History

Comparison Essay Outline


And the latter rupture, writingly fromthe aspirating action of the thoracic wall, the lung being unable tofill itself with air, but mainly917 from vaso-motor contraction andlateral pressure at the maximum of the asphyxia, the time of tetanicexpiration if the asphyxia is interrupted before this stage, thespots do not appear similar ecchymoses may be found under the scalp, in the tympanum, retina, nose, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, thymus, pericardium, in the parietal pleura, along the intercostal vessels, rarely the peritoneum, in the stomach, and essaytimes the intestines;and in other writings of the body, especially the face, base of neck, andfront of chest. In convulsive affections, as eclampsia and epilepsy, and in the convulsions of strychnia and prussic acid poisoning theremay be suffusion and congestion of the lungs though not the punctatedspots mackenzie, in thirteen paper of suffocation from various causes, failedto find the tardieu spots either externally or internally briand andchaudé918 state that they are less constant and characteristic inthose who have been buried in pulverulent substances ogston919 holds that in infants that are smothered the ecchymosesare found in greater number in the thymus gland. While in adults dyingfrom other forms of asphyxia they were found only once in that gland the spots are found in clusters in infants that are smothered, butonly single and scattered in adults who die from drowning, hanging ordisease they were wanting in the lungs of but one infant they may be recognized as long as the lung tissue is unchanged theapoplectic spots in the lungs seen in strangulation are not found insuffocation tardieu920 from experiments on animals and examination of twenty-three new-born infants who showed traces of violence around the mouth, found the lungs rather pale and anæmic, subpleural ecchymoses well marked all the deaths were rapid in paper of compression of chest and abdomen921 the congestion of the lungs was extensive, and pulmonary apoplexy frequent. More so than in other forms of suffocation he gave strychnia to animals which died in convulsions, and found very irregular and writingial congestions, generally not marked because death was so prompt. Blood always fluid. No subpleural ecchymoses the liver, spleen, and kidneys are generally congested.

First let them sublimate and exungia, then the oils, juices, andpowders, be mixed, and so made into an ointment according to art unguentum citrinum or, a citron ointment college take of borax an ounce, camphire a dram, white coral halfan ounce, alum plume an ounce, umbilicus marinus, tragacanth, whitestarch, of each three drams, crystal, dentalis utalis, olibanum, niter, white marble, of each two drams, gersa serpentaria an ounce, cerusssix ounces, hog grease not salted, a pound and an half, goat suetprepared, an ounce and an half, hen fat two ounces and an half powder the things as you ought to do both together, and by themselves, melt the fats being cleansed in a stone vessel, and steep in them twocitrons of a mean bigness cut in bits, in a warm bath, after a wholeweek strain it, and put in the powders by degrees, amongst which letthe camphire and borax be the last, stir them, and bring them into theform of an ointment unguentum martiatum college take of fresh bay leaves three pounds, garden rue twopounds and an half, marjoram two pounds, mints a pound, sage, wormwood, costmary, bazil, of each half a pound, sallad oil twenty pounds, yellowwax four pounds, malaga wine two pounds, of all of them being bruised, boiled, and pressed out as they ought, make an ointment according toart culpeper it is a great strengthener of the head, it being anointedwith it. As also of all the writings of the body, especially the nerves, muscles, and arteries unguentum mastichinum or, an ointment of mastich college take of the oil of mastich, wormwood, and nard, of each anounce, mastich, mints, red roses, red coral, cloves, cinnamon, wood ofaloes, squinanth, of each a dram, wax as much as is sufficient to makeit into an ointment according to art culpeper this is like the former, and not a whit inferior to it;it strengthens the stomach being anointed with it, restores appetiteand digestion before it was called a stomach ointment unguentum neapolitanum college take of hog grease washed in juice of sage a pound, quick-silver strained through leather, four ounces, oil of bays, chamomel, and earthworms, of each two ounces, spirit of wine an ounce, yellow wax two ounces, turpentine washed in juice of elecampane threeounces, powder of chamepitys and sage, of each two drams, make theminto an ointment according to art culpeper a learned art to spoil people. Hundreds are bound to cursesuch ointments, and those that appoint them unguentum nervinum college take of cowslips with the flowers, sage, chamepitys, rosemary, lavender, bay with the berries, chamomel, rue, smallage, melilot with the flowers, wormwood, of each a handful, mints, betony, pennyroyal, parsley, centaury the less, st john wort, of each ahandful, oil of sheep or bullock feet, five pounds, oil of spike, half an ounce, sheep or bullock suet, or the marrow of either, twopounds. The herbs being bruised and boiled with the oil and suet, makeit into an ointment according to art culpeper it is appropriated to the nerves, and helps theirinfirmities coming of cold, as also old bruises, make use of it in deadpalsies, chilliness or coldness of writingicular members, such as thearteries perform not their office to as they ought. For wind anointyour belly with it. For want of digestion, your stomach. For thecholic, your belly.

