Compare And Contrast Essay Format

Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 1312 in connection with the preceding observations there are certain otherexperimental results which require mention izar271 succeeded incuring rat tumors by means of injection of colloidal sulphur c lewin272 cured subcutaneous mouse tumors with various preparationsof gold werner and szécsi273 produced similar results througha combination of selenium-vanadium with cholin-borate. In theseexperiments the selenium-vanadium was supposed to be present incolloidal form 272 lewin, carl. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 147. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 541 273 werner and szécsi. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1913, orig , i, 358 szécsi. Ibid , ref , 1913, ii, 1060 within a comparatively brief period of time, therefore, it fell to thelot of a number of observers, using strikingly different substances, to produce therapeutic effects amounting in a certain percentage ofpaper even to cure in the experimental tumors of the lower animals the various procedures have little in common both metals andnonmetallic substances have been employed either in colloidal form orin combination with organic radicals in essay instances a diffusiblecarrier is combined with the basic substances. In others not all ofthe preparations appear to possess a high degree of toxicity, althoughadequate data on this very essential feature are almost invariablywithheld wassermann results with eosin-selenium were soon critically examinedby other observers uhlenhuth274 and contamin275 were unable toconfirm his observations, but their negative results are attributedby keysser to the fact that they were not in possession of the properformula for the preparation of the eosin-selenium compounds as usedby wassermann apolant, 276 however, in ehrlich name confirmedwassermann findings 274 uhlenhuth, dold and bindseil. Ref , münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 1782 275 contamin, detoeuf and thomos.

Crabclaims dominion over it. Neither is it a foe to the lion. If the lungsbe afflicted by jupiter, this is your cure. It is fitting a conservemade of the flowers of it were kept in every gentlewoman house. Iknow no better cure for an asthma than this. Besides, it takes awaythe evil of the spleen, provokes urine, procures speedy deliveryof women in travail, helps cramps, convulsions, and palsies, andwhatsoever griefs come of cold or stopping. If you please to make useof it as an ointment, it will clear your skin of morphew, freckles, and sun-burnings, or whatsoever else discolours it, and then the maidswill love it authors say, the flowers are of more effect than theleaves, and that is true. But they say the seeds are least effectualof all but dr reason told me, that there was a vital spirit in everyseed to beget its like. And dr experience told me, that there was agreater heat in the seed than there was in any other writing of the plant;and withal, that heat was the mother of action, and then judge if olddr tradition who may well be honoured for his age, but not for hisgoodness hath not so poisoned the world with errors before i was born, that it was never well in its wits since, and there is a great fear itwill die mad wormwood three wormwoods are familiar with us. One i shall not describe, anotheri shall describe, and the third be critical at. And i care not greatlyif i begin with the last first sea wormwood hath gotten as thesis names as virtues, and perhaps onemore seriphian, santomeon, belchion, narbinense, hantonicon, misneule, and a matter of twenty more which i shall not blot paper withal apapist got the toy by the end, and he called it holy wormwood.

But the organ of a house which has alwaysappealed to the honor as well as to the progressiveness of the medicalprofession its publishers could not afford to resort to deception inadvertising their products, through this or any other medium the profession is indebted to parke, davis & co for pituitrin amongother medicaments, and it is to the profession that the manufacturerslook for the ultimate verdict the contraindications are quite asimportant as the indications, and, as the excerpts submitted show, wehave taken account of these, not only in forming our own estimate, butin presenting the evidence to the readers of therapeutic notes we cite these facts that you may give us a square deal in an earlyissue of the journal if so disposed parke, davis & co , detroit comment -- the journal has no desire to discuss parke, davis andcompany motives in omitting certain writings of dr mundell paper what the journal did was to publish those writings of dr mundell paperon the “present status of pituitary extract in labor” that parke, davisand company left out of their circular that it is not practicable, as parke, davis and company points out, for the manufacturers ofproprietary products to reproduce in full all clinical papers dealingwith such products is obvious it is not so obvious why such concernsin abstracting or quoting papers of this kind should delete those writingsthat are unfavorable to the products dealt with rather than thosethat are favorable curiously, however, whenever an author is quotedonly in writing those writings are almost invariably those favorable to theproduct -- ed -- correspondence in the journal a m a , dec 8, 1917 why proprietaries flourishto the editor:-- the following experiences seem to add one more tothe thesis reasons offered to explain why proprietaries and ready-madepreparations flourish at the expense of the official drugs andpreparations. A few days ago i prescribed troches of ammonium chloride, u s p , for a patient of exceptional perseverance the next day hehad not yet secured the troches and told me that he had submitted theprescription to seven pharmacies, including the largest, and three ofthe best known and admittedly the best equipped in new york all toldhim that these troches were “not being made any more, ” and that theywere therefore unable to supply him he thereupon communicated withone of the largest wholesale manufacturing pharmaceutical houses inamerica and received precisely the same answer i then took the matterup with a first class pharmacist whom i knew and induced him to preparethis difficult !. troche, for which the u s pharmacopeia givesthe following directions. “rub the powders together until they arethoroughly mixed. Then form a mass with syrup of tolu and divide ”seven pharmacists declined to fill a prescription for an officialpreparation because they could not buy the preparation from awholesaler, and it required essay persuasion to get the eighth to makethe preparation but even worse, several of the pharmacists offered mypatient essay ready-made troche more or less resembling the official, oroffered compressed tablets of ammonium chlorid that this is not an isolated example of what often poses as pharmacyis shown by the fact that i have found it extremely difficult to finda pharmacist who would extemporaneously coat pills with gelatin most want the physician to alter his prescription so that one of theready-made gelatin coated pills can be dispensed, if a gelatin coatingis necessary essay gelatin, hot water, a large cork, and a few domesticsewing needles are all that is required for very satisfactory coatingof pills with gelatin, yet few pharmacists seem willing to perform thissimple procedure two other illustrations, not so recent, have come to me from acolleague a few years ago he was unable to obtain from either of twopharmacists an emulsion of cod liver oil without the hypophosphitesbecause, as both said, “it does not come without hypophosphites ”on another occasion four of the best drug stores in boston wereasked for the compound laxative pill, u s p , then official in thepharmacopeia in every case he was told that he must have meant thecompound cathartic pill, which in no way resembles the pill he sought with this attitude on the writing of the men supposed to be serving thepublic and the medical profession by the practice of pharmacy, is itany wonder that it is difficult to induce the medical profession toprescribe official preparations or combinations of official drugs inplace of ready-made commercial substitutes largely drawn from among theproprietaries or specialties?. real pharmacy by real pharmacists is anecessity if we are to succeed in combating the proprietary evil cary eggleston, m d , new york -- correspondence in the journal a m a , aug 21, 1920 philip rahtjen and his discoveriesrecent newspaper reports regarding the alleged “discovery of the germof pernicious anemia” and the development of “an antitoxin and serum”by dr philip rahtjen of pasadena, california, have brought inquiriesof which the two that follow are typical this from a physician inindiana.

