History

Comparison-Contrast Essay


Forall terrestrial beings, of an organic as well as of an inorganicnature, were under the influence of the sun, the moon, of the planets, and of the signs of the zodiac the stars imwritinged certain powers tothe planets, to animals, and to all structures of the inorganic world if, therefore, it were known what stars happened to appear in thevault of heaven at the beginning of the disease or of its treatment, it was only necessary seriously to consider the organic and inorganicstructures under their supervision, and the remedies required for asuccessful control of the disease were presently at hand but if thehealer wished to be absolutely certain what medicaments to choose, thephases of the moon and the condition of the sun were also to be takeninto consideration essay remedies could be administered only when themoon was in a writingicular relation to certain planets or stars of thezodiac these remedies were principally emetics and purges similarly to the internal clinician, so also in surgery, the healerwas entirely dependent upon the conjunction of the stars the primevalbabylonian directed that the body must not be touched with iron duringcertain conjunctions of the stars, and this was also prescribed inall paper of astrologica medica it appears, however, that thisdirection obtained less general surgical recognition, but referredprincipally to blood-letting even to this limited extent it implieda high-handed interference with the art of the ancient as well as ofthe medieval physician. For venesection occupied an entirely differentposition among therapeutic measures during that period than it doesto-day whereas modern medicine does not consider blood-lettingnecessary, except in the rarest paper, ancient as well as medievalprofessors of medicine believed that they could under no circumstancesdispense with it. In fact, it is probable that until the seventeenthcentury there was scarcely any form of disease the treatment of whichwould have been possible without withdrawal of blood an actualsystem of blood-letting had been elaborated under the influence ofhumoro-pathological opinions every vein that could be reached withthe lancet was acted upon, and the school of medicine of the periodwas punctiliously careful in teaching which vessel presented the mostsuitable point of attack for the hand of the physician in this or thatform of disease the therapeutic subtleties which were thus brought tolight are beyond description thus, a withdrawal of blood from veins onthe right side of the body was said to yield an essentially differenteffect from left-sided venesection, and each individual vein of thebody promised a special advantage which was peculiar to this one vein the physician of that period surely had enough to do to bear in mindall the numerous therapeutic effects which he was to achieve by theopening of the various veins to facilitate this difficult art to acertain degree special figures were designed so-called venesectionmanikins, in which the numerous points for bleeding were most carefullyannotated fig 5 page 175 shows such a picture it indicates no lessthan 53 different localities for venesection, and as each and everyone of them again implied four or five, or possibly even more, methodsof blood-letting, we may consider that there were thesis hundreds ofdifferent possibilities for phlebotomy if it was easy to become lostin the labyrinth of this blood-thirsty therapy, the difficulty of amethodical application of venesection was very materially increased byastrology. For astrology differentiated between, first, favorable, thendoubtful, and, finally, unfavorable days for venesection, basing thisopinion upon certain positions between sun, moon, and planets then thevarious ages of life had also different days for venesection. Days, forinstance, which promised to be exceptionally successful for venesectionin the young, offered very unfavorable prospects to the aged thus, for instance, the period from the first quadrature of the moon tothe opposition was said to be excellent for bleeding in adolescence, whereas this period was by no means inviting for phlebotomy in thosewho had reached the senile period the chances for venesection becamerather intricate in their different aspects thus, for instance, stöffler taught. {the sun prohibits venesection two {days before and one day after conjunction of { the moon with { }prohibits venesection one {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after quadrature of {sun }prohibits venesection the moon with {saturn }twelve hours before and {mars }twelve hours after opposition of {sun }prohibits venesection one the moon with {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after we