History

Compare And Contrast Essay Rubric


Essay writings which are to be cut into panes coolfaster than others a compare and contrast essay rubric bullet striking the portion of the glass whichhas cooled quickly strikes an object which will yield essaywhat to theforce. In doing this a hole will be made smaller than if that morebrittle had been struck furthermore, all rifles taper more or lessfrom breech to muzzle, that is, the muzzle will measure one or morethousandths or hundredths less than the breech the bullet being forcedthrough the narrow aperture yields to the pressure and becomes smaller the gun under consideration was measured at the new york armory, andfound to be 44 at the breech or chamber and 423 at the muzzle considering these various facts, statements that a ball of known sizewill make a hole through glass smaller than the size of the ball whenfired do not admit of doubt as to their verity essay statements bearingon this same point contained in a recent letter from captain shaler, ofthe united states army, deserve mention here the following experimentwas made in washington by captain lyon in october, 1880:“noticing a statement in a newspaper to the effect that a ball firedfrom a rifle would, in passing through glass, make a round hole smallerthan the diameter of the ball used, the following experiment was made:“service ammunition used, in a calibre 45 springfield rifle topenetrate glass ═════════════════════╤═══════════════════╤════════════════════════ time fired │ size of hole made │ remarks │ in glass, inches │ ─────────────────────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────── 1 │ 0 570 │ 2 │ 0 550 │ 3 │ 0 600 │ 4 │ 0 600 │ 5 │ 0 575 │ 6 │ 0 575 │ the frame holding the 7 │ 0 590 │ glass was placed 25 8 │ 0 620 │ yards from the muzzle 9 │ 0 600 │ of the gun │ │ average size of hole │ 0 586 │ calibre of bullet │ 0 458 │ │ ────── │ difference │ 0 125 │ ─────────────────────┴───────────────────┴────────────────────────“from the above it will be noted that there is no uniformity in thesize of the holes and that they all exceed the diameter of the bullet “these experiments were supplemented by essay made recently in whicha sash containing six panes of ordinary window-glass was placedat twenty-five yards from the firer and the glass was successivelypenetrated a separate pane being used in each case by bullets from aservice 45-calibre springfield rifle, a 30-calibre springfield rifle, a 45-calibre colt revolver and a 22-calibre revolver in every casethe hole made was much larger than the bullet making it ”with reference also to the effect of a ball being smaller than itsoriginal diameter after it leaves the piece, captain shaler states:“all very compressible bullets forced by inertia lose a certain amounteven though they also gain force by slugging forcing by inertia tendsto shorten the bullet and increase the diameter, while slugging tendsto lengthen the bullet and reduce its diameter whether the bullet issmaller after it leaves the piece depends upon the bullet used and themethod of forcing employed ”to return to the billings case, it was claimed that the bullet wasalso too small it weighed 165 grains, 55 less than when it was firedfrom the rifle balch found in firing at human skulls, the subjects inall the trials but two being placed in a sitting posture, essaytimeswith a sash like the billings window in front of the subject, that theball lost lead in accordance with the resistance it met with and theamount of bone ploughed in its passage these experiments conclusivelyprove that the weight of a ball taken from a body after being fired, it having traversed a bone in its flight, is by no means evidence ofits weight before firing. In other words, a ball always loses essaylead when passing through bone with the same rifle as that producedat the trial he made a series of experiments in the dissecting-room, endeavoring to make a bullet enter the skull at the same point and innearly as possible the same direction as in the case of the murderedwoman in six such experiments there were varying losses of lead, allthe bullets used being the same general weight in two trials thedistance was but ten feet from the muzzle, yet more lead was lostthan in any of the other four the least loss recorded took place atthe longest distance, thirty-five feet this in writing accounts for theloss of lead, for at ten feet the bullet has not acquired its greatestpenetrating power, for he showed by experiment that a 220-grain bulletfired at a human skull will lose more lead than was missing from thebillings bullet, thus disposing of the question raised by the defencethat a ball could not have weighed 220 grains before being fired just how to account for the missing lead has never been clearlyestablished we have to remember that a few grains may be left inthe bore of a rifle, especially if rusty. That in passing throughglass another portion is lost, and finally it is scarcely conceivablethat any bullet should penetrate an adult skull, especially inthe neighborhood of the mastoid processes, without losing quite aperceptible percentage of its mass by friction it was also claimed by the defence that the ball taken from mrs billings’ head had been fired from a weapon of low velocity, whichwas held to account for the fact that the ball failed to pass out ofthe skull the rifle when tested at the government arsenal showeda