History

Compare And Contrast Essay Outline


Thus, forinstance, it was considered as self-evident, even in the latest periodsof the middle ages and during the first beginnings of modern times, that compare and contrast essay outline divine influence could always, and actually did always, cause analteration in the course of the functions of the body in fact, thereis an amazingly large number of people even in our time who believethis, and for whom, therefore, the conception of miracles, especiallyof miraculous healing, is to-day on about the same level as that onwhich it stood in the time of galen and alexander of tralles thus we must admit that the ancient physicians were by no means belowthe standard of civilization and culture attained during their periodif they believed in the possibility of extraordinary cures effectedby means extraneous and unscientific in their treatment of the sick, and, accordingly, they supported such methods however, this beliefin miraculous medicines on the writing of the ancient physician wasalways restricted to certain limits it is true, the conception wasalways adhered to that this or that magical agency, or this or thatmagical action, might exert an influence upon the disease. But sucha belief never led them to omit any strictly medical measures of asurgical or gynecological nature on the contrary, the intelligentphysicians of antiquity firmly insisted that the actions of the surgeonand of the gynecologist were not to be hampered by any metaphysicalconsiderations. Thus, for instance, soranus demanded most energeticallythat the midwife should be “ἀδεισιδαίμων” without fear of anydemon i e , she was not to be superstitious, but free from anyimputation which would render her curative interposition objectionable the profession of the magicians, due to the persecutions to which theybecame subject under the christian emperors valens, valentinian, andtheodosius, became considerably less prominent during the predominanceof christianity, but the ideas upon which it had been erected inancient times still survived. In fact, these ideas were even to acertain extent systematically elaborated during the middle ages, and atthis time a distinction was made between higher and lower, or whiteand black, magic the white magic busied itself with good spirits, theblack magic with the bad ones magicians, therefore, who operated bythe aid of the devil, and even in medicine called in the assistance ofthe devil, were called “necromancers ” for the first time magic becameamalgamated with certain philosophical speculations and also withchristian-dogmatic constituents the methods adopted by magic medicineunder these conditions are so peculiar and are so close to the boundarylines between philosophy and religion that we are really not quitecertain whether to relegate it to the domain of one or of the other but as the fundamental writings of these methods were actually supplied byphilosophy, we propose to defer this discussion for the present, andto take up here another form of medical superstition which was derivedexclusively from religion namely, “sleep in the temple ”§ 5 sleep in the temple - one of the generally practised methodsof medical science during the period of hellenic civilization whichwas still fully under the influence of theism i e , for at leasttwo or three centuries before the hippocratic era was what was knownas “temple sleep ” in fact, this method must be considered a signof a faith distinctly deep and sincere, a faith naive and childlikeindeed. But as a sign of such a faith this method is actually pathetic no taint of superstition could be found in it at the early periodreferred to it was still the pure and unadulterated expression of thegenerally prevailing conception that human art is to no purpose in anycase of disease, and aid must be found with the gods with those godswho regulate and personally execute all terrestrial phenomena down tothe minutest details temple sleep was not degraded into superstitionuntil medicine had come to the conclusion that the phenomena of diseasewere not evidence of an interference by supernatural power in thefunctions of the body, but disturbances of the function of the bodycaused exclusively by natural causes in accordance with this view, which first found its fullest and clearest exposition in the corpushippocraticum, it would seem absolutely necessary for temple sleep tolose all recognition from the art of healing however, this not beingthe case, it was bound to deteriorate into an act of superstitiousmummery, and the principal blame for this sad decadence is to be laidprimarily upon the priests it was their duty especially to lead intothe path of truth the patients who persisted in crowding into thetemples in the spirit of naive and childlike piety they sealed theirown condemnation as fosterers of superstition when they failed todo this duty, and endeavored rather, by every means in their power, to confirm the multitude in their ancient belief that