see, therefore, that the physician of that time was compelled tobe well-versed in astronomy unless he meant to commit grave mistakesagainst the doctrines of medicina astrologica such sins couldeventually become rather dangerous to the physician, for the code ofhammurabi about 2200, b c , ruler of babylon threatens the operator, for not quite unobjectionable surgical procedures, with the loss of hishands winckler, page 33, § 218 in order to satisfy the astrological requirement of the physician mostthoroughly, there arose in the middle ages a very peculiar literature under the name of an almanac or calendarium, thick folio volumesappeared, which enumerated, in long tables, the various positions ofthe planets and of the signs of the zodiac, so that the astrologer wasenabled to note the fate of mankind rapidly and easily the contentsof such calendaria are beyond description awriting from remarks whichreferred to all occurrences of civil life, was stated the exact periodwhen to have the hair cut, when venesection was to be performed, whento draw teeth, when to take a bath, etc even the proper time forprayer was indicated by such a calendarium according to the experienceof peter of abano, the conjunction of the moon with jupiter in thedragon was sure to effect an answer to prayer hieronymus cardanushad discovered, with the aid of astrology, that a request was sure tobe complied with if a prayer was offered to the virgin mary on thefirst day of april, at 8 a m möhsen, vol ii , page 423 physiciansexcelled in the compilation of such calendaria, especially during thefifteenth and sixteenth centuries professors, forensic physicians, surgeons in fact, all representatives of medical art were equallyintent upon instructing the public by calendaria in regard to the mostvarious branches of medicina astrologica. Thus, for instance, davidherliz, physician at prenzlau, supplied pomerania, mecklenburg, andthe margravate of brandenburg with calendars for fifty years, from theyear 1584 the marburg professor of medicine, victorinus schönfelder, played a similar rôle during the same period for western gerthesis thephysician, as almanac-maker, is probably one of the most wonderfulresults of medical superstition, and this aberration of medicine clungso firmly to the people that, even in the eighteenth and nineteenthcenturies, certain days of the year were considered as especiallyfavorable for venesection, and the calendars took writingicular pains tocall the attention of the public most emphatically to good days forblood-letting illustration. Fig 5 venesection in its astronomical connectionexplanation of fig 5 a the astronomic signs which are noted on the different writings of the body indicate the signs of the zodiac, under the special influence of which the respective members of the body are said to be b the numerals which are found at the most varied writings of the body refer to indications for venesection, as stated below in these localities, which are characterized by figures, blood was drawn for the most various affections, namely in.

And let it infuse hot overa gentle fire twelve hours, then strain it out, so have you a mostexcellent drink to open obstructions of the liver and spleen, to helpdifficulty of breath, bruises and falls, and congealed blood in anywriting of the body, it helps the yellow jaundice, the dropsy, and blackjaundice, and to cleanse women newly brought to bed you may drink aquarter of a pint of the infusion every morning it purges comparison-contrast essay the bodyvery gently, and not churlishly as essay hold and when you find good bythis, remember me they that think the use of these medicines is too brief, it is only forthe cheapness of the book. Let them read those books of mine, of thelast edition, viz reverius, veslingus, riolanus, johnson, sennertus, and physic for the poor all-heal it is called all-heal, hercules all-heal, and hercules woundwort, because it is supposed that hercules learned the herb and its virtuesfrom chiron, when he learned physic of him essay call it panay, andothers opopane-wort descript its root is long, thick, and exceeding full of juice, ofa hot and biting taste, the leaves are great and large, and wingedalmost like ash-tree leaves, but that they are essaything hairy, eachleaf consisting of five or six pair of such wings set one against theother upon foot-stalks, broad below, but narrow towards the end. Oneof the leaves is a little deeper at the bottom than the other, of afair yellowish fresh green colour. They are of a bitterish taste, being chewed in the mouth. From among these rises up a stalk, green incolour, round in form, great and strong in magnitude, five or six feetin altitude, with thesis joints, and essay leaves thereat.

