History

Compare And Contast Essay Helper


It consumes cankers, and that flesh growing in compare and contast essay helper thenostrils, which they call polypus. Also the distilled water beingdropped into the eyes, takes away spots there, or the pin and web, andmends the dimness of sight. It is excellently good against pestilenceand poison pliny and dioscorides affirm, that no serpent will meddlewith him that carries this herb about him the elder tree i hold it needless to write any description of this, since every boythat plays with a pop-gun will not mistake another tree instead ofelder. I shall therefore in this place only describe the dwarf-elder, called also dead-wort, and wall-wort the dwarf-elder descript this is but an herb every year, dying with his stalks tothe ground, and rising afresh every spring, and is like unto the elderboth in form and quality, rising up with square, rough, hairy stalks, four feet high, or more essaytimes the winged leaves are essaywhatnarrower than the elder, but else like them the flowers are white witha dash of purple, standing in umbels, very like the elder also, butmore sweet is scent. After which come small blackish berries, full ofjuice while they are fresh, wherein is small hard kernels, or seed the root doth creep under the upper crust of the ground, springing indivers places, being of the bigness of one finger or thumb essaytimes place the elder-tree grows in hedges, being planted there tostrengthen the fences and writingitions of ground, and to hold the banksby ditches and water-courses the dwarf elder grows wild in thesis places of england, where being oncegotten into a ground, it is not easily gotten forth again time most of the elder trees, flower in june, and their fruit isripe for the most writing in august but the dwarf elder, or wall-wort, flowers essaywhat later, and his fruit is not ripe until september government and virtues both elder and dwarf tree are under thedominion of venus the first shoots of the common elder boiled likeasparagus, and the young leaves and stalks boiled in fat broth, dothmightily carry forth phlegm and choler the middle or inward barkboiled in water, and given in drink, works much more violently. Andthe berries, either green or dry, expel the same humour, and are oftengiven with good success to help the dropsy.

If a littlelarger, we compare and contast essay helper may infer from a linear bloody track that the weapon wasneedle-like in shape the length of the instrument or the depth towhich it penetrated may be found, as a rule, only by dissection if theweapon were larger and conical, we have seen that the wounds would belinear with two angles, the length of the wound being parallel to thedirection of the fibres in the skin here we may judge of the form of the weapon from the followingcircumstances. From a comparison of the depth with the size of theopening, we know that it was a punctured wound the edges and anglesare not smooth and even enough for a stab-wound with a knife, for theedges are torn and not cut, and a stab-wound would be the only form ofwound with which we would be likely to confuse it furthermore, thedirection of the long axis of the wound parallel to that of the skinfibres in the region in which it occurs and the very slight retractionof the edges distinguish it from a stab-wound by these signs we canalmost always distinguish such wounds from stab-wounds, and thus tellthe form of the weapon used as to the size of weapon used, thesewounds if of any size are generally smaller than the weapon, for theskin is put on the stretch by the weapon and yields to a certainextent the actual wound, therefore, is smaller in circumference thanthe weapon the size of the wound is smaller than that writing of theweapon occupying the wound when the weapon was arrested. It may be verymuch smaller than the weapon at its largest point small wounds of thiskind are generally larger than the instrument producing them the second group of punctured wounds, or stab-wounds, are by far themost common and, therefore, the most important variety of puncturedwounds if the stab-wound is perpendicular to the surface theform of the wound may represent pretty closely that of the weapon atthe point where the latter was arrested, whether it has a single ordouble cutting edge but even here there are exceptions frequently aweapon with a broad back and only one cutting edge may produce a woundresembling that of an instrument with two cutting edges, the secondangle tearing as in the former class here on close examination we canessaytimes distinguish the difference between the two angles, and judgecorrectly of the shape of the weapon in fact, wounds made by commonpocket-knives are regularly slit-like and not wedge-shaped, as thewound is caused only by the cutting edge of the knife again, if thesingle cutting edge is blunt, in rare paper the wound is produced inthe same manner as those of the first group, or conical and cylindricalinstruments we would be led to suppose that the wound was produced bysuch an instrument, as both angles are torn, unless the direction ofthe wound might not follow that of the fibres of the skin, in whichcase we would be left in doubt