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Compare And Contrast Essay Papers


That is to say, it is 40 times more efficient as a germicide than phenol pure carbolic acid ”the trimethol syrup which was used in the investigation, when mixedwith water produced an almost perfectly transparent solution, whichjustifies the assumption that the proper physical conditions wereobserved and that this objection is not well founded as regards the relation of pancreatic fluid to bactericidalavailability of trimethol, there is little to say, other than that thepublished statements in the advertising accompanying the packages makeno compare and contrast essay papers mention of this point it would be interesting to know what, if any, relation the pancreatic fluid has to this substance, in view of thestatement that it “has a rideal-walker coefficient of 40 ”the trimethol “literature” does not throw light on the question, whatis the germicidal value of trimethol syrup as compared with phenol?. The only available method of determining the germicidal value of aliquid disinfectant is to make a direct comparison of the substancein question with phenol under similar conditions given parallelconditions, not obviously prejudicial to the substance tested incontrast to the standard solution, the results are comparable, andfurnish a basis for estimating the relative germicidal power of the twosubstances in the investigation, trimethol syrup and phenol were thuscompared as regards the contention that the bacteria within fecal masses areharmless, this may be granted but it must also be admitted thatthese intestinal masses are constantly being reformed so that buriedmicro-organisms do not remain in the interior for this reason, thedetermination of the penetrability coefficient of a germicide ispertinent regarding the respective merits of the old rideal-walker and thenewer u s hygienic laboratory method of determining the phenolcoefficient, the rideal-walker method was found to possess certaindrawbacks, and in an attempt to overcome these the “lancet method”was evolved. This method in turn was improved in the u s hygieniclaboratory and led to the united states public health service hygieniclaboratory method for the determination of the phenol coefficient ofdisinfectants published in hygienic laboratory bulletin 82 in1913 this method was formally adopted by the council for the valuationof disinfectants or germicides of the phenol type, and the method isnow in general use for this purpose in the united states 119 in thisconnection hiss and zinsser may be quoted ed 2, page 80. “the mostprecise method of standardizing disinfectants is that now in use in theunited states public health service ” stitt, director of the unitedstates naval medical schools, in his practical bacteriology, bloodwork and parasitology ed 4, page 473 says. “in the united statesdisinfectants are rated according to the hygienic laboratory phenolcoefficient ”119 those who are interested in the relative merits of therideal-walker, the lancet and the hygienic laboratory methods forthe valuation of disinfectants, should read the following. Methodof standardizing disinfectants with and without organic matter, j a m a , aug 24, 1912, p 667. Standardization of disinfectants, report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, j a m a , april26, 1913, p 1316. Standardizing disinfectants, j a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 883 the council adopted the recommendation of the committee on pharmacologyto the effect that the claims made for trimethol are unsupported byacceptable evidence accordingly, trimethol and the pharmaceuticalpreparations said to contain it-- trimethol syrup, trimethol capsules, and trimethol tablets-- were held ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , aug 11, 1917 ferrivine, intramine and collosol iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrye fougera & co , inc , new york, acting as agent for the british drughouses, ltd , london, advertise “ferrivine, ” “intramine” and “collosoliodine” to the medical profession a circular entitled “ferrivine, thenew anti-syphilitic remedy” begins. “ferrivine is the name given to ferric tri-para-amino-benzene sulphonate this iron compound was first prepared by mr j e r mcdonagh, f r c s , by whom it has been both biologically and clinically tested it is slightly soluble in water, the solution having an acid reaction “indications “according to mr j e r mcdonagh researches, the phases of the leucocytozoon syphilids are killed by the lipoid-globulin molecules of the serum, which possess a stereochemical molecular configuration homologous to those of the lipoid-globulin molecules of the parasite the process is one of absorption, a chemico-physical reaction which is in writing dependent upon the supply of active oxygen active oxygen is formed directly by oxidation processes and the peroxide necessary for its formation directly by reducing processes oxidation is increased by metals and reduction by non-metals the non-metal which acts in the body as the normal reducing agent is sulphur, hence the discovery of intramine see separate pamphlet the metal which acts in the body as the normal oxidising agent, is iron, hence the discovery of ferrivine ”a circular, “intramine, a new non-toxic compound for the treatment ofprotozoal and chronic bacterial diseases, ” expounds mr mcdonaghideas of the treatment of syphilis with ferrivine and intramine bymeans of the oxidising action of ferrivine and the reducing action ofintramine and asserts. “as the ultimate administration of oxidising and reducing agents will benefit almost any infection, it may be said that intramine is indicated in all protozoal diseases, and in all chronic bacterial diseases, especially in tuberculosis, presumably in leprosy and possibly in malignant disease cancer?.