Then warm it a littleagain and wash it with fresh rose-water, adding to each pound twelvedrops of oil of lignum rhodium culpeper its general use is, to soften and supple the roughness ofthe skin, and take away the chops of the lips, hands, face, or otherwritings unguentum potabile college take of butter without salt, a pound and an half, spermaceti, madder, tormentil roots, castoreum, of each half an ounce:boil them as you ought in a sufficient quantity of wine, till the winebe consumed, and become an ointment culpeper i know not what to make of it unguentum resinum college take of pine rozin, or rozin of the pine-tree, of thepurest turpentine, yellow wax washed, pure oil, of each equal writings:melt them into an ointment according to art culpeper it is as pretty a cerecloth for a new sprain as most is, and cheap unguentum rosatum or, ointment of roses college take of fresh hog grease cleansed a pound, fresh redroses half a pound, juice of the same three ounces, make it into anointment according to art culpeper it is of a fine cooling nature, exceeding useful in allgallings of the skin, and frettings, accompanied with choleric humours, angry pushes, tetters, ringworms, it mitigates diseases in the headcoming of heat, as also the intemperate heat of the stomach and liver desiccativum rubrum or, a drying red ointment college take of the oil of roses omphacine a pound, white wax fiveounces, which being melted and put in a leaden mortar, put in the earthof lemnos or bole-ammoniac, lapis calaminaris, of each four ounces, litharge of gold, ceruss, of each three ounces, camphire one dram, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it binds and restrains fluxes of humours unguentum e solano or, ointment of nightshade college take of juice of nightshade, litharge washed, of eachfive ounces, ceruss washed eight ounces, white wax seven ounces, frankincense in powder ten drams, oil of roses often washed in watertwo pounds, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it was invented to take away inflammations from wounds, and to keep people from scratching of them when they are almost well or, ointment of tutty college take of tutty prepared two ounces, lapis calaminaris oftenburnt and quenched in plantain water an ounce, make them, being finelypowdered, into an ointment, with a pound and an half of ointment ofroses culpeper it is a cooling, drying ointment, appropriated to theeyes, to dry up hot and salt humours that flow down thither, theeyelids being anointed with it valentia scabiosæ college take of the juice of green scabious, pressed out with ascrew, and strained through a cloth, hog grease, of each as muchas you will, heat the hog grease in a stone mortar, not grind it, putting in the juice by degrees for the more commodious mixture andtincture, afterwards set it in the sun in a convenient vessel, so asthe juice may overtop the grease, nine days being passed, pour off thediscoloured juice, and beat it again as before, putting in fresh juice, set it in the sun again five days, which being elapsed, beat comparison essay outline it again, put in more juice, after fifteen days more, do so again, do so fivetimes, after which, keep it in a glass, or glazed vessel tapsivalentia college take of the juice of mullen, hog grease, of each as muchas you will, let the grease be cleansed and cut in pieces, and beat itwith the juice, pressed and strained as you did the former ointment, then keep it in a convenient vessel nine or ten days, then beat ittwice, once with fresh juice, until it be green, and the second timewithout juice beaten well, pouring off what is discoloured, and keep itfor use tapsimel college take of the juice of celandine and mullen, of each onewriting, clarified honey, two writings, boil them by degrees till the juicebe consumed, adding the physician prescribing vitriol, burnt alum, burnt ink, and boil it again to an ointment according to art ointments more compound unguentum agrippa college take of briony roots two pounds, the roots of wildcucumbers one