mean velocity of 999 feet per second had it been as high as wassupposed by the defence, namely, 1, 300 or 1, 400 feet, the argumentthat a bullet driven with this force would always go through the skullwould have more weight, but with the velocity found by actual test theenergy of the ball was lessened to nearly one-half of that supposed the bullet which killed mrs billings did not pass entirely throughthe skull it ploughed into the opposite side and broke before it atriangular piece of bone which broke the skin externally this showsthe resistance of external fascia against perforation a study of thelines of fracture in this writingicular case proved very interesting, butperhaps would be essaywhat irrelevant here a measurement of the skulland of the bullet-track through it shows the former to have been ofmore than ordinary thickness and density, and the channel ploughed inthe bone by the bullet along the base of it to have been nearly twoinches in length dr balch gives the following conclusions to his veryinteresting evidence. 1st a leaden ball passing through bone loseslead in proportion to the amount of bone traversed 2d if the petrousportion of the temporal bone be the writing struck by the ball and strucksquarely at the base, that portion of the bone is crumbled or broken insuch exceedingly fine pieces as to defy restoration 3d that if theball struck any writing of the skull the petrous portion will be broken, but can be usually recognized and generally put together again 4th that a ball of given calibre fired through glass may make a holeenough smaller than the full size of the ball before firing to preventan unfired ball of like calibre passing in all this kind of experimentation upon cadavers for the purpose ofeliciting evidence by reproducing as nearly as possible ante-morteminjuries, we must not forget that casper has strongly insisted that“it is extremely difficult to break up the organic cohesion of deadorgans if we endeavor to fracture the skull of a dead adult weshall find that an amount of force which if applied in life wouldindubitably produce fissures if not fracture, or complete crushingof the skull, leaves the dead skull quite uninjured the mostpowerful blows struck down upon the body, laid down horizontally, werewithout result, and only after repeated violent blows were we able toproduce perhaps one or a few fissures in the occipital or parietalbone, or in the temporal bone squamous portion, and usually in thelatter we were unable to produce more considerable effects, such ascomplete smashing of the skull or fissures of its base, even in onesingle instance the dead skull seems to have considerably more powerof resistance, and after its removal fissures of the bone were moreeasily produced by similar blows” vol i , p 245 and again.

Jour physiol 44:461, 1912 73 hedon. Compt rend soc de biol 74:375, 1913 74 pemberton, ralph, and sweet, j e. Further studies on theinfluence of the ductless glands on the pancreas, arch int med , may, 1910, p 466 digestive disturbances -- secretin for digestive disturbance was firstused in the “acid duodenal medication” of enriquez 75 this consistedin the giving of tartaric acid in thick keratin capsules, the acid notbeing liberated until the duodenum was reached, where it provoked theformation of secretin “the secretin mechanism, ” he says, “is probablycapable of pathologic disturbance as would result, for example, withdiminished acidity of chyme, disturbance of the normal motility ofthe stomach or pylorus, or diminished prosecretin in the mucosa sucha condition would produce disturbance of the pancreatic, biliary andintestinal secretions, and interfere with intestinal movements, witha clinical syndrome of intestinal dyspepsia as a result, among thechief and most constant symptoms of which would be constipation ”“the acid duodenal medication” was submitted to wide clinical use, and very favorable results in certain obstinate paper of constipationwere reported in regard to “diminished prosecretin in the mucosa, ”wentworth76 has claimed that in infantile atrophy such is thecondition, but sweet and pemberton77 have found that the difficultyof preparing secretin from human duodenums is such as to renderwentworth findings inconclusive 75 enriquez. Bull du lab de biol appliq 2, no 2-no 8, 1904 76 wentworth, a h. The cause of infantile atrophy, j a m a , july 20, 1907, p 204 77 sweet, j e , and pemberton, ralph. Experimental observations onsecretin, arch int med , february, 1908, p 231 beveridge78 suggests the use of secretin in a pyloric stenosis, b pancreatic insufficiency, c hepatic stimulation and cirrhosisof the liver d to stimulate peristalsis in colonic stasis, e ingastro-enterostomy and short-circuiting of the intestines he claimsto have used it in over a hundred paper with “brilliant results, ”and cites four typical histories the g w carnrick company, whichmanufactures “secretogen, ” an alleged secretin preparation, cites anumber of authorities79 as also recommending secretin for digestivedisorders harrower, who is or was connected with the carnrick company, in clinical journals80 has ardently advocated the use of secretin fora large number of maladies 78 beveridge. Am med 20:255, 1914 79 lockwood, g r. Diseases of stomach, 1913, chapter on achylia bassler, anthony. Am jour gastro-enter , 1914. Kemp, r c. Diseasesof stomach, intestine and pancreas, 1912 reed, boardman.