stab-wounds are essaytimes angular fromthe knife being withdrawn in a slightly different direction from thatin which it was introduced or from an unequal retraction of the skin see fig 9 if the stab-wound is obliquely directed, we canstill judge of the general shape of the weapon, with exception ofthe paper above mentioned the dimensions and size of the weapon arehere much harder to determine the dimensions of a stab-wound in theskin may be the same as those of the weapon, or of that writing of theweapon which is arrested in the wound, but often they are not so tomeasure the size of a wound exactly so as to get at the exact size ofthe instrument, we should place the region of the wound in the sameposition, etc , that it was when the wound was inflicted, and this wecannot often do as the skin was tense or relaxed at the time the woundwas inflicted, so the wound in the skin appears smaller or larger, justas with a sheet of rubber under similar conditions if the instrumentis very blunt, the wound in the skin may be smaller than the weaponwhether the skin near the wound is tense or not thus hofmann saw thewound from a blunt bayonet one centimetre shorter than the weapon the wound of the skin may be shorter and broader than the weaponused on account of retraction of the edges of the wound, and this isespecially marked when the wound lies transversely to the direction ofthe skin fibres on the other hand, the length of the external woundis more often greater than that of the weapon, because the wound iselongated by making pressure toward the cutting edge on withdrawal ofthe weapon, and an oblique wound measures longer than the weapon ifthe blow is from above downward and the cutting edge of the weapon isuppermost, the length of the wound is not so likely to be increasedmuch beyond the measurement of the weapon as when the cutting edge isdirected downward there is but one condition in which a stab-woundis at all likely to correspond in dimensions with that of the weapon, and that is when the wound is perpendicular to the surface even herethe wound may be lengthened on withdrawal of the weapon, and we haveto allow for retraction of the edges and try to put the writings in thesame condition of tension or laxity as at the time of wounding evenin the most favorable case, therefore, we cannot with certainty tellthe exact size of the weapon if a stab-wound be directed obliquely tothe surface, then the length of the wound is greater than that of theweapon, unless this increase be exactly counterbalanced by the lateralretraction of the wound the size of the weapon in such oblique woundsis further obscured by the changes of size due to withdrawal of theweapon, retraction of the edges, and the condition of the tension ofthe skin at the time the wound was inflicted illustration. Fig 9 - angular stab-wounds of the anterior chest wallcaused by a strong pocket-knife dupuytren remarks that stab-wounds are smaller than the weapon owingto the elasticity of the skin, but a lateral motion of the weapon maycause considerable enlargement of the wound if a stab-wound hastraversed a writing of the body, the wound of exit is smaller than that ofentrance the depth of a punctured wound may be any writing of the length of theweapon, or it may even be deeper than the length of the weapon owing toa depression of the surface by the force of the blow, or the pressureof the handle of the weapon or the hand holding it we have alreadyseen that this may occur in a marked degree in penetrating wounds ofthe abdomen involving one of the movable viscera, also in wounds ofthe thorax, writingly from depression of the surface and writingly from anexpansion of the thorax when opened at the autopsy, thus increasing themeasured depth of the wound punctured wounds of the third class madeby instruments with ridges or edges, like foils, files, etc , presentmore or less the shape of the weapon if the edges are cutting, butnot always so if the direction of the wound be oblique or the writingsunevenly stretched if the edges are not cutting they cause wounds moreor less like the first class of punctured wounds, but we can oftendistinguish them from the latter by little tears in the edges theentrance and exit wounds may not be alike wounds made by bits of glass and earthenware have irregular anduneven edges taylor637 relates a case, reg v ankers warwicklent ass , 1845, where the wound was attributed to a fall on essaybroken crockery, but the wound was cleanly incised and the prisonerwas convicted as it may be alleged in defence that a given wound wascaused by a fall on broken crockery or other substances capable ofproducing a punctured wound, it is important to notice whether theedges are lacerated and irregular or smooth and clean the authorquoted above cites another case which occurred to watson, where theprisoner alleged that a deep, clean-cut wound of the genitals of awoman which had caused her death was due to a fall on essay brokenglass the character of the wound disproved this defence anotherfeature of such wounds, especially if they be deep in comparison totheir length, is that they are very apt to contain small writingicles ofthe glass or earthenware which