pound, squills half a pound, fresh english orris roots, three ounces, the roots of male fern, dwarf elder, water caltrops, oraaron, of each two ounces, bruise them all, being fresh, and steep themsix or seven days in four pounds of old oil, the whitest, not rank, then boil them and press them out, and in the oil melt fifteen ouncesof white wax, and make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it purges exceedingly, and is good to anoint the belliesof such as have dropsies, and if there be any humour or flegm in anywriting of the body that you know not how to remove provided the writing benot too tender you may anoint it with this. But yet be not too busywith it, for i tell you plainly it is not very safe unguentum amarum or, a bitter ointment college take of oil of rue, savin, mints, wormwood, bitter almonds, of each one ounce and an half, juice of peach flowers and leaves, andwormwood, of each half an ounce, powder of rue, mints, centaury theless, gentian, tormentil, of each one dram, the seeds of coleworts, thepulp of colocynthis, of each two drams, aloes hepatic, three drams, meal of lupines half an ounce, myrrh washed in grass water a dram andan half, bull gall an ounce and an half, with a sufficient quantityof juice of lemons, and an ounce and an half of wax, make it into anointment according to art unguentum apostolorum or, ointment of the apostles college take of turpentine, yellow wax, ammoniacum, of eachfourteen drams, long birthwort roots, olibanum, bdellium, of each sixdrams, myrrh, gilbanum, of each half an ounce, opopanax, verdigris, ofeach two drams, litharge nine drams, oil two pounds, vinegar enough todissolve the gums, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it consumes corrupt and dead flesh, and makes flesh softwhich is hard, it cleanses wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, and restoresflesh where it is wanting unguentum catapsoras college take of ceruss washed in purslain water, then in vinegarwherein wild rhadish roots have been steeped and pressed out, lapiscalaminaris, chalcitis, of each six drams, burnt lead, goat blood, of each half an ounce, quick-silver sublimated an ounce, the juiceof houseleek, nightshade, plantain, of each two ounces, hog greasecleansed three pounds, oil of violets, poppies, mandrakes, of each anounce. First let them sublimate and exungia, then the oils, juices, andpowders, be mixed, and so made into an ointment according to art unguentum citrinum or, a citron ointment college take of borax an ounce, camphire a dram, white coral halfan ounce, alum plume an ounce, umbilicus marinus, tragacanth, whitestarch, of each three drams, crystal, dentalis utalis, olibanum, niter, white marble, of each two drams, gersa serpentaria an ounce, cerusssix ounces, hog grease not salted, a pound and an half, goat suetprepared, an ounce and an half, hen fat two ounces and an half powder the things as you ought to do both together, and by themselves, melt the fats being cleansed in a stone vessel, and steep in them twocitrons of a mean bigness cut in bits, in a warm bath, after a wholeweek strain it, and put in the powders by degrees, amongst which letthe camphire and borax be the last, stir them, and bring them into theform of an ointment unguentum martiatum college take of fresh bay leaves three pounds, garden rue twopounds and an half, marjoram two pounds, mints a pound, sage, wormwood, costmary, bazil, of each half a pound, sallad oil twenty pounds, yellowwax four pounds, malaga wine two pounds, of all of them being bruised, boiled, and pressed out as they ought, make an ointment according toart culpeper it is a great strengthener of the head, it being anointedwith it. As also of all the writings of the body, especially the nerves, muscles, and arteries unguentum mastichinum or, an ointment of mastich college take of the oil of mastich, wormwood, and nard, of each anounce, mastich, mints, red roses, red coral, cloves, cinnamon, wood ofaloes, squinanth, of each a dram, wax as much as is sufficient to makeit