the gods werepractising medicine non-christian as well as christian priests playedthis rôle for thesis centuries with equal ability and equal perseverance, as will be seen from the following brief history of temple sleep the belief in the efficacy of temple sleep had already been thoroughlyshaken during the time of the great hippocrates. Therefore, inthe sixth century, b c , the laughing philosopher of hellenism, aristophanes, the satirical contemporary of hippocrates, in act ii , verses 654 to 750, of his comedy πλοῦτος, severely criticizes themanner and method in which temple sleep was employed let us listento the words in which the poet describes what happened in the templeduring the observance of this rite the god æsculapius, accompanied by his daughter panakeia, appears inthe temple to examine in person the patients gathered there the firstone he meets is a poor wretch, neokleides, who, being blear-eyed, expects cure from the god the medically skilled æsculapius smearsupon the inverted lids of this patient a salve which causes such painthat the poor fellow will probably never seek his help again thesecond patient met by the god is the blind god, πλοῦτος i e , wealth personified here the conduct of æsculapius is entirelydifferent from that which he adopted when treating poor neokleides now he carefully strokes the head of the patient, then produces alinen cloth and carefully touches the lids with it he then callshis daughter panakeia, who winds a red cloth round the head of blindwealth now æsculapius whistles, and two mighty serpents appear, glideunder the purple cloth, and lick the eyes of the patient shortlyafterward the god regains his sight this passage is a cutting satire on practises which undoubtedlyprevailed in the greek temples as early as the sixth century, b c but, nevertheless, it took a long time before the patients losttheir belief in the miraculous efficacy of temple sleep, and thepriesthood continually strove to revive, by the mysterious storiesof various kinds they recounted to doubters, the belief in templesleep the sixth of the marble votive tablets which were found inthe temple of æsculapius at epidaurus shows the kind of miraculousreports invented by the priests the latter were in the habit ofinscribing upon these tablets reports of cures that had occurred intheir sanctuary, for the benefit of the visitors of the temple and forthe still greater benefit of the medical historians. But it is quiteprobable that the priesthood, intent upon curing, were encouraged intheir medico-literary attempts only by the silent hope of creatingan abundant supply of patients by such miraculous reports the abovetablet, no 6 which probably dates from the third century, b c - tellsus that a blind man by the name of hermon, a native of thasos, hadrecovered his sight by sleeping in the epidaurean temple of æsculapius however, it appears that this man hermon had been a miserable wretch, for he disappeared without having expressed his thanks in hard cash naturally such ingratitude provoked the god, and summarily he blindedthe thankless individual again it required a second temple sleepbefore the god condescended to become helpful once more but our tabletdoes not mention anything about the amount of the remuneration paid byour friend hermon who had been twice cured of blindness. Neither isthis at all necessary the miraculous tablet, even without stating theprice, doubtless made sufficient impression upon the minds even of themost parsimonious of future patients altho, therefore, the more enlightened among the greeks recognized, as early as in the sixth century, b c , the futility of temple sleepas a means of healing, the ancient world never relinquished itentirely we encounter it again in the later periods of antiquity thus, for instance, suetonius and other ancient authors tell us thattwo patients, one blind, the other lame, one day approached theemperor vespasian, who happened to be in alexandria, asking him tospit into the eyes of the one and to stroke the paralyzed limbs ofthe other. For they had been notified in temple sleep that they wouldbe restored to health if only the emperor would deign to perform theabove-mentioned manipulations but vespasian was an enlightened rulerwho, in spite of his imperial dignity, did not have much confidence inthe medical qualities of his saliva and of his hands, and accordinglyunceremoniously dismissed both supplicants this caused great terroramong the priests of serapis and among the courtiers, for obviouslythey had interpreted this affair solely as intended in majoremvespasiani gloriam the emperor was importuned, therefore, kindly toaid the unfortunate, but he persisted in his refusal probably he wasright in fearing the loss of his prestige should the imperial medicalpowers prove unequal to the task of curing disease not until thepriests solemnly vouched for the truthfulness of the dream-sending godserapis, and declared a failure of the imperial cure to be impossible, did