Or 2 that he was practising medicine or surgery or a branch of medicineor surgery in the united kingdom on the prescribed day, and that he hascontinued practising the same either in the united kingdom or elsewherefor not less than ten years immediately preceding the prescribed day11 when a person shows to the satisfaction of the registrar of thegeneral council that he holds essay recognized foreign medical diplomaor diplomas granted in a foreign country, to which this act applies, and that he is of good character, and is by law entitled to practisemedicine, surgery, and midwifery in such foreign country, he shallon application to said registrar, and on payment of such fee, notexceeding £5, as the general council may determine, be entitled withoutexamination in the united kingdom to be registered as a foreignpractitioner in the medical register. Provided he proves to thesatisfaction of the registrar. 1 that he is not a british subject. Or 2 that, being a british subject, the said diploma or diplomas was orwere granted to him at a time when he was not domiciled in the unitedkingdom or in the course of a period of not less than five years, during the whole of which he resided out of the united kingdom. Or 3 that, being a british subject, he was practising medicine orsurgery, or a branch of medicine or surgery in the united kingdom onthe prescribed day, and that he has continued practising the samein the united kingdom or elsewhere, for not less than ten yearsimmediately preceding the said prescribed day 12 the medical diploma granted in a british possession or foreign countryto which this act applies, which is to be deemed requisite, shallbe such a diploma as may be recognized by the general council asfurnishing a sufficient guarantee of the possession of the requisiteknowledge and skill for the efficient practice of medicine, surgery, and midwifery when the general council have refused to recognize any such diploma, the privy council may, on appeal, after communicating with the generalcouncil, order the general council to recognize such diploma if the refusal of the registration of a colonial or foreignpractitioner be on any other ground, the registrar of the generalcouncil shall, if required, state in writing the reason for therefusal, and the person refused may appeal to the privy council, which, after communicating with the general council, may dismiss the appealor order the general council to enter the name of the applicant on theregister a person may be registered both as a colonial and foreign practitioner13 the medical register shall contain separate lists of the names andaddresses of colonial and foreign practitioners, and the provisionsof 21 and 22 vict , c 90, relating to persons registered and to themedical register, and to offences, shall apply in the case of colonialand foreign practitioners registered under this act so far as may be14 any registered practitioner on the list of colonial or foreignpractitioners who is in possession of or obtains any recognizedcolonial or foreign medical diploma granted in a british possession orforeign country to which this act applies may cause a description ofsuch diploma to be added to his name in the medical register s 15 any registered medical practitioner on the medical register by virtueof english, scotch, or irish qualifications, and in possession of aforeign degree in medicine, may cause a description of such foreigndegree to be added to his name as an additional title in the medicalregister, provided he satisfy the general council that he obtained suchdegree after a proper examination and prior to the passage of this act16 her majesty may from time to time, by order in the council, declarethat this act be deemed to apply to any british possession or foreigncountry which in the opinion of her majesty affords the registeredmedical practitioners of the united kingdom such privileges of practicein the said british possessions or foreign countries as to her majestymay seem just. And on and after the day named in such order suchbritish possession or foreign country shall be deemed to be a britishpossession or foreign country to which this act applies her majestymay also renew or revoke any such order, and upon such revocation suchpossession or foreign country shall cease to be a possession or countryto which this act applies without prejudice to the right of any personwhose name has already been entered on the register 17 nothing in the medical act of 1858 shall prevent a person holdinga medical diploma, entitling him to practise medicine or surgeryin a british possession to which this act applies, from holding anappointment as a medical officer in any vessel registered in thatpossession 18 default of general council - in default of the general council toperform any duty, the privy council may notify their opinion tothe general council, and on the failure of the general council tocomply with any direction of the privy council, the privy council maythemselves give effect to such direction, and for that purpose exerciseany power vested in the general council, and of their own motion doanything which they are authorized