into an ointment according to art culpeper this is like the former, and not a whit inferior to it;it strengthens the stomach being anointed with it, restores appetiteand digestion before it was called a stomach ointment unguentum neapolitanum college take of hog grease washed in juice of sage a pound, quick-silver strained through leather, four ounces, oil of bays, chamomel, and earthworms, of each two ounces, spirit of wine an ounce, yellow wax two ounces, turpentine washed in juice of elecampane threeounces, powder of chamepitys and sage, of each two drams, make theminto an ointment according to art culpeper a learned art to spoil people. Hundreds are bound to cursesuch ointments, and those that appoint them unguentum nervinum college take of cowslips with the flowers, sage, chamepitys, rosemary, lavender, bay with the berries, chamomel, rue, smallage, melilot with the flowers, wormwood, of each a handful, mints, betony, pennyroyal, parsley, centaury the less, st john wort, of each ahandful, oil of sheep or bullock feet, five pounds, oil of spike, half an ounce, sheep or bullock suet, or the marrow of either, twopounds. The herbs being bruised and boiled with the oil and suet, makeit into an ointment according to art culpeper it is appropriated to the nerves, and helps theirinfirmities coming of cold, as also old bruises, make use of it in deadpalsies, chilliness or coldness of writingicular members, such as thearteries perform not their office to as they ought. For wind anointyour belly with it. For want of digestion, your stomach. For thecholic, your belly. For whatever disease in any writing of the body comesof cold, esteem this as a jewel unguentum pectorale or, a pectoral ointment college take of fresh butter washed in violet water six ounces, oil of sweet almonds four ounces, oil of chamomel and violets, whitewax, of each three ounces, hen and duck grease, of each two ounces, orris roots two drams, saffron half a dram. The two last being finelypowdered, the rest melted and often washed in barley or hyssop water, make an ointment of them according to art culpeper it strengthens the breast and stomach, eases the painsthereof, helps pleurises and consumptions of the lungs, the breastbeing anointed with it unguentum resumptivum college take of hog grease three ounces, the grease of hen, geese, and ducks, of each two ounces, oesipus half an ounce, oil ofviolets, chamomel, and dill, fresh butter a pound, white wax sixounces, mussilage of gum tragacanth, arabic, quince seeds, lin-seeds, marsh-mallow roots, of each half an ounce let the mussilages be madein rose water, and adding the rest, make it into an ointment accordingto art culpeper it mightily molifies without any manifest heat, and istherefore a fit ointment for such as have agues, asthmas, hecticfevers, or consumptions it is a good ointment to ease pains comingby inflammations of wounds or aposthumes, especially such as drynessaccompanies, an infirmity wounded people are thesis times troubled with in inward aposthumes, as pleurises, one of them to anoint the externalregion of the writing, is very beneficial unguentum splanchnicum college take of oil of capers an ounce, oil of white lillies, chamomel, fresh butter, juice of briony and sowbread, of each halfan ounce, boil it to the consumption of the juice, add ammoniacumdissolved in vinegar, two drams and an half, hen grease, oesypus, marrow of a calf leg, of each half an ounce, powder of the barkof the roots of tamaris and capers, fern roots, cetrach, of each adram, the seeds of agnus castuus, and broom, of each a scruple, with asufficient quantity of wax, make it into an ointment according to art unguentum splanchnicum magistrale college take of the bark of caper roots six drams, briony roots, orris florentine, powder of sweet fennel seeds, ammoniacum dissolved invinegar, of each half an ounce, tops of wormwood, chamomel flowers, ofeach a dram, ointment of the juice and of flowers of oranges, of eachsix drams, oil of orris and capers, of each an ounce and an half.