vespasian stubbornness relent now he spat, and rubbed theparalyzed limbs, and the blind saw, and the paralytic arose and walked §6 church sleep - when, subsequently, the ancient religions died out, and had left the world as an heritage to christianity, temple sleep hadby no means died out also on the contrary, after the lapse of threecenturies, it again came into favor with the christian priests and theuse of it now was scarcely less in favor than it had been a thousandyears previous in the world of the ancient greeks let us mention a fewexamples the first four stories are taken from the works of gregory oftours mummolus, who came to the court of justinian 527 to 565 as theambassador of king theudebert, suffered greatly from calculi of theurinary bladder, and during this journey he became subject to an attackof renal colic things went badly with poor mummolus, and he was ina great hurry to make his will whereupon he was advised to pass onenight sleeping in st andrew church, at pateras, for st andrew hadperformed thesis miraculous cures in this place no sooner said thandone mummolus, greatly tormented by pain and fever, and despairingof life, had himself placed upon the stone flags of the sanctuary, and waited there for the things that were to happen suddenly, towardmidnight, the patient awoke with a violent desire to urinate, anddischarged in a natural manner a calculus which, as st gregory assuresus, was so enormous that it fell with a loud clatter into the vessel from that hour mummolus was hale and hearty, and joyfully started onhis journey homeward in brioude, the capital of the present dewritingment haute-loire, therewas a woman named fedamia, who had been paralyzed for years inaddition to this, she was penniless, and her relatives, therefore, brought her to the church of st julian, who enjoyed a great reputationin brioude, in order that, even if she did not become cured, she mightat least make essay money by begging at the church door for eighteenyears she had lived thus when, one sunday night, while she slept inthe colonnade adjoining the church, a man appeared who took her by thehand and led her toward the grave of st julian on arriving there sheuttered a fervent prayer, and in a moment felt as if a load of actualchains fell from her limbs all this, it is true, happened in a dream, but when the patient awoke she was hale and hearty, and was able, tothe amazement of the assembled multitude, to walk, with loud prayers, to the grave of the saint a certain man, deaf, dumb, and blind, known by the name of amagildus, also tried the sleep in the church of st julian, at brioude but itappears that this saint was not always quite accessible to the wishesof the sick it is true, amagildus was not obliged, like fedamia ofthe previous narrative, to pass eighteen years in the basilica, but, nevertheless, he had to sleep for a full year in the colonnade of thechurch before the curative power of the holy martyr delivered him fromhis ailment veranus, the slave of one of the clergy under gregory, was so violentlyattacked by gout that he was absolutely unable to move for an entireyear thereupon his master pledged himself to advance the afflictedslave to the priesthood if st martin would be willing to cure him toaccomplish this cure the slave was carried to the church, and thereplaced at the feet of the saint the poor wretch had to remain therefor five long days, and it seemed as tho st martin had forgotten allabout him finally, on the sixth day, the patient was visited by a manwho seized his foot and drew it out straight the slave rose to hisfeet in terror, and perceived that he was cured for thesis years heserved st martin as a priest but the most wonderful cure was that of the german emperor henry ii , called “the saint” 1002 to 1024 this emperor, who was of bavarianstock, suffered greatly from the stone, and had retired to the italiancloister monte cassino, inasmuch as this cloister during that periodjustly enjoyed an extraordinary medical reputation but whether themonks of monte cassino, altho well versed in medical art, did not havesufficient confidence in their ability to treat an emperor, or whetherthey were induced by essay other reason, is not known. However, insteadof submitting the imperial patient to the operations of terrestrialmedicine, they surrendered him to the providence of heaven, andmore writingicularly to the sympathy of st benedict this saint fullyjustified the confidence that was placed in him, for, during an acuteperiod in the patient sufferings, he appeared in his own holy person, and with his own holy hands he performed the necessary operation, and, after having pressed the stone that he had removed from the bladderinto the hand of the sleeping emperor, he retired heavenward but hetook care from his heavenly residence to attend to the prompt healingof the operation wound, and this was surely very good of st benedict in fact, his entire behavior during this case was extremely proper andlaudable.