“it is unprofessionalto receive remuneration from patents for surgical instruments ormedicines ” this does not mean that the patenting is wrong in itself;there are occasions when it is wise, if not necessary, to obtain apatent in the interest of the public, and, in the case of surgicalinstruments and medicines, of the medical profession in certaininstances it is absolutely necessary that the article produced compare and contrast essay format shallmaintain a definite standard of quality and purity-- and, it may beadded, shall be sold at a reasonable price enterprising pharmaceuticalmanufacturers have usually been ready to appropriate the results ofscientific research by investigators or therapeutic measures suggestedby practicing physicians not infrequently, in such instances, thedesire for financial gain has caused the marketing of such productswith extravagant, if not false, claims as to their value yet thepatent laws may be used so as to protect and benefit the public and themedical profession in research laboratories, work is being carried onresulting in the production of new therapeutic agents it is importantthat these agents shall be so controlled that they may be madeavailable without subordination to commercial interests it has becomepractically necessary, therefore, for research workers to protecttheir products in the interest of the public welfare and scientificmedicine it has not been an easy matter to decide how best to bringabout the desired results this question has been before the board oftrustees of the american medical association. And, in 1914, the houseof delegates passed a resolution authorizing the board to accept at itsdiscretion patents for medical and surgical instruments and appliances;as trustees, for the benefit of the profession and the public, provided that neither the association nor the patentee should receiveremuneration from these patents the rockefeller institute for medicalresearch has solved the problem in a similar manner in connection withthe report of the discovery of several new arsenic compounds, jacobsand heidelberger, 302 working in the rockefeller institute, say:302 jacobs, w a , and heidelberger, m. Aromatic arsenic compounds, ii, the amides and alkyl amides of n-- arylglycine arsonic acids, j am chem soc 41:1587 oct 1919 it may be appropriate to mention here that this substance and related compounds, described in the present and following papers of the series, are covered by u s patents nos 1280119-27 patents have also been applied for in foreign countries all discoveries made at the rockefeller institute are made freely available to the public, in accordance with the philanthropic purposes of the institution in order to insure purity of product and protection against exploitation, it has been deemed necessary in certain instances to protect the discoveries by patents it is the purpose of the institute to permit any drugs which may prove of practical therapeutic value to be manufactured under license by suitable chemical firms and under conditions of production which will insure the biological qualities of the drugs and their marketing at reasonable prices other than through the issuance of license, the rockefeller institute does not writingicipate in any way in the commercial preparation or sale of the manufactured chemicals. And it receives no royalties or other pecuniary benefits from the licenses it issues here we have medicine at its best the altruism of pure scienceoperating for the benefit of the general public. Scientifictherapeutics freed from commercial domination -- editorial from thejournal a m a , oct 18, 1919 pharmaceutical barnumsdoes the public love to be humbugged?. we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!. they are “an anodyne, analgesicfebrifuge sedative, exorcising sic!. antineuralgic and antirheumaticaction ” and their composition?. simply “an activated, balancedcombination of the mono-acetyl-derivative of para-amidophenetoltogether with a feebly basic substance in the alkaloidal state from thethea-sinensis ” as clear as the missouri river!. essay day essay dentistor physician is going to investigate and find that this awe-inspiring, polysyllabic example of exuberant verbosity means nothing moremysterious than our old friends acetphenetidin phenacetin andcaffein in the meantime, the exploiters may smile softly and murmur, “barnum was right!. ”-- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 1, 1921 the pharmacopeia the ninth decennial revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia became officialthis week, sept 1, 1916 it is more fully reviewed elsewhere;303here we desire merely to call attention to two points. What the bookis and what it is not it is a book of standards for drugs. It isnot a book of standard remedies the committee of revision of thepharmacopeia included physicians and pharmacists retail, wholesaleand manufacturing, but the pharmacists were in the majority andin control the majority of the representatives of the medicalprofession on this committee would have preferred to see the bulkof the pharmacopeia reduced and its value as a work of referenceenhanced by the rejection of therapeutically worthless drugs therepresentatives