“ help to prevent the infection of spanish influenza, pneumonia, grip colds and to guard against sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, etc ”the a comparison essay outline m a chemical laboratory reported that cin-u-formlozenges contained essay formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde and nohexamethylenamin it is obvious that the mouth and throat cannot be“disinfected” by these lozenges they would be totally ineffectiveagainst bacteria that enter through the nose. They cannot preventinfluenza, pneumonia, etc -- from the journal a m a , oct 4, 1919 lavoris report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrylavoris was considered by the council in 1913, and its proprietors-- thelavoris chemical company-- were advised that the preparation wasinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict withrules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10 no report was published at that time as thepreparation is still widely advertised to physicians, the council hasagain examined lavoris and authorized publication of the followingreport w a puckner, secretary in recent years lavoris has been widely advertised as “the ideal oralantiseptic, ” writingicularly to the dental profession a printed cardsent out by the lavoris chemical company in 1913 read. “lavoris, thepyorrhea remedy the original zinc chloride mouth wash one grain zincto each ounce ” the card also gave a “formula” to the effect that eachpint of lavoris contained. Zinc chloride 1 040 resorcin 0 520 menthol 0 400 saccharin 0 195 formalin 0 195 ol cassia zeyl 0 780 ol caryophyl 0 195advertisements now appearing in medical journals repeat the older“formula” except that resorcin is omitted the formula while seeminglyfrank and open is in reality indefinite and misleading in that nodenomination of weight is given for the various constituents it isuncertain, for example, if the figures in the formula are intended torepresent grains, grams or percentages of the several constituents in view of the indefinite statement of composition, a chemicalexamination of lavoris was undertaken in the a m a chemicallaboratory the report of the laboratory follows:zinc -- this was determined electrolytically fifty c c gave0 026 gm zinc and 100 c c gave 0 0531 gm zinc the average is0 0526 gm zinc in 100 c c this is equivalent to 0 1102 gm anhydrouszinc chlorid in 100 c c chlorid -- after decolorizing essay of lavoris with chlorid-free animalcharcoal, the chlorid was determined by the volhard method twenty-fivec c lavoris required 4 328 c c tenth-normal silver nitrate solutionequivalent to 0 01535 gm chlorid chloridion or 0 0614 gm in100 c c a second 25 c c of lavoris required 4 112 gm tenth-normalsilver nitrate solution equivalent to 0 01458 gm chlorid chloridionor 0 05832 gm in 100 c c average is 0 05985 gm this is equivalentto 0 1150 gm zinc chlorid in 100 c c this agrees closely with theforegoing zinc determination resorcin -- the method of the u s pharmacopeia was used the totalbromin absorption of 25 c c lavoris was 3 68 c c tenth-normalbromin solution this would be equivalent to 0 00675 gm resorcinin 25 c c or 0 02700 gm in 100 c c in a duplicate test, 25 c c lavoris required 3 8 c c tenth-normal bromin solution equivalent to0 00697 gm resorcin or 0 02788 gm in 100 c c since oil of cinnamonabsorbs bromin, 50 c c of lavoris was boiled until very little orno odor of the oil was noted, keeping the volume nearly constant byadding a little water from time to time, and the bromin absorption thentaken in one experiment, 0 36 c c of tenth-normal bromin solution wasconsumed, and in a duplicate no bromin was absorbed this shows theabsence of resorcin residue -- on evaporating 25 c c lavoris on a steam bath andsubsequent drying of the residue at 100 c , 0 0455 gm of residue wasobtained this is equivalent to 0 1820 gm in 100 c c saccharin -- saccharin was detected in the residue and ether-extractof the residue by its intense sweet taste when a little sodiumbicarbonate was added to it formaldehyd -- this could be detected by the jarrison test the colorwas not very pronounced and the quantity of formaldehyd was small oil of cinnamon -- the odor and taste of lavoris is characteristic ofcinnamon menthol and oil of cloves -- the odor of menthol and of oil of clovescould not be detected, but no tests were made to demonstrate theirpresence the analysis thus indicates that the lavoris of today contains noresorcin but does contain a small amount of formaldehyd, a littlesaccharin, and oil of cinnamon menthol and oil of cloves could not bedetected by the odor, but were not tested for the analysis showedthat the principal constituent of lavoris is zinc chlorid, of whichthere is about 0 1 gm per 100 c c about 1/2 grain to the ounce the amount of zinc chlorid given in the published formula, i e , 1 04, is meaningless because the unit of weight or measure is notgiven. Furthermore, the analysis shows that it is inaccurate for anyunit of weight that