In sussex we call itgallwort, and lay it in our chicken water to cure them of the gall;it relieves them when they compare and contrast essay outline are drooping this is frequently used tospend the abundance of those watery humours by urine which causethe dropsy the decoction of the herb, both leaves and flowers, inwine, taken and drank, doth essaywhat move the belly downwards, opensobstructions of the liver, and helps the yellow jaundice. Expelspoison, provokes women courses, drives forth the dead child, andafter-birth the distilled water of the herb and flowers is effectualfor all the same purposes. Being drank with a dram of the powder of theseeds of bark or the roots of wall-wort, and a little cinnamon, forcertain days together, it is held a singular remedy for the dropsy the juice of the herb, or the distilled water, dropped into the eyes, is a certain remedy for all heat, inflammation, and redness in them the juice or water put into foul ulcers, whether they be cancerous orfistulous, with tents rolled therein, or writings washed and injectedtherewith, cleanses them thoroughly from the bottom, and heals them upsafely the same juice or water also cleanses the skin wonderfully ofall sorts of deformity, as leprosy, morphew, scurf, wheals, pimples, or spots, applied of itself, or used with essay powder of lupines flea-wort descript ordinary flea-wort rises up with a stalk two feet high ormore, full of joints and branches on every side up to the top, and atevery joint two small, long and narrow whitish green leaves essaywhathairy at the top of every branch stand divers small, short scaly, orchaffy heads out of which come forth small whitish yellow threads, liketo those of the plantain herbs, which are the bloomings of flowers theseed enclosed in these heads is small and shining while it is fresh, very like unto fleas both for colour and bigness, but turning blackwhen it grows old the root is not long, but white, hard and woody, perishing every year, and rising again of its own seed for diversyears, if it be suffered to shed. The whole plant is essaywhat whitishand hairy, smelling essaywhat like rosin there is another sort hereof, differing not from the former in themanner of growing, but only that the stalk and branches being essaywhatgreater, do a little more bow down to the ground. The leaves areessaywhat greater, the heads essaywhat less, the seed alike. And the rootand leaves abide all winter, and perish not as the former place the first grows only in gardens, the second plentifully infields that are near the sea time they flower in july or thereabouts government and virtues the herb is cold, and dry, and saturnine i suppose it obtained the name of flea-wort, because the seeds areso like fleas the seeds fried, and taken, stays the flux or lask ofthe belly, and the corrosions that come by reason of hot choleric, orsharp and malignant humours, or by too much purging of any violentmedicine, as scammony, or the like the mucilage of the seed madewith rose-water, and a little sugar-candy put thereto, is very good inall hot agues and burning fevers, and other inflammations, to cool thethirst, and lenify the dryness and roughness of the tongue and throat it helps also hoarseness of the voice, and diseases of the breastand lungs, caused by heat, or sharp salt humours, and the pleurisyalso the mucilage of the seed made with plantain water, whereuntothe yoke of an egg or two, and a little populeon are put, is a mostsafe and sure remedy to ease the sharpness, pricking, and pains of thehæmorrhoids or piles, if it be laid on a cloth, and bound thereto ithelps all inflammations in any writing of the body, and the pains thatcome thereby, as the headache and megrims, and all hot imposthumes, swellings, or breaking out of the skin, as blains, wheals, pushes, purples, and the like, as also the joints of those that are out ofjoint, the pains of the gout and sciatica, the burstings of youngchildren, and the swellings of the navel, applied with oil of rosesand vinegar it is also good to heal the nipples and sore breasts ofwomen, being often applied thereunto the juice of the herb with alittle honey put into the ears helps the running of them, and the wormsbreeding in them. The same also mixed