After a railway disaster wherebodies have been mangled, drowned, burnt, and frozen, all in the sameaccident. Or after an explosion from steam or gas or in a mine, orfrom gunpowder, dynamite, or other substance, the human remains aregenerally in such a state as to defy all attempts at recognition to dispose of a dead body in order to avoid detection, criminals willmutilate, disfigure, and chop into fragments the remains, which theyafterward place in a trunk, a wardrobe, or throw into a sewer or otherhiding-place scarcely a year passes that judiciary medicine is notconcerned with paper of the kind the frequency of such crimes has beenattributed by essay to the so-called contagion of murder. Others offerthe simple law of the series in explanation. Others still believe thatimitation is the principal cause while there is no doubt a grain oftruth in each of these, less philosophic minds will look upon such abeastly proceeding as a mark of the complete satisfaction sought by thedestructive instinct why such things should be is of less concern than the fact thatcriminal mutilation of the dead body is not confined to any age orcountry though more frequent in the last fifteen years, it takes upquite a space in the history of human cruelty the violent passion, wrath, and vengeance that caused the prophet isaiah to be sawn in twoat the age of one hundred years by order of manasses and agag cut intopieces by samuel have not materially changed in the days of jack theripper. And we find such crimes in antipodal writings of the world, amongvaried sociological conditions, no matter whether it be the northamerican indian, who scalps and mutilates his enemy and places thesevered penis in the mouth, or the civilized european, who cuts up thebody of his victim and serves it in a curry at a feast of assembledfriends 584this new point of judiciary medicine has lately been elaborated byeuropean writers under the title of dépeçage criminel, a term whichapplies to the operation resorted to by an assassin having for its endthe getting rid of the body of the victim and to render more difficultthe establishment of its identity the cleverness of experts scarcely keeps pace nowadays with the morecomplicated proceedings adopted by criminals in fact, at a trial ofthis kind truth and science are often the under dogs in a fight, thanwhich none in forensic medicine is longer and more embarrassing tocause a rapid disappearance of the proofs of a homicide, with a viewto escape the investigations of justice, murderers have been knownliterally to make hash of the victim which was subsequently eaten bythemselves and others gruner relates the case of a man who, havingkilled and cut into pieces his victim, boiled and roasted the fragmentsand ate them with his wife such examples, however, suggest morbidrather than passional phenomena, which manifestly call for rigidscrutiny into the mental state of the culprit, who may be more of alunatic than a malefactor in paper of infanticide new-born children are essaytimes cut into piecesand the fragments burnt in order to facilitate the disappearance of thecadaver there does not appear to be, however, any well-authenticatedinstance of the operation having been done on a living child generallythe dismemberment is done in order to cause more ready disappearance ofthe remains the medico-legal problem to be solved in paper of criminal mutilationis to establish the identity of the victim and that of the author ofthe crime thesis apparently trivial circumstances may assist in the formation of anopinion as to the identity of the culprit if the victim be an adult, a man is the author of the deed. If an infant, a woman, the mother, isalmost always the guilty one the london lancet may 30th, 1863, p 617 reports a case in which the body of a child, of apparently four tosix months, was found in the sewage of a water-closet, minus an arm cutoff below the shoulder, presumably that a vaccination-mark might not beadduced as evidence a young woman was suspected several women deposedhaving seen a dusky-brown mother mark near the child navel aftersteeping in pure water a portion of the skin said to include the mark, and after washing, the mark gradually reappeared at the end of threedays, perfectly distinct it was recognized by witnesses and producedat the trial as corroborative evidence the accused was found guilty in a case of infanticide at tarare, in 1884, the upper extremity of afœtus was found to have been disarticulated after the manner of carvingthe wing of a fowl this having suggested to dr lacassagne a cook asthe author of the crime, she was speedily discovered and convicted afew years later an analogous case occurred in florence and was reportedby dr a montalti the instrument used for mutilating the body may furnish a suggestionof identity, to be dispelled or affirmed upon further investigation the mode of section observed in various instances has led to therecognition of a butcher as the culprit an expert would have butlittle trouble in distinguishing the hacking and mangling of a bodyfrom the careful cutting and preservation of muscles and blood-vesselsin dissections made by medical students, whom the public, by the way, invariably suspect in paper of mutilation if it can be ascertainedthat the instrument used was operated either by a left-handed person orby an ambidexter, such a fact may prove of