The radial beat ceased at six and one-half minutes. All signs of life at ten and one-half minutes, and the body was blue fourteen and one-half minutes, body let down. Mark about one-fourth inch deep on neck. Swelling above and below. No fracture of vertebræ strong galvanism of the pneumogastrics after sixteen or seventeen minutes at intervals of four seconds caused marked respiratory efforts. Sixty-six minutes, galvanism renewed. Heart-beat and radial pulse recognized. Epiglottis swollen, requiring the tongue to be drawn forward. A few ounces of blood removed. Pupils contracted one hundred and four minutes, galvanism renewed. Subject swallowed a little brandy-and-water one hundred and thirteen minutes, slight muscular action. Cornea sensible one hundred and eighty-six minutes, feet warm, carotid pulsation signs of life now increased till six hours after drop, when pupils began to dilate again twelve to fifteen ounces of blood were taken and pupils again contracted and pulse beat strong and steady. Breathing easy, more regular. Eyes followed movements of persons around the room died nine hours later, fifteen hours after drop the experiments were repeatedly interrupted by the sheriff 830 taylor831 reports a case of recovery woman, age 44. Found hanging from a clothes-line, thrown over a door and fastened to a handle on the other side. Her knees on the floor. White froth around the mouth.

Inwardly taken, it helps old coughs and hoarseness, pains in the sides, kills worms, and helps a stinking breath, helps thewasting compare and contrast essay rubric of the gums, fastens the teeth. Outwardly it helps wounds, andfills up ulcers with flesh you may take half a dram at a time mastich, strengthens the stomach exceedingly, helps such as vomit orspit blood, it fastens the teeth and strengthens the gums, being chewedin the mouth frankinsense, and olibanum, heat and bind, fill up old ulcers withflesh, stop bleeding, but is extremely bad for mad people turpentine, purges, cleanses the reins, helps the running of them styrax calamitis, helps coughs, and distillations upon the lungs, hoarseness, want of voice, hardness of the womb, but it is bad forhead-aches ammonicaum, applied to the side, helps the hardness and pains of thespleen camphire, eases pains of the head coming of heat, takes awayinflammations, and cools any place to which it is applied juices that all juices have the same virtues with the herbs or fruits whereofthey are made, i suppose few or none will deny, therefore i shall onlyname a few of them, and that briefly sugar is held to be hot in the first degree, strengthens the lungs, takes away the roughness of the throat, succours the reins and bladder the juice of citrons cools the blood, strengthens the heart, mitigates the violent heat of fevers the juice of lemons works the same effect, but not so powerfully juice of liquorice, strengthens the lungs, helps coughs and colds things bred from plants these have been treated of before, only two excepted the first ofwhich is, agaricus agarick. It purges flegm, choler, and melancholy, from thebrain, nerves, muscles, marrow, or more properly brain of the back, it cleanses the breast, lungs, liver, stomach, spleen, reins, womb, joints. It provokes urine, and the menses, kills worms, helps pains inthe joints, and causes a good colour. It is very seldom or never takenalone see syrup of roses with agarick lastly, vicus quircinus, or misleto of the oak, helps thefalling-sickness being either taken inwardly, or hung about oneneck living creatures millepedes so called from the multitude of their feet, though itcannot be supposed they have a thousand sows, hog-lice, wood-lice, being bruised and mixed with wine, they provoke urine, help the yellowjaundice, outwardly being boiled in oil, help pains in the ears, a dropbeing put into them the flesh of vipers being eaten, clear the sight, help the vices ofthe nerves, resist poison exceedingly, neither is there any betterremedy under the sun for their bitings than the head of the viper thatbit you, bruised and applied to the place, and the flesh eaten, youneed not eat above a dram at a time, and make it up as you shall betaught in troches of vipers neither any comparable to the stinging ofbees and wasps, &c than the same that sting you, bruised and appliedto