with hog grease, and applied tocorrupt and filthy ulcers, cleanses them and heals them flux-weed descript it rises up with a round upright hard stalk, four or fivefeet high, spread into sundry branches, whereon grow thesis greyish greenleaves, very finely cut and severed into a number of short and almostround writings the flowers are very small and yellow, growing spikefashion, after which come small long pods, with small yellowish seed inthem the root is long and woody, perishing every year there is another sort, differing in nothing, save only it has essaywhatbroad leaves. They have a strong evil saviour, being smelled unto, andare of a drying taste place they flower wild in the fields by hedge-sides and highways, and among rubbish and other places time they flower and seed quickly after, namely in june and july government and virtues this herb is saturnine also both the herband seed of flux-weed is of excellent use to stay the flux or lask ofthe belly, being drank in water wherein gads of steel heated have beenoften quenched. And is no less effectual for the same purpose thanplantain or comfrey, and to restrain any other flux of blood in man orwoman, as also to consoladate bones broken or out of joint the juicethereof drank in wine, or the decoction of the herb drank, doth killthe worms in the stomach or belly, or the worms that grow in putridand filthy ulcers, and made into a salve doth quickly heal all oldsores, how foul or malignant soever they be the distilled water ofthe herb works the same effect, although essaywhat weaker, yet it is afair medicine, and more acceptable to be taken it is called flux-weedbecause it cures the flux, and for its uniting broken bones, &c paracelsus extols it to the skies it is fitting that syrup, ointment, and plaisters of it were kept in your house flower-de-luce it is so well known, being nourished up in most gardens, that i shallnot need to spent time in writing a description thereof time the flaggy kinds thereof have the most physical uses. Thedwarf kinds thereof flowers in april, the greater sorts in may government and virtues the herb is luner the juice or decoctionof the green root of the flaggy kind of flower-de-luce, with a littlehoney drank, doth purge and cleanse the stomach of gross and toughphlegm, and choler therein.

It clears the compare and contrast essay outline sight, provokessweat. Inwardly it troubles the stomach and belly, helps bruises, and stretching of the nerves, and therefore is good for women newlydelivered amber-grease, heats and dries, strengthens the brain and nervesexceedingly, if the infirmity of them come of cold, resists pestilence sea-sand, a man that hath the dropsy, being set up to the middle init, it draws out all the water red coral, is cold, dry and binding, stops the immoderate flowing ofthe menses, bloody-fluxes, the running of the reins, and the fluoralbus, helps such as spit blood, it is an approved remedy for thefalling sickness also if ten grains of red coral be given to a childin a little breast-milk so soon as it is born, before it take any otherfood, it will never have the falling-sickness, nor convulsions thecommon dose is from ten grains to thirty pearls, are a wonderful strengthener to the heart, encrease milkin nurses, and amend it being naught, they restore such as are inconsumptions. Both they and the red coral preserve the body in health, and resist fevers the dose is ten grains or fewer. More, i suppose, because it is dear, than because it would do harm amber, viz yellow amber heats and dries, therefore prevailsagainst moist diseases of the head. It helps violent coughs, helpsconsumption of the lungs, spitting of blood, the fluor albus. It stopsbleeding at the nose, helps difficulty of urine. You may take ten ortwenty grains at a time the froth of the sea, it is hot and dry, helps scabs, itch, andleprosy, scald heads, &c it cleanses the skin, helps difficulty ofurine, makes the teeth white, being rubbed with it, the head beingwashed with it, it helps baldness, and trimly decks the head with hair metals, minerals, and stones gold is temperate in quality, it wonderfully strengthens the heart andvital spirits, which one perceiving, very wittily inserted these verses. For gold is cordial.