of commercial interests, on the other hand, argued thatit was necessary for the pharmacopeia to provide standards for drugsin more or less general use, whether worthless or otherwise the forceof this argument is essaywhat impaired by the fact that the nationalformulary, which has also been made a book of legal standards, nowincludes individual drugs as well as combinations. The new edition ofthe formulary, in fact, contains a large number of drugs which had beendropped from the u s pharmacopeia viii the principle of making usethe sole criterion for admission to the pharmacopeia, however, on thewhole carried the day it has not been strictly observed. Good resultsfrom the efforts of the medical contingent are to be observed here andthere, as in the deletion of elixir of the phosphates of iron, quininand strychnin and of emulsion of cod liver oil with hypophosphites that these instances were not expressions of policy on the writing of thecommittee on revision, but merely deviations from policy, may be seenby a glance at the contents of the new pharmacopeia these includesubstances which have been shown to be inert, like the hypophosphites calcium, potassium and sodium hypophosphites, complex and obsoletemixtures, like the compound syrup of sarsaparilla, and drugs whichhave been tried and found wanting, like saw palmetto berries evensubstances seldom used by the medical profession, but chiefly oraltogether by the public, like sassafras, hops and peppermint theherb, are standardized and made official it seems difficult todiscover any principle by which the sphere of the pharmacopeia may bedefinitely marked off from that of the national formulary there isone great advantage in specifying u s p drugs and preparations:physicians who do so invoke legal standards of purity and identity theonly way to be sure of obtaining substances of therapeutic efficiency, however, is to exercise discrimination the pharmacopeia is no guide being prepared mainly by pharmacists to meet the needs of pharmacists, the pharmacopeia of course contains much matter of little interest tophysicians and entirely foreign to scientific medicine -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , sept 2, 1916 303 j a m a 67:764 sept 2 1916 review of ninth revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia, which has beenin the hands of the committee of revision for more than six years, hasjust appeared as was to be expected, the desire of medical men on thecommittee of revision to have therapeutic value made a requirement foradmission to the pharmacopeia has not been fully realized. It remainsa book of standards for therapeutically good, bad and indifferentremedies among the drugs of little or no therapeutic importanceor value are musk, arnica, eriodictyon, quassia, pumpkin seed, sawpalmetto berries, sarsaparilla and couch grass thesis superfluousdrugs and preparations are included for instance, of the nine formsof quinin described quinin alkaloid, bisulphate, dihydrochlorid, hydrobromid, hydrochlorid, salicylate, sulphate and tannate, and quininand urea hydrochlorid, at least four might well have been eliminated two insoluble forms the alkaloid and the tannate, two soluble forms the hydrochlorid and quinin and urea hydrochlorid, and a moderatelysoluble form the sulphate are all that could reasonably be demandedby even the most extreme writingisans of the doctrine of “pharmaceuticnecessity ” further, the use of quinin salicylate for its salicylicacid content and of quinin hydrobromid for its bromid content isunscientific the inclusion of these salts in the pharmacopeia isregrettable those interested in the promotion of rational therapy will also regretthe inclusion of a number of fluidextracts of violently toxic drugs, such as aconite and gelsemium dose 1/2 minim each, belladonna root, digitalis, nux vomica and ipecac dose 1 minim each, and lobelia dose2-1/2 minims the more diluted forms, the tinctures, of these drugsare preferable the inclusion of such fluidextracts in the pharmacopeiais playing into the hands of certain pharmaceutical manufacturers, whorecommend the tincture be prepared from fluidextracts-- an unscientificprocedure the efforts of the medical members of the committee, however, havenot been entirely fruitless of the articles described in the u s pharmacopeia viii, 243 have been deleted. Sixty-seven new articles havebeen added the loss of 167 titles may be set down as a gain moreover, most of the new substances give promise of therapeutic usefulness thirty-six are taken over from new and nonofficial remedies.

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The other passed from thecircular mark behind, crossed it on either side under lower jaw, thenceup to chin appeared at first to compare and contrast essay format be a case of strangulation followinghanging. But the two marks were finally explained, that after the bodywas taken down it was ordered up again until the police should arrive 4 ibid , p 5 - man, age 45. First cut his throat and then hunghimself “he had probably only just had time to hang himself beforedying ”5 ibid , p 30 - woman. Hung herself with a twisted cloth therewas much ecchymosis about the neck and upper writing of chest.