importance essaytimes thefragments are tied or sewn up in a package the manner in which theknot is tied may indicate the occupation of the culprit in one casethe regularity of the sewing revealed that it was the work of a woman examination of the remains of clothing and of neighboring objects wherethe crime was committed may result in the identification of the victimor of the murderer indeed, it is the careful noting of trivial factsand their combination that is so valuable in all investigations ofthis class a compound fact made up of minor facts, which consideredseverally would possess but little value, may essaytimes solve thepuzzle in a case where no single fact of conclusive value is obtainable having collected as much of the mutilated remains as possible, thefirst step toward identification is to replace the pieces in anatomicalorder, to note carefully their correspondence or otherwise, and toascertain whether the fragments belong to the same body or to two orseveral individuals this is often a delicate and difficult matter, especially where decomposition is advanced or where the horror has beenpushed to its utmost limits, as in the case of a fratricide committedin france by several persons, who fragmented the cadaver with a saw andhatchet. Boiled the remains and fed them to hogs. And, after crushingthe bones with a hammer, threw the fragments into a deep gorge again, the body may be divided into numerous pieces, a hundred ormore, and disposed of in widely different localities, as in a pond, amanure-heap, a river, or a cesspool the chopped-up remains of infantshave been boiled in lye and afterward thrown into a privy or put in abarrel of vinegar a mother has also been known to cook with cabbagethe dismembered remains of her six-months’ child and serve it at a mealof which both she and her husband writingook numerous counterwritings of such paper happening in late years couldbe cited where the object was to favor the disappearance of thecadaver, and in which the establishment of the identity turned onthe examination of essay small writing of the organism. The uterus, thespermatic cord, the lobe of the ear, the hair, or the teeth furnishinga positive demonstration that led to judiciary results putrefaction goes on very fast in a corpse that has been mutilated.

Let there be a good fire inthe chamber, and stir not out of the chamber till the purge have doneworking, or not till next day lastly, take sweating medicines when you are in bed, covered warm, andin the time of your sweating drink posset-drink as hot as you can ifyou sweat for a fever, boil sorrel and red sage in your posset-drink, sweat an hour or longer if your strength will permit, then the chamberbeing kept very warm shift yourself all but your head, about which the cap which you sweat in being still kept on wrap a napkin veryhot, to repel the vapours back i confess these, or thesis of these directions may be found in one placeof the book or other, and i delight as little to write tautology asanother, but considering it might make for the public good, i insertedthem in this place. If, notwithstanding, any will be so mad as to dothemselves a mischief, the fault is not mine roots acanths, brancæ ursinæ of bearsbreech, or brankursine, it is meanlyhot and dry, helps aches and numness of the joints, and is of a bindingquality, good for wounds and broken bones dioscorides saith, theyare profitable for ruptures, or such as are bursten, or burnt withfire, a dram of the root in powder being taken in the morning fasting, in a decoction made with the same root and water acori, veri, perigrini, vulgaris, &c see calamus aromaticus ishall not speak concerning the several sorts of it, one of which iswater-flag, or flower-de-luce, which is hot and dry in the seconddegree, binds, strengthens, stops fluxes of the belly, and immoderateflowing of the menses, a dram being taken in red wine every morning allium garlic it is hot and dry in the fourth degree, breedscorrupt blood, yet is an enemy to all poisons, and such as are bittenby cold venomous beasts, viz adders, toads, spiders, &c it provokesurine, and expels wind alcannæ of privet see the leaves althææ of marsh mallows, are meanly hot, of a digesting, softeningnature, ease pains, help bloody fluxes, the stone, and gravel. Beingbruised and boiled in milk, and the milk drank, is a good remedy forgripings of the belly, and the bloody flux if a fever accompany thedisease, boil a handful of common mallow leaves with a handful of theseroots angelicæ of angelica. Is hot and dry in the third degree, strengthens the heart, and is good against pestilence and poison, halfa dram taken in the morning fasting anchusæ of alkanet. Cold and dry, binding, good for old ulcers anthoræ a foreign root, the counterpoison for monkshood, it is anadmirable remedy for the wind cholic, and resists poison apii of smallage see the barks aristolochiæ of birthwort. Of which are three sorts, long, round, and climing. All hot and dry in the third degree the long, beingdrank in wine, brings away both birth and after-birth, and whatsoevera careless midwife hath left behind dioscorides, galen the round, being drank with wine, helps besides the former stuffings of thelungs, hardness of the spleen, ruptures, convulsions. Both of themresist poison i never read any use of the climing birthwort artanitæ, cyclaminis, &c or sowbread.