Pedgrift v schiller, 8 c b , n s , 200 same case, 6 jurist, n s , 1341 andif he simply practises compare and contrast essay outline “massage, ” he does not fall within the actsagainst practising medicine, even though he pretends to accomplish asmuch good as could have been accomplished by a regular physician smithv lane, 24 hun, n y , 632 but see also leech v ripon, 12 cent l j , 479. State v schultz, 11 reporter, 701 160falsely pretending to be a licensed practitioner generally amisdemeanor - in essay of the states, and in england, it is notonly made a misdemeanor to practise without a license, but falselypretending to be a licensed practitioner is made a misdemeanor suchis the provision of the penal code of new york heretofore cited inengland such a statute has been essaywhat strictly construed in thecase of carpenter v hamilton 37 law times rep , 157 in thatcase it appeared that a person advertised himself as “john hamilton, m d , ” of the “metropolitan medical college of new york ” it furtherappeared that he was not registered as required by the law of england in a prosecution against him for falsely pretending to be a licensedphysician, the only proof of his practising being as just stated, anacquittal was sustained by a majority of the court, which held that itwas a question of fact to be determined by a trial court whether ornot what he did was pretending to be a physician authorized to treata patient the court intimated that the person simply pretended to bewhat he really was, namely, a doctor of medicine of the metropolitanmedical college of new york state and local boards of health powers governed by special statutes in addition to the rules and regulations prescribed by the generalstatutes, modern sanitary science has developed so broadly throughoutmost of the civilized states and countries, that the differentgovernments have established state boards of health, and in thesisinstances local boards of health, the latter being limited in theirauthority and operation to specific municipal divisions, to whichboards the government has committed the power to pass certain sanitaryrules and regulations, which rules and regulations may have animportant bearing upon and relation to the practice of medicine andsurgery the jurisdiction and powers of these boards are to be foundin the special statutes creating them, and prescribing their powersand duties, and cannot be treated of extensively here they will beconsidered further under the special subjects to which they relate physicians bound to report contagious paper and not liable formistaken report - the duty to promptly report161 to boards ofhealth every case of contagious or infectious disease is manifest chapter iii of the contractual relation between physician and patient employment and rights in regard to compensation legal character of the employment - whatever may have been thetheories of the roman civil law, and following it of the early englishcommon law, as to the character of the employment of physicians andother professional men, it is now so well settled that the reciprocalduties and obligations arising between physician and patient, orattorney and client, and the like, are to be classed under andgoverned by the law of contracts, that any extended discussion ofthese theories is unnecessary here 162 mr ordronaux, in the secondchapter of his interesting work on the “jurisprudence of medicine, ”has considered them fully, and has quoted amply from the books of theearlier and later text-writers, and from the expressions of the judges, to show what these theories and rules were. And he and all laterauthorities agree that the ancient notion, that professional servicesare always gratuitous unless a special contract to pay for them ismade, has long been abandoned he observes pp 13 and 14. “but inour day the increase in the number of professional practitioners, andtheir exclusive devotion to a special class of services as a meansof living, has essentially modified the practical character of thecontracts with their patrons although in legal acceptation a mandate, yet from force of circumstances growing out of an altered state ofsociety, the mandate is practically changed into a contract of hire locatio operis this doubtless reduces professions to the statusof artisanship, and places them on a par with manual labor, conjoinedto the special skill of a writingicular calling but it also simplifiesthe contract, removes it from the category of innominate or imperfectobligations, requiring the intervention of legal fictions to furnisha means for their enforcement, and brings it within the pale ofconsensual agreements based upon a sufficient consideration ”the physician right to sue on contract in england was declared bylegislative enactment by chap 90 sec 31, 21 and 22 victoria it hasnever been denied in the united states adams v stephens, 26 wend , 451-455 physicians’ and surgeons’ service in a sense voluntary - though itis true, as in the case of thesis other doctrines of ancient law whichwere formulated under social conditions far different from those whichprevail in modern times, that these rules and theories have longsince lost their potency as distinct rules governing actions at law, nevertheless the legal aspect of the peculiar relationship betweenphysician and patient, is still affected by the idea that the serviceon the writing of the physician is voluntary that is, the physician orsurgeon is not bound to come and perform services whenever or whereverhe is called he is at liberty to refuse any and every patient whoattempts to employ him patients may cease employing at any time, unless there is a contractfor a certain period - and when he is employed, the patient may at anymoment discharge him, without incurring liability in damages, unless aspecial contract has been entered into between them that the servicesshall be rendered for a fixed period service once begun by physician must be continued until notice ofintention to cease is given by him - if, however, the services arebegun, they