Compare Contrast Essay Example

That after passing suchexamination he has followed his studies during a period not compare contrast essay example less thanfour years one of which may be under the direction of one or moregeneral practitioners duly licensed. That during such four years hehas attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school ofmedicine in good standing, courses of lectures amounting together tonot less than twelve months on general anatomy, on practical anatomy, on surgery, on the practice of medicine, on midwifery, on chemistry, on materia medica and pharmacy, and on the institutes of medicine orphysiology, and one three-months’ course of medical jurisprudence;that he has attended the general practice of a hospital in whichare not less than fifty beds under the charge of not less than twophysicians or surgeons, for a period of not less than one year or twoperiods of not less than six months each. That he has also attendedtwo three-months’ courses or one six-months’ course of clinicalmedicine, and the same of clinical surgery.

It also assuages the painof the gout, the sciatica, and other pains in the joints which arisefrom a hot cause and applied with vinegar to the forehead and temples, helps the head-ache and want of sleep in hot fevers the juice of theherb or seed, or the oil drawn from the seed, does the like the oilof the seed is helpful for deafness, noise, and worms in the ears, being dropped therein. The juice of the herb or root doth the same thedecoction of the herb or seed, or both, kills lice in man or beast the fume of the dried herb, stalks and seed, burned, quickly healsswellings, chilblains or kibes in the hands or feet, by holding them inthe fume thereof the remedy to help those that have taken henbane isto drink goat milk, honeyed water, or pine kernels, with sweet wine;or, in the absence of these, fennel seed, nettle seed, the seed ofcresses, mustard, or radish. As also onions or garlic taken in wine, doall help to free them from danger, and restore them to their due temperagain take notice, that this herb must never be taken inwardly. Outwardly, an oil ointment, or plaister of it, is most admirable for thegout, to cool the veneral heat of the reins in the french pox. Tostop the toothache, being applied to the aching side. To allay allinflammations, and to help the diseases before premised hedge hyssop divers sorts there are of this plant.

Knot over mastoid process forty minutes, cord compare contrast essay example and strapremoved. Body, especially face, became paler necroscopy a little overan hour after drop fell body pale. Skin mottled. Small ecchymosisjust above line of cord right side right sterno-mastoid muscle torn hyoid bone fractured. Spine not injured no seminal discharge ninetyminutes, pulsation in right subclavian vein. Heart-beat, eighty perminute. Thorax opened, heart exposed. Right auricle showed full andregular contractions and dilatations the spinal cord was then divided one hundred and twenty minutes, heart-beats forty per minute thesepulsations of right auricle continued at intervals for three and a halfhours longer. Readily excited by point of scalpel heart normal.

“tongaline is essentially a preparation of sodium salicylate, the mellier drug company realized the impossibility of creating any marked demand for a nostrum unless it had essay real drugs in it-- hence the presence of the salicylates what the actual composition of tongaline is, no one but the manufacturers know at one time the following was given as the formula. Fluid tonga 30 grains extract of cimicifuga racemosa 20 grains sodium salicylate 10 grains pilocarpin salicylate 1/100 grain colchin salicylate 1/500 grain “these amounts refer to the quantity of drugs in each fluidram of the preparation whether the nostrum still has this composition we do not know, but assuming that it has, it is quite evident that sodium salicylate is the essential and active ingredient ”the therapeutic indications given on the label of the bottle are. “rheumatism, neuralgia, grippe, gout, nervous headache, sciatica, lumbago, malaria, tonsillitis, heavy colds, excess of uric acid, and wherever the use of the salicylates is indicated ”in a recent booklet this semisecret salicylate mixture is recommended, not only in conditions in which salicylates are indicated, but alsocombined with aconite for rheumatic fever, with benzoate of soda inthe treatment of “grippe, ” with potassium bromid in nervous headaches, with gelsemium, glycerin and whisky for “heavy colds, ” with ammoniumchlorid, stramonium and cimicifuga in “rheumatic dysmenorrhea, ” andeven with mercury biniodid as a treatment of syphilitic eruptions!. “when administered with good judgment, tongaline exerts a stimulating effect upon every organ of elimination. Cleansing the complex sewerage system and putting it into working order when this is