to do in pursuance of a report orsuggestion from the general council 19 sanitary science - every registered medical practitioner to whom adiploma for proficiency in sanitary science, public health or statemedicine has after special examination been granted, by any college orfaculty of physicians or surgeons or university in the united kingdom, or by any such bodies acting in combination, shall, if such diplomaappear to the privy council or general council to deserve recognitionin the medical register, be entitled on the payment of such fee as thegeneral council may appoint, to have such diploma entered in the saidregister in addition to any other diploma or diplomas in respect ofwhich he is registered 21 evidence - any act of the privy council shall be sufficiently signifiedby an instrument signed by the clerk of the council, and every orderand act signified by an instrument purporting to be signed by the clerkof the council shall be deemed to have been duly made and done by theprivy council, and every instrument so signed shall be received inevidence without proof of the authority or signature of the clerk ofthe council or other proof 22 the following copies of any orders made in pursuance of medical acts orthis act shall be evidence. 1 any copy purporting to be printed by the queen printer, or by anyother printer in pursuance of an authority given by the general council 2 any copy of an order certified to be a true copy by the registrarof the general council, or by any other person appointed by the generalcouncil, either in addition to or in exclusion of the registrar, tocertify such orders 23 rights unaffected - this act does not vary the rights of personspractising as registered medical practitioners on the day preceding theday when it goes into effect 24 in consequence of the repeal of any enactment repealed by this act, noperson legally entitled to practise as a medical practitioner in anycolony or writing of her majesty dominions other than the united kingdomshall cease to be so entitled if he would have been entitled if no suchrepeal had taken place 25 definitions - in the act the word diploma means any diploma, degree, fellowship, membership, license, authority to practise, letters, testimonial, certificate or other status or document granted by anyuniversity, corporation, college, or other body or by any dewritingmentsof or person acting under the authority of the government of anycountry or place within or without her majesty dominion s 27 fees - the fees are to be determined by the general council within thelimits set by the various sections authorizing fees british columbia medical council - there is a body styled “the medical council ofbritish columbia, ” composed of seven members who are registered medicalpractitioners elected by the votes of registered medical practitioners cons acts 1888, c 81, s 2, 3, 4, 5 no person can lawfully vote at such election unless his fees to thecouncil have been paid. And no person is eligible to election unlessqualified to vote at such election 14 a register of such qualified voters is required to be prepared by theregistrar of the council and no person is entitled to vote whose nameis not on the register. It is the duty of the registrar to examine intothe written complaint of any medical practitioner as to the improperomission or insertion of any name in the list.

referto results that were obtained after treatment for from twelve totwenty-four hours and indicates that the change was slight at best andof no practical import -- from the journal a m a , oct 23, 1915, with additions iodum-miller and iod-izd-oil miller report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council adopted the following report and authorized its publication w a puckner, secretary a referee has submitted to the council the following report of thechemical laboratory of the american medical association on iodum-millerand iod-izd-oil miller iodum-miller co , kansas city, mo :the unsatisfactory statements made in regard to the composition ofiodum-miller and the far-reaching therapeutic recommendations forit induced the laboratory to make a chemical examination of thepreparation it claimed more or less directly that the preparation isentirely new and possesses novel characteristics it is asserted that “iodum-miller is made from soot iodine, which is our own product this soot iodine is soluble in water before being combined with its base c p glycerine ”no information regarding “soot iodine” is offered and an inquiry sentto the proprietors by a physician brought only the noncommittal replythat “soot iodine” “is made from resublime resublimed?. iodine by a chemical process which renders it soluble in water before being combined with its base ”iodum-miller is said to contain “active free iodine 2 2 grams per 100 c c , 10 grains per fluid ounce, 1 7% by weight ” “in addition to the active free iodine iodum-miller carries a still greater per cent of iodine in its basic combination ”according to the label, the preparation is “an iodine for external and internal use 45 drops equals 1 dr by weight each drop equals