleum iodine contains only 1 2 per cent of free iodin, insteadof the claimed amount it is therefore essaywhat weaker than the iodinpetrolatum prepared by the a m a chemical laboratory reportscouncil pharm and chem , 1917, p 88 however good dr bohlander intentions may be, the statements that hemakes about his products are misleading or erroneous, and the productsare ineligible for n n r -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1918, p 44 antithyroid preparations antithyroidin-moebius and thyreoidectin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of antithyroid preparations antithyroidin-moebius andthyreoidectin has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, contains a discussionof “antithyroid” preparation and describes two of these:antithyroidin-moebius e merck, darmstadt, gerthesis and thyreoidectin parke, davis & company, detroit, mich the referee reported that these “antithyroid preparations” evidentlyhave not realized the expectations of their promoters, and are viewedwith skepticism by practically all critical clinicians consequently, notwithstanding the cautiously worded statements ofclaims made by the manufacturers of thyreoidectin, the council approvedthe recommendation that this preparation thyreoidectin be omittedfrom new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule 6 unwarrantedtherapeutic claims and rule 10 unscientific and useless articles antithyroidin-moebius had already been omitted because it was offthe market the council further directed that the general article“antithyroid preparations” be also omitted the council having adopted the recommendation of the referee, thyreoidectin is omitted from n n r , while the general articleappears below, as a matter of record:antithyroid preparations are obtained from the blood or milk ofanimals, after the removal of the thyroid glands the use of these preparations is based on the theory that the thyroidgland secretes products which are toxic, but which neutralize and areneutralized by, other toxic substances produced elsewhere in the body removal of the thyroid glands would then lead to the accumulation ofthese second toxic substances as evidenced by the phenomena of cachexiastrumipriva and myxedema on the other hand, the blood or milk ofsuch animals is claimed to be capable of preventing the effects ofhypersecretion of thyroid substance, such as is supposed to occurin hyperthyroidism basedow or graves’ disease-- generally calledexophthalmic goiter these views are largely hypothetical. Attempts to give to them arational experimental basis have failed, but essay clinical observersreport distinctly beneficial results in the milder forms of thediseases, and in obscure nervous disorders which are supposedlyconnected with thyroid hypersecretion from the administration ofthe milk from thyroidectomized goats and also from the use of theproprietary blood preparations listed below the value of thesepreparations is very doubtful the reported improvements may only bepsychical or due to associated measures, as is often seen in thisdisease other measures of treatment should not be neglected improvement is said to occur in two or three weeks and to be indicatedby an amelioration of the nervous symptoms, tremor, palpitation, insomnia and excitability the administration must be long continued oral and hypodermicadministration are said to be equally effective, but the former isusually preferred these preparations are not known to be toxic, evenwhen very large doses are used -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 50 cephaelin and syrup cephaelin-lilly omitted from n n r and syrup emetic-lilly not accepted report of council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report, whichexplains the omission of cephaelin and syrup cephaelin-lilly from newand nonofficial remedies and the non-acceptance of syrup emetic-lilly w a puckner, secretary new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, describes cephaelin an alkaloidobtained from ipecacuanha root and lists syrup cephaelin-lilly containing 0 088 gm cephaelin hydrochlorid per 100 cc as apharmaceutical preparation of it the period of acceptance for syrup cephaelin-lilly having expired, eli lilly & company were asked to send the current advertising andlabels so that the council might determine if the acceptance of thispreparation might be continued in reply the firm wrote. “we have changed the name syrup cephaeline to syrup emetic but the product remains the same as before we have no circulars describing syrup emetic and can only send copies of the label ”the new name “syrup emetic” conflicts with the rules of the councilin that it does not indicate the potent ingredient of this simplepharmaceutical preparation and in that it is therapeuticallysuggestive emetics are powerful agents, and physicians should be givenevery opportunity of knowing what they prescribe for the purpose the name being in conflict with rule 8, the council voted to omit syrupcephaelin-lilly and not to accept syrup emetic-lilly as the cephaelin syrup was the only preparation of cephaelin admittedto new and nonofficial remedies, and as the alkaloid appears to have noimportant therapeutic field, the council directed that the descriptionof cephaelin also be omitted -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 52 colalin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of colalin has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary colalin is a bile salt preparation claimed to consist essentially ofhyoglycocholic and hyotaurocholic acids it is manufactured by rufuscrowell and company, essayrville, mass , and marketed by schieffelin andcompany, new york an examination of the current advertising by the referee of the councilin charge of bile salt preparations having revealed that claims weremade for colalin which were not in harmony with the known action ofbile preparations, schieffelin and company were informed that in theopinion of the referee the colalin circular matter required radicalrevision in this communication the referee objections to the claimswere set forth in detail no reply to this letter was received, and hence a copy of the letterwas sent to schieffelin and company and also to rufus crowell andcompany with the explanation that unless the statements in the colalinadvertising which the referee had questioned were substantiated bysatisfactory evidence, were suitably revised, or else the advertisingmatter withdrawn pending revision, the referee would be obligedto recommend to the council that colalin be omitted from new andnonofficial remedies in reply, schieffelin and company wrote that they were not “engagedactively in the introduction of colalin, ” and agreed to the omission ofcolalin from n n r in view of the failure to substantiate the claims objected to or anagreement to discontinue them, the council directed that colalin andcolalin tablets be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rule 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims the following are the claims which the referee questioned.