done, the sluggish blood current begins to flow more freely. The lymphatic and glandular systems to give up and carry off the toxic products, so long retained ” tongaline tabletsthen because of a “desire to put tongaline in a more compact andconvenient form, ” the same concern puts on the market tongalinetablets whether tongaline tablets are of the same composition, thedoctor who prescribes them is not advised in this form we havetongaline and lithia tablets, and tongaline and quinin tablets presumably those who are attracted by the word “lithia” aresufficiently uncritical to be content with the statement that. “the addition of lithia to tongaline presents a most useful combination which does not rely upon its action on the kidneys alone as is the case with lithia salts or lithia waters as administered ”and the foregoing quotation, be it remembered, is for the informationof the medical profession!. tongaline and lithia tablets, we areinformed, are. “ writingicularly indicated for certain diseases which are caused by deposits of urates in the joints and kidneys, and can be used with much benefit for thesis people who indulge in generous or intemperate habits of living ”tongaline and quinine tablets are also exploited without statementof composition the promoters are probably justified in feeling thatphysicians who prescribe quinin in combination with “tongaline” carelittle about the dosage it is unnecessary to discuss the silly claims made for tongaline andits combinations, although it is worth while to point out that theprescribing of such nostrums by physicians is an imposition, if not afraud, on the public ponca compoundponca compound, also made by the mellier drug company, st louis, is a“female weakness remedy” in tablet form the name suggests that “ponca”is a medicinal substance, and, in fact, at one time, “ext ponca” wasnamed as an ingredient the nature of “ext ponca” was apparently neverexplained it is now replaced in the “formula” by “senecin, ” and theonly information concerning the composition at present given is. “ponca compound tablets contain extract of mitchella repens, senecin, helonin, caulophyllin and viburnin ”this “formula” is practically meaningless, not only because theamount of each ingredient is not stated, but also because “senecin, ”“helonin, ” “caulophyllin” and “viburnin” are in themselves variablemixtures of unknown composition 1313 see report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry on “resinoidsand concentrations, ” j a m a , nov 13, 1909, p 1655 presumably, “senecin, ” “helonin, ” “caulophyllin” and “viburnin” areextractives of essay kind prepared, respectively, from senecio aureus life root, helonias dioica false unicorn, calophyllum thalictroides blue cohosh and viburnum prunifolium or opulus black haw or crampbark these are, one and all, practically inert drugs there is noreason to believe that any or all of them can have any beneficialinfluence in the thesis and varied conditions for which ponca compound isadvertised the following are excerpts from the advertising matter. “ponca compound is a remedy of a very beneficial character for functional, uterine and ovarian troubles, which will respond to internal treatment, especially when digital examination or surgical interference is undesirable ” “ponca compound is also valuable during gestation and after writingurition ” “uterine alterative for leucorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, metritis, endometritis, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, irregular menstruation, subinvolution, painful pregnancy ”it is recommended that tongaline and ponca compound and all theirpreparations be held in conflict with rule 1, in view of theirsemisecret and indefinite composition. With rule 6, for the grosslyexaggerated therapeutic claims made for them. With rule 8, because oftheir misleading names, and with rule 10, in view of their unscientificcharacter as irrational combinations it is also recommended that thisreport be published -- from the journal a m a , july 17, 1915 alfatone report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has found alfatone ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies and has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary alfalfa is good cattle feed but only nostrum exploiters have suggestedits use as a medicine for human beings while it may seem a waste oftime to discuss the medicinal value of alfalfa its recent exploitationby the norwich pharmacal company, norwich, n y , as “a reconstructivetonic and nutrient” in the form of a mixture called “alfatone, ” callsfor comment according to the label on the preparation. “each fluidounce represents. alcohol 15 per cent medicago sativa alfalfa 120 grains taraxacum 2-1/2 grains gentian 1 grain berberine hydrochloride 1/40 grain glycerin and aromatics ” “dose -- one to three fluidrams 4 to 