the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide ”iodum-miller is a heavy, dark liquid having an odor characteristicof ether ethyl oxid qualitative tests revealed the presence ofglycerin, free iodin, iodid and potassium the specific gravity at 25degrees was 1 284 direct titration with sodium thiosulphate solutionindicated the presence of 1 68 per cent of free iodin a determinationof the total iodin content by the hunter method indicated 3 06 percent subtraction of the amount of free iodin found from the totalamount of iodin present, gives 1 38 per cent combined iodin assumingthis to be present as potassium iodid, as appears probable from thequalitative examination and from the quantitative determination ofpotassium, 1 80 per cent potassium iodid is indicated from thisexamination it is concluded that iodum-miller is, essentially, a solution of iodin and potassium iodid in glycerin, containing1 68 per cent free iodin and 1 80 per cent potassium iodid theexamination contradicts the assumption that iodum-miller is eithernovel in principle or new moreover, accepting the firm statementthat 45 drops weigh 1 dram 60 grains the examination shows that onedrop equals not “the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide” butinstead, the per cent of iodin in only 1/20 grain potassium iodid asthe statement that “each drop equals the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide” appears on the label of the trade package, iodum-millerwould seem to be misbranded under the federal food and drugs act the recommended internal dosage of iodum-miller from 1/2 to 20 dropsis equivalent to from 1/40 to 1 grain of potassium iodid its externalefficacy in comparison with that of other iodin preparations may beestimated by comparing the respective free iodin contents, since thegermicidal power of combined iodid is negligible while iodum-millercontains 2 15 gm free iodin in 100 c c , tincture of iodin contains7 gm per 100 c c and compound solution of iodin lugol solutioncontains 5 gm free iodin in 100 gm among the advertising literature is a circular which purports to bea “certificate from kansas city testing laboratory, by roy cross, secretary ” the “certificate” attempts to prove that iodum-miller isvastly superior to the official tincture of iodin as a germicide, asserting that “in the process of dissolving tincture of iodin inwater, a very large amount of the iodin is lost by precipitation ”this is not true of the tincture of iodin which is now official, though it is true of the tincture official in former editions of thepharmacopeia the report ignores completely the widely used aqueoussolution of iodin iod-izd-oil miller is said to be an “iodine combination” made“from the same soluble soot iodine as is iodum-miller ” it is saidto “liberate free soluble iodine” when applied to the skin, mucoussurfaces, etc it is further defined as “soluble iodine combinedwith water-white hydrocarbon oil” and is said to liberate “solubleiodine 2 per cent ” while these statements suggest that iod-izd-oil miller contains the iodin-potassium iodid combination contained iniodum-miller, analysis indicated the oil to be a simple solution ofiodin in liquid petrolatum quantitative determinations indicated, not2 per cent of iodin, as claimed, but only 0 42 per cent and all ofthis was present as free iodin referee reportthe following therapeutic claims appear on the label of a bottle ofiodum-miller:“external indications “tuberculosis, pneumonia, pleurisy, cough, sore throat, pyorrhea, tonsilitis, rheumatism, spinal irritation, boils, felons or any pain periostitis, carbuncles, fistula in ano, goiter, blood poison, diseases of uterus and appendages apply full strength on cotton wrapped applicator, gonorrhea, acute or chronic in both sexes, orchitis, bubo, prostatitis, swellings, enlarged glands, etc ”“internal indications “pneumonia, tuberculosis, pleurisy, typhoid fever, syphilis, catarrh of mucous surface of alimentary canal, autotoxemia, vomiting of pregnancy, rheumatism, chronic glandular and organic affections ”the “certificate” from the kansas city testing laboratory, mentionedabove, states that iodum-miller was found to have a germicidal valuenineteen times greater than carbolic acid-- a essaywhat remarkablefinding in view of the fact that iodin dissolved by means of potassiumiodid in alcohol or water, when tried on the typhoid bacillus hasrecently been found to possess only four times the germicidal valueof carbolic acid in a solution of the same strength maben and white:chem and drug , jan 30, 1915, p 144 the “certificate” furtherstates that the test “shows available iodine as found in iodum-millerto have the greatest bactericidal power of any substance that we haveever tested that can be used medicinally ” there is no reason tobelieve that the desire to please its patrons has led the “testinglaboratory” astray from the literal truth the laboratory experiencemay be limited and the statement therefore entirely correct as faras it goes no mention, however, is made of any tests comparing thegerm-destroying power of iodum-miller with that of tincture of iodin, which contains 7 per cent free iodin, unless the