the place land scorpions cure their own stingings by the same means. The ashesof them being burnt potently provokes urine, and breaks the stone earth-worms, are an admirable remedy for cut nerves being applied tothe place. They provoke urine. See the oil of them, only let me notforget one notable thing quoted by mizaldus, which is, that thepowder of them put into an hollow tooth, makes it drop out to draw a tooth without pain, fill an earthen crucible full of emmets, ants, or pismires, eggs and all, and when you have burned them, keepthe ashes, with which if you touch a tooth it will fall out eels, being put into wine or beer, and suffered to die in it, he thatdrinks it will never endure that sort of liquor again oysters applied alive to a pestilential swelling, draw the venom tothem crab-fish, burnt to ashes, and a dram of it taken every morning helpsthe bitings of mad dogs, and all other venomous beasts swallows, being eaten, clear the sight, the ashes of them beingburnt eaten, preserve from drunkenness, helps sore throats beingapplied to them, and inflammations grass-hoppers, being eaten, ease the cholic, and pains in the bladder hedge sparrows, being kept in salt, or dried and eaten raw, are anadmirable remedy for the stone young pigeons being eaten, help pains in the reins, and the diseasecalled tenesmus writings of living creatures, and excrements the brain of sparrows being eaten, provokes lust exceedingly the brain of an hare being roasted, helps trembling, it makeschildren breed teeth easily, their gums being rubbed with it, it alsohelps scald heads, and falling off of hair, the head being anointedwith it the head of a young kite, being burnt to ashes and the quantity ofa drachm of it taken every morning in a little water, is an admirableremedy against the gout crab-eyes break the stone, and open stoppings of the bowels the lungs of a fox, well dried, but not burned is an admirablestrengthener to the lungs. See the lohoch of fox lungs the liver of a duck, stops fluxes, and strengthens the liverexceedingly the liver of a frog, being dried and eaten, helps quartan agues, oras the vulgar call them, third-day agues castoreum resists poison, the bitings of venomous beasts. It provokesthe menses, and brings forth birth and after-birth. It expels wind, eases pains and aches, convulsions, sighings, lethargies. The smell ofit allays the fits of the mother.

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Therefore that whichgrows upon oaks is very dry and binding serapio saith that it beinginfused in wine, and the wine drank, it stays vomiting and fluxes, asalso the fluor albus myrtus myrtle-tree the leaves are of a cold earthly quality, dryingand binding, compare and contrast essay rubric good for fluxes, spitting and vomiting of blood. Stop thefluor albus and menses nardus see the root nasturtium, aquaticum, hortense water cresses, and garden-cresses garden-cresses are hot and dry in the fourth degree, good for thescurvy, sciatica, hard swellings, yet do they trouble the belly, easepains of the spleen, provoke lust dioscorides water-cresses arehot and dry, cleanse the blood, help the scurvy, provoke urine and themenses, break the stone, help the green-sickness, cause a fresh livelycolour nasturtium alhum, thlaspie treacle-mustard hot and dry in the thirddegree, purges violently, dangerous for pregnant women outwardly it isapplied with profit to the gout nicorimi tobacco it is hot and dry in the second degree, and ofa cleansing nature. The leaves warmed and applied to the head, areexcellently good in inveterate head-aches and megrims, if the diseasescome through cold or wind, change them often till the diseases be gone, help such whose necks be stiff. It eases the faults of the breast:asthma or head-flegm in the lappets of the lungs. Eases the painsof the stomach and windiness thereof. Being heated by the fire, andapplied hot to the side, they loosen the belly, and kill worms beingapplied unto it in like manner. They break the stone being appliedin like manner to the region of the bladder. Help the rickets, beingapplied to the belly and sides. Applied to the navel, they give presentease to the fits of the mother. They take away cold aches in the jointsapplied to them. Boiled, the liquor absolutely and speedily cures scabsand itch.