12 c c 4 times daily ”each maximum dose, therefore, should represent 45 grains of alfalfa, 1grain of taraxacum dandelion, 3/8 grain of gentian, 1/100 grain ofberberin hydrochlorid, and 27 minims of alcohol since the bitter drugsare present in such small amounts that the preparation is almost devoidof bitterness, and as the medicinal value of alfalfa is practicallynil, it is evident that whatever action alfatone may have is due to thestimulant effects of the alcohol essay of the claims made for alfatone are. “a reconstructive nutritive tonic indicated in general debility, neurasthenia, convalescence, etc ” “ a galactagogue of merit as well ” “ improves the appetite, aids the processes of digestion and assimilation, facilitates elimination and effects gradual but decided gains in strength, vitality and weight ”it is suggested that. “ in case of idiosyncrasy the addition of tr nux vomica 5 to 10 minims to the dose, unless contraindicated, will secure excellent results ”the norwich pharmacal company naively remarks. “the dearth of medical literature on alfalfa has lead us to present below a few of the findings of the bureau of plant industry of the dewritingment of agriculture as well as those from several state experiment stations ”here are the “findings”. “ digestible nutrients in 100 pounds of alfalfa, protein, 11 0 pounds.

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“it is quite impossible to confound a burninflicted during life with one inflicted after death compare contrast essay example ”woodman and tidy, 717 in an extended series of experiments, concludethat while blisters can be produced post mortem, they are readilydistinguished from those formed ante mortem in containing no serum. Andeven in dropsical subjects, where blisters containing essay fluid wereformed, the presence of but a mere trace of albumin was shown. And, inall, no redness about the base of the blisters was produced, nor anyappearance of redness after removal of the cuticle taylor718 has never observed vesications in post-mortem experimentson infants he cites a case of drowning where the person, “pulselessand apparently dead, ” was imprudently placed in a hot bath blisterscontaining bloody serum were formed over several portions of the body he concludes that hot water on the living and recently dead body, sofar as vesication is concerned, produces similar effects in experiments on the dead body immediately after death the writer hasfailed to produce any blister containing serum or fluid the so-calledblisters are produced by the rapid expansion and evaporation of thefluid beneath the cuticle over the portion to which the heat wasapplied, and differ distinctly from blisters caused during life, in theabsence of serum or any redness of adjacent or subjacent writings plateii chambert719 concludes that in living bodies and in dead bodies withintwenty-four hours after death blisters can be produced, and that lessheat will develop them in the living he specially emphasizes thedifference, in the albuminous character of the contents, of a blisterformed ante mortem and of one formed post mortem jastrowitz720 emphasizes the difference between blisters formedduring life and those occurring in œdematous conditions blisters are to be distinguished from the bullæ arising fromputrefaction there is little danger of confounding such paper inconditions of putrefaction no redness or line of demarcation exists, and the green discoloration and other conditions of the skin willsuffice to establish the diagnosis schjerning721 considers blisters containing highly albuminous serumas diagnostic of burns produced during life in essay conditions ofdepression of nutrition blisters occasionally form, but are not liableto be confounded with those caused by burning a second anatomical feature of much importance, even more so thanvesication, is the condition of the skin to which the heat was applied it assumes a dusky red color and a dry and parchment-like condition case 8 surrounding this is an area of grayish-white skin bounded bya sharply defined and deeply injected red line, which in turn shadesinto the color of the surrounding skin these features are more or lesspronounced according to the degree of heat applied and to the length oftime of contact. Or, in other words, to the depth and severity of theburn plate i means of distinguishing ante-mortem from post-mortem burns differentially, a distinction is to be made between the surroundingredness and the line of redness the redness due to capillarydistention is transient, disappears under pressure during life, and fades after death the line of redness is permanent, changingbut little under pressure, and remains after death it is a vitalreactionary effort, a true line of separation between living anddead tissue, formed in the same manner as the line of demarcation insphacelus or gangrene this line of