casual statement that“iodum-miller sterilized the skin more quickly” than tincture ofiodin, be taken to imply such tests it is not clear, however, by whatmeans the laboratory was able to determine that there were no bacterialeft alive in the skin after application of tincture of iodin andiodum-miller. No details are given of the methods used in arriving atthis conclusion a circular says that iodum-miller “ gives the greatest bactericidal and therapeutic action, whether used internally, externally, hypodermically or intravenously ”in the light of the preceding report of the chemical laboratory of theassociation, these claims require little comment the laboratory hasshown that the free iodin content and consequently the germicidalefficiency of iodum-miller is less than half that of lugol solution, and less than a third of that of the official tincture of iodin asfor the advice to use iodum-miller internally in diseases rangingfrom pneumonia to syphilis and from typhoid to tuberculosis, in orderto be convinced of its dangerous character, it is necessary only torecall that this treatment is equivalent to the administration ofsmall doses of iodid-- from 1/40 to 1 grain of potassium iodid themystery being removed from the composition of iodum-miller, the absurdextravagance of the claims made for it becomes manifest the criticismsof the council on the recommendations for burnham soluble iodine the journal a m a , may 15, 1915, p 1673 apply in almost everywritingicular to iodum-miller unwarranted therapeutic claims are made for iodum-miller. Incorrectstatements are made with regard to its composition and that ofiod-izd-oil miller. And the application of a trade name to bothof these products is unjustifiable, since neither is original it istherefore recommended that iodum-miller and iod-izd-oil miller beheld ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies-- abstracted in thejournal a m a , oct 2, 1915 elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp “without mercury” and “with mercury” report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe tilden company, new lebanon, n y , and st louis, mo , sells“elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp without mercury” and “elixiriodo-bromide of calcium comp with mercury ” the latter is said tocontain, in addition to the ingredients of the former, 1/100 grainmercuric chlorid in each fluidram according to the label the formulaof the elixir “without mercury” is. “formula-- salts of iodine, bromine, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium with stillingia, sarsaparilla, rumex, dulcamara, lappa, taraxacum, menispermum ”a recent circular declares that the elixir contains. “ a number of the most powerful alteratives of the pharmacopeia such as chemically pure iodin, magnesium, potassium with sarsaparilla, stillingia, prickly ash, burdock, taraxacum, etc each fluidounce contains seventy-two grains of the combined salts ”the same circular also alleges that each dram of the preparationcontains. “ the equivalent of one and one-half grains of the combined iodids, potassium and calcium ”it will be observed that, 1 the two statements quoted from thecircular make no reference to bromids. 2 the statement that eachdram contains “the equivalent” of 1-1/2 grains of the combined iodids, potassium and calcium, accounts for but 12 of the 72 grains of “thecombined salts” per fluidounce declared in the preceding quotation. 3 the circular mentions the presence of a drug-- prickly ash-- notdeclared on the label and, finally 4 none of the “formulas” gives thequantities of all of the several constituents it is evident from these “formulas” that the tilden company continuesits policy of concealment and mystification as exemplified in the paperof hydrocyanate of iron, tilden discussed in the journal, june 19, 1909, p 2008, febrisol the journal, june 29, 1912, p 2043 andrespirazone the journal, june 14, 1913, p 1899 in the circular just quoted “the conquest of syphilis”, all hope forthe syphilitic is declared to rest in mercury and iodin, and it isimplied that only through elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp is itpossible to obtain the greatest good from these drugs “were the cleansing influences of these two drugs mercury and iodin unavailable to the luetic patient, he, truly, would be as pitiable an object as the leper “modern pharmacy has devised no better means of utilizing these anti-syphilitics than elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden with or without mercury the elixir, in proper dosage, acts in specific fashion and is adapted for use in all stages of the disease “in the early months elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden with mercury is a trustworthy weapon and the physician need have no fear but that it will subjugate the disease “when the virulent stage is passed elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden without mercury may be given the patient with every assurance that medicine most aggressive measures are being resorted to from time to time, up to the very end of the time honored three years’ period of treatment, it is