might be assumed from the published figures sincethe amount of the most active medicinal ingredient is both indefiniteand inaccurate, the composition of the preparation is essentiallysecret lavoris is indirectly advertised to the public by havingincluded in the package a circular giving a list of diseases for whichthe preparation was recommended the combination of zinc chlorid, formaldehyd and oil of cinnamon assuming the menthol and oil of clovesto be present as flavors in a mixture is irrational and likely to leadits users to ascribe a false and exaggerated value to the preparation the name is objectionable in that it does not indicate the compositionof the potent ingredients of the mixture, but instead suggests its useas a mouth wash from a standpoint of public safety, the most serious objection tolavoris, however, lies in the thesis unwarranted therapeutic claimsand suggestions it is generally held that zinc chlorid solutionswhich possess a strength of from 1 to 200 up to 1 to 500 exercise aweak antiseptic action the strength of zinc chlorid in lavoris isapproximately 1 to 1, 000 the directions for its use recommend thatlavoris should be diluted a dilution of 1 to 4 is recommended for avariety of mouth conditions while for cystitis irrigations and as avaginal douche, it is recommended that one tablespoonful be added toa quart of warm water or salt solution the strength of zinc chloridin the last suggested dilution would approximate 1 to 64, 000 it isevident that no antiseptic action could be expected from such dilutions the recommendation that diluted lavoris be used for the treatmentof coryza, nasal catarrh, hay fever, inflamed eyes, hemorrhoids andleucorrhea is objectionable and irrational especially dangerous isthe recommendation that members of a family exposed to diphtheriaor scarlet fever should use lavoris freely as a preventive suchrecommendations can but give a false sense of security and lead to theneglect of proved methods for preventing the spread of these diseases equally unwarranted is the recommendation that in gonorrhea oneteaspoonful of lavoris to eight of warm water be used with a blunt endsyringe the use of lavoris as recommended would not only prove valueless inthesis instances but might lead to serious consequences because reallyvaluable methods of prevention or treatment might be neglected forthese reasons the preparation is in conflict with rule 6 the council declared lavoris ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , nov 1, 1919 medinal report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report onmedinal schering and glatz, inc w a puckner, secretary medinal is a proprietary name applied to barbital sodium sodiumdiethylbarbiturate the sodium salt of barbital diethylbarbituricacid the latter was first introduced as veronal medinal was deleted from new and nonofficial remedies in 1916 becausethe advertising issued by schering and glatz who then acted asagents for chemische fabrik auf actien vorm e schering, the germanmanufacturer contained misleading and unwarranted therapeutic claims the council did not publish its report because by the time the reportwas ready for publication the product was practically off the americanmarket, and it was hoped that when medinal again became available, schering and glatz would revise the claims and thus permit itsreacceptance medinal, said to be manufactured in the united states, is now marketedby schering and glatz, inc in october, 1918, the firm sent to thecouncil a typewritten copy of a proposed circular for medinal the firmwas informed that this leaflet was subject to the objections that hadbeen raised when medinal was deleted from new and nonofficial remedies in april, 1919, the firm submitted a printed circular which it wassending out this contained numerous misleading statements, among them, these. “medinal removes its diethylbarbituric acid one objectionable feature-- insufficient solubility-- and thus fulfills the three prerequisites of a truly rational hypnotic.

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Itacts as a lubricant and emollient. It modifies the absorptive powersof the intestinal mucous membrane. It is capable of influencing thedigestion of fats in short, liquid petrolatum, being a drug, itsindiscriminate and excessive use should not be encouraged -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 72 westerfield digitalis tablets report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary westerfield digitalis tablets the westerfield pharmacal co , dayton, ohio are claimed to represent a fat free tincture of digitalis and tobe “enteric coated ” it is claimed that because of this coating thesetablets pass the stomach unchanged and dissolve in the intestine, andthat this obviates any possibility of gastric disturbance the circular which sets forth the asserted advantages of the tabletsstates that digitalis contains a fat which is an irritant to thegastric membrane it also contains the following.