redness, developed only during lifeand permanent after death, is of great significance in paper witha medico-legal bearing it has been already stated that in personsin a condition of depressed vitality the appearance of redness andvesication is essaytimes very tardy and imperfect, and that death fromshock or pain may occur before their development at all they are vitalprocesses and require time for their appearance in proportion to theactivity of the powers of reaction hence in paper of burning resultingfatally where vesication and redness do not appear, the circumstancesmust be carefully considered before deciding that the burns producedwere post mortem with these qualifications, it may be stated that thepresence of the red line is almost uniform in burns inflicted duringlife and absent in those occurring after death if upon a body bearing evidences of exposure to heat there be foundblisters containing highly albuminous serum, and such blisters, afterthe removal of the cuticle, present a bright red base surrounded bya bright and sharp line of demarcation, with redness of adjacentsurface, we are justified in concluding that the burns were inflictedante mortem or, at farthest, within a few moments of death if, on thecontrary, the red line is absent and the blisters contain a thin wateryfluid, with a yellowish and dry condition of their base after removalof the cuticle, the presumption is that the burning occurred postmortem where a number of burns are found upon a body, the question whetherthey were produced simultaneously may be raised this can be answeredby examination as to their condition if essay show signs of recentinfliction, while others are in conditions of suppuration or otherchanges which only occur after an interval, a difference of time inproduction would be probable but if all present mainly the sameconditions, the probability of their occurring at the same time may beconcluded plates i and ii the condition of the blood - special examination of the blood ofpersons dying from the effect of burns has been made by competentobservers while it is not at present possible to define an exact andconstant condition, specially characteristic, essay features of interesthave been recently recorded the color of the blood has been variously reported. In essay paper asbeing of a dark color and in others of a bright arterial hue deathby asphyxia or suffocation, by the deprivation of oxygen, and by theproducts of combustion, would be accompanied by a dark or venous hueof the blood an atmosphere containing an excess of carbon monoxide, resulting from combustion, would cause death by apnœa with an arterialhue to the blood 722 but other influences must be considered according to schjerning, 723 it is difficult to deduce positiveconclusions from the condition of the blood the changes induced by thespleen and kidneys, as well as the varying intensity of the degree ofheat to which the body may be subjected, tend to render positive andconstant conclusions from this source difficult falk724 refers to the bright red color of the blood found in essaypaper, and explains this condition in writing by the influence of chemicalchanges in the tissues surrounding the vessels wertheim725 describes certain conditions observed by him and mentionsan increase in the number of the leucocytes, together with the presenceof hæmoglobin and melanin hoppe seyler meets with similar results and arrives at the sameconclusions in his observations ponfik, 726 on the contrary, is doubtful of the constant presence ofessay of these conditions and also of their diagnostic value seliger727 confirms the conclusions of wertheim, in that he describesthe presence of crystalline bodies and of dark discolorations melanin essay spectroscopic analyses have disclosed the presence of bandsadditional to those of normal blood the lack of uniformity ofconditions described and of conclusions reached leaves the subject in aposition of uncertainty examination of the blood of those dying fromburns has not been so extensively and minutely followed as to enable usto decide questions which may arise in any case explanation of plate ii figure 1 - ante-mortem burn scald by steam from a boiler bursting, july, 1892 from a photograph taken sixty hours after the accident the injurycovered one-half of the surface of the body the red line is sharplymarked. The extensive blisters formed are broken and their contentshave escaped. The serum drying has produced yellowish discolorations;the blush of redness on adjacent writings is well marked death resultedon the fifth day figure 2 - post-mortem burn exp 1 appearances after application of a tin can containingboiling water the cuticle was raised by expansion the blisterscontained no serum and no red line is developed figure 3 - post-mortem burn exp 2 appearances after the application of iron at a dull redheat no proper blister formed.