must be continued until notice has been given of theintention to discontinue them, and a reasonable time allowed thepatient to obtain the services of another person the reasons for thisrule will be considered more fully below contracts either express or implied - the contract between thephysician and patient may be an express one, that is, one in which allthe terms are agreed upon or expressed between the writingies, or it maybe what is called an implied contract, or one in which the patient, oranother person, simply calls on the physician or surgeon to come andperform services, and neither writingy specifically stipulates or agreesupon any of the terms of the employment express contracts may include any stipulation not contrary to publicpolicy - in the case of an express contract the agreement of thewritingies settles and determines their mutual obligations, whether itbe written or merely verbal but an express contract may also be madein such a form that certain conditions are required to be performedby the physician before he becomes entitled to any compensation forhis services it may also embody an agreement that the patient shallpay certain sums at certain times as the treatment goes on, or that noother physicians shall be employed without the consent of the attendingphysician, or if so employed that they shall be under the direction ofthe attending physician almost anything may be stipulated which is not contrary to publicpolicy, and a breach of any such stipulation entitles the aggrievedwritingy to rescind the contract and cease from performing it 163qualifications of the rule that express contracts may include anystipulation - essay qualifications of this rule of law must, however, be noted a breach by the patient of any one of these stipulationswould entitle the physician to treat the engagement as terminated likeany other contractual relation, and to bring his action for a recoveryfor services rendered up to the time of the breach. But it is doubtfulwhether he would have any action for damages for failure to permit himto perform further services this doubt arises from the legal doctrine, hereinbefore referred to, that a patient is always at liberty todismiss his physician at any time without notice, and without assigningany cause, which recognizes and grows out of the fact that if the trustand confidence of the patient are destroyed, or impaired, no matter howunreasonably or unjustly, the relation between them must thereafterbe unprofitable to both writingies, and dangerous to the patient on theother hand there is little doubt but that whenever an express contractis made by a physician to treat a patient for a certain length of timefor a writingicular disease or injury, the physician is not at liberty toarbitrarily terminate that relation or his connection with the case, unless he has in the contract specifically reserved the right so to do contracts making payment contingent upon successful treatmentvalid - the express contract between the writingies may also contain astipulation, by which the physician makes his compensation contingentupon his effecting a cure smith v hyde, 19 vt , 54. Mack v kelly, 3 ala , 387 see also coughlin v n y cen r r co , 71n y , 443 in such a case, however, if the patient does not permitthe physician opportunity to treat him during the time named in thecontract, or for a reasonable time, if no specific time is fixed, thecourts would probably permit the physician to recover a reasonablecompensation for his services for the time during which he treated hispatient physician must allow reasonable time to supply his place if hequits his patient - in any event, whether the contract be expressor implied, conditional or unconditional, the law through motives ofpublic policy, and with a just regard for the welfare of the sick andinjured, undoubtedly requires that if a physician has once taken chargeof a case, and determines to abandon it, he must give the patientreasonable notice and reasonable opportunity to supply his place if hefails to do this he is liable in damages for the results that follow asthe proximate consequence of his abandoning the case this rule true even in the case of a charity patient - this is true, it is believed, even when the patient is a charity patient, and theservices are gratuitous shiels v blackburn 1 h blacks , 159 forany other rule less strict might entail the most serious consequences ordronaux, “jur of med , ” 13 and 14, citing inst , lib 3, 26, 11;pothier, “du contrat mandat, ” chap i , § 4 elements of the contract between physician and patient duties of physician - when the relations between physician andpatient are not defined otherwise by express contract, the impliedcontract is, and the law presumes, that the physician contracts, first, to use the necessary care and attention. Second, to use the necessaryskill. Third, in case the physician furnishes his own medicines andthe obligation to furnish them would probably be imposed, if it was thecustom of the school or class of physicians to which the writingicularphysician belonged to do so, that the medicines are proper andsuitable as a corollary of these duties it necessarily follows, also, that the physician contracts that the instruments or appliances whichhe uses are free from taint or contagion, and are suitable and properfor the uses to which they are put upon this theory an action could bemaintained against a physician for using impure vaccine duties of patient - the patient on his writing contracts, first, togive the physician information concerning the facts and circumstancesof the case, and full opportunity to treat him properly.

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Behavior in the mouth. Homoexperiment -- chlorlyptus and to less extent chlorlyptus oil, are acidto litmus they are applied. A drop to litmus paper and this to gums b several drops directly to tongue c same to gums the reaction to litmus paper is tried from time to time results -- a applied to gums on litmus paper:chlorlyptus.