i₂ from ki;  compare and contrast essay papers no i₂ from distillation ki. Distillate not completed was neutral distillation not completed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the addition of chlorlyptus to a mixture of 10 per cent potassiumiodide, 10 per cent potassium iodate solution, brings about theliberation of iodine, increasing perceptibly on standing this showsthat the hydrogen chloride is gradually split off, and in time willcause a solution having a considerable degree of acidity when thistest is carried out on chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott, a small amountof iodine is liberated in a few minutes but does not increase, showinga slight initial acidity without further hydrolysis chlorinatedeucalyptol-squibb yields no free iodine after standing three hours when the chlorine content of chlorlyptus is determined according tothe method of carius, the amount is found to be 29 6 per cent themanufacturers give a method of determining chlorine by hunter fusionmethod it is believed that in this method hydrogen chloride maybe lost, and this opinion is substantiated by the firm statement, “chlorlyptus analyzed in this manner shows approximately 25 per cent of chlorine ” the chlorine content of chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott isfound to be 0 67 per cent , and that of the squibb brand to be 0 62 percent about one-fiftieth as much as in chlorlyptus to sum up. Chlorlyptus differs from chlorinated eucalyptol in odor, color, density, in reaction to silver nitrate, potassium iodide, sulphuric acid and the aqueous solution of potassium iodate andpotassium iodide the distillation of the two products occursdifferently chlorlyptus contains nearly 30 per cent of chlorine, which is approximately fifty times as much as in chlorinatedeucalyptol thus it appears to have considerable chlorine in thenegative form cl^- which may be relatively easily split off ashydrogen chloride b the persistence of the acid reaction of chlorlyptus in the body by the refereethis “chlorinated ozonized eucalyptus oil” is distinctly acid to litmuspaper it is claimed that further quantities of acid are liberated oncontact with water this is credited with producing a continuous acidreaction on the surface of tissues to which the oil may be applied andthis in turn is stated to be antiseptic or germicidal this theoretical speculation does not take into account the largequantity of reserve alkali in the body by which it combats attempts toalter its normal reaction it is therefore not convincing, unless it issupported by direct evidence in the absence of such data on the writing of the promoters of thepreparation, experiments were made to determine whether the oilpreserves its acid reaction in contact with mucous and serousmembranes the answers were clearly in the negative in the mouth, the reaction becomes neutral within ten or fifteenminutes. In the pleura and peritoneum within half an hour, and probablyin much shorter periods more detailed data follow. Series a. Behavior in the mouth. Homoexperiment -- chlorlyptus and to less extent chlorlyptus oil, are acidto litmus they are applied. A drop to litmus paper and this to gums b several drops directly to tongue c same to gums the reaction to litmus paper is tried from time to time results -- a applied to gums on litmus paper:chlorlyptus. Red color becomes gradually feebler and does not spread onthe paper chlorlyptus oil. Turns blue in a few minutes b dropped on tongue:chlorlyptus. Acid taste at once does not increase, but on contrary, becomes less litmus applied after ten minutes. Not acid litmus applied after five minutes. Distinctly acid c dropped on inside of cheek:chlorlyptus, 1/3 c c. After six minutes, litmus very red after ten minutes, faintly red after fifteen minutes, blue chlorlyptus oil, 1 c c after three minutes, faintly red after eight minutes, neutral conclusions -- on contact with living tissues, the acid of chlorlyptusis rapidly neutralized and absorbed the surface is neutral within ten or fifteen minutes it is therefore very improbable that the acidity is effectivelyantiseptic a comparison of chlorlyptus with dilute acetic acid shows that thechlorlyptus does not maintain the acidity even as well as 1 per cent acetic acid acetic acid chlorlyptus tongue, a drop of 5 per cent. Still neutral between five slightly acid to litmus after ten minutes. and ten minutes taste almost gone in two minutes gums, a few drops between cheeks and gums. neutral between ten five per cent still strongly acid in and fifteen minutes twelve minutes. Distinctly acid in seventeen minutes one per cent still strongly acid in twenty-one minutes -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -chlorlyptus. Reaction litmus paper on contact with tissue serial when quantity, time blue symptoms or no animal injected c c of death litmus toxicity 1 rat pleura 1 1/2 hour remains blue none.

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Lusk902 considers the subject of life-saving in still-births. Forest, 903 artificial respiration in the same. Read904 discusses schultze method with approval. Duke905 plunges the infant into hot water. Richardson906 recommends artificial circulation by injection of vessels, or electric excitation. Jennings907 recommends the same.