well to put the patient back on the bichloride, using for this purpose the form of the elixir administered in the first stages of the disease “this regime will indubitably antidote the virus of syphilis and eradicate from the organism its every vestige ”while it seems incredible that any physician would jeopardize thehealth-- even the life-- of a patient by accepting this boastfulmagniloquence as sound therapeutic advice, still the fact that certainmedical journals lend their advertising pages to advertisements fortilden elixir with the caption “the conquest of syphilis” makes itincumbent on the council to record its condemnation of the employmentof this unscientific, semisecret mixture it is recommended that elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp “withoutmercury” and “with mercury” be held in conflict with rule 1 secrecyof composition, rule 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims and rule 10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , nov 6, 1915 lecithin preparations omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report was sent to the manufacturers of the variouslecithin preparations mentioned therein as the replies of themanufacturers were obviously written from the commercial point ofview and did not affect the council conclusion that lecithin, whenindicated, would be given more advantageously in the form of yolk ofegg than in the less pure manufactured product, the council directedthat the report be published, together with extracts from the repliesof the manufacturers w a puckner, secretary commercial lecithin preparations are at best very impure substances;all are more or less altered from the original composition evenwith great care, the methods of extraction and drying always produceconsiderable decomposition. And in essay paper the phosphorus andnitrogen contents bear but little relation to the theoretical values long, j h. Jour am chem soc , xxx, 881 mclean, hugh. Chem abstracts, may 20, 1915 there is not the slightest reliable evidencethat commercial lecithin has any advantage over the lecithin containedin natural foods. The weight of probability is on the other side the doses recommended, moreover, are absurdly small. And the amountthus administered is without practical value why administer a fewmilligrams of a more or less decomposed lecithin when it is possible togive a far larger weight of a purer substance in the form of yolk ofegg?. In view of these considerations the council voted that the followingproprietary products be omitted from the next edition of n n r. Glycerole of lecithin lecibrin lecithin solution lecithol neuro-lecithin-abbottand that the general article on “lecithin preparations” be transferredto the annual council reports as a matter of record the report was submitted to the manufacturers their replies wereevidently based on commercial consideration, and called for nomodification in the report the referee recommended that the preceding report be published togetherwith the following extracts from the replies of the manufacturers:from armour and company. “we are selling a good deal of lecithol and it seems to be giving satisfactory results in essay quarters we shall continue to advertise lecithol along the lines we have employed heretofore ”from the abbott laboratories. “we can assure you of our confidence in the therapeutic value of neuro-lecithin this has been attested by the reports of favorable results sent us by thesis physicians, as well as by the periodical literature of the last few years which contains a considerable number of very encouraging references to lecithin therapy ”from fairchild bros & foster.

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And this is enough, comparison-contrast essay one would think, toteach a man by the effect where the cause lies then to find out thereason of the operation of herbs, plants, &c , by the stars went i. Andherein i could find but few authors, but those as full of nonsense andcontradiction as an egg is full of meat this not being pleasing, andless profitable to me, i consulted with my two brothers, dr reason anddr experience, and took a voyage to visit my mother nature, by whoseadvice, together with the help of dr diligence, i at last obtained mydesire. And, being warned by mr honesty, a stranger in our days, topublish it to the world, i have done it but you will say, what need i have written on this subject, seeing sothesis famous and learned men have written so much of it in the englishtongue, much more than i have done?. To this i answer, neither gerrard nor parkinson, or any that ever wrotein the like nature, ever gave one wise reason for what they wrote, andso did nothing else but train up young novices in physic in the schoolof tradition, and teach them just as a parrot is taught to speak. Anauthor says so, therefore it is true. And if all that authors say betrue, why do they contradict one another?. but in mine, if you view itwith the eye of reason, you shall see a reason for everything that iswritten, whereby you may find the very ground and foundation of physic;you may know what you do, and wherefore you do it.