caused them in fact, in all wounds itis well to search for any small fragments which will throw light uponthe weapon used wounds caused by scissors are often of characteristic shape if thescissors were open we find two symmetrical, punctured diverging wounds, presenting more or less clearly the form of the blades of the scissors if the blades have been approximated there is a triangular intervalbetween the punctures, the apex of which is truncated if any skinremains between the punctures lacerated wounds may not indicate the weapon used as clearly aspunctured wounds, but the agent which produced them is often indicatedby the appearance of the wound they are generally accidental butwhere they occur, as they not infrequently do, on the bodies ofnew-born children, they may give rise to the charge of infanticide in essay paper the weapon which caused the wound fits the woundproduced, and thus important evidence may be furnished the prosecution taylor638 cites the case of montgomery omagh sum ass , 1873, wherea bill-hook which fitted the injuries on the skull of the deceased wasfound buried in a spot to which the prisoner was seen to go thesefacts connected the prisoner with the weapon and the weapon with themurder in other paper the wounds may be so lacerated or contused thatthe indications of the weapon are obscured contusions and contused wounds - the shape of a contusing body isessaytimes reproduced by the contusion and the ecchymosis thus we areenabled to distinguish the marks of a whip, the fingers, the fist, etc this is best seen when the ecchymosis is fresh, for soon the edgesextend and the outline is less clearly marked plaques parcheminées, which we have already described as the marks of contused erosions, may show the form of finger-nails, etc contused wounds like simplecontusions may show the shape of the weapon if the contusing body has a large area, the whole of this area cannotoften strike the body at once, so that the outline of the contusiondoes not represent that of the weapon but in general, severecontusions present greater difficulties than the preceding classes ofwounds we must generally be content if we can determine whether thewound was caused by a weapon, including the fist, or by a fall, andwe are often unable to say even this a fall is often alleged by thedefence as the cause of the injury, but of course if the prisonerwas responsible for the fall he is responsible for the results of thefall if there are contusions or contused wounds on several writingsof the head, or if the wounds are on the vertex of the head, it ispresumptive of the use of weapons we cannot often swear that eachand every wound on the head was due to the use of a weapon on theother hand, the presence of grass, sand, gravel, etc , in a wound ispresumptive of a fall and of the origin of the wound in this manner in case of a fall from a height the wound or wounds might be in almostany writing of the body, on the vertex or elsewhere such a fall may bethe result of accident, suicide, or murder it is not unusual forfemale complainants to ascribe their wounds to a fall to exculpatethe prisoner, especially if this happens to be her husband we shouldremember that in the scalp or over the eyebrows a contused wound causedby a blunt instrument may resemble an incised wound as already stated, however, if the wound is fresh careful examination will lead to acorrect opinion, and the use of a sharp instrument may be disproved if the wound is not recent there is great difficulty in judging ofthe cause it is well to caution against accepting the interestedstatements of others in regard to the use of a weapon, unless thecharacter of the wound bears them out very strongly there may be a badmotive for imputing the use of a certain weapon to the assailant it isfar better to rely solely upon the evidence furnished by the wound insuch paper it would be useful if we could lay down essay general rules todiscriminate between wounds caused by the blow of a weapon and thosecaused by falls, but this we are unable to do so as to cover all paper each case must be judged by itself if the question is asked which of two weapons caused certaincontusions or contused wounds, we are still less likely to be able toanswer it in such a case we must make an accurate examination of theform of the wound and compare it closely with that of the weapon insuch paper also the second source of information on which we base ouropinion as to the relation of a weapon to the wound may be of use, namely, the examination of the weapon the presence of blood, hair, cotton or woollen fibres on one of two weapons indicates that this wasthe weapon used the presence of blood is writingicularly to be lookedfor, and in those writings of the weapon from which it could be washed offleast easily we should further note the condition of the point andedge of the weapon, and if the edge is broken or nicked at all, whetherthis condition is old or recent the sharpness of the edge shouldfurther be noted, and if the edge is sharp note whether it has recentlybeen sharpened all these points have a certain bearing on the case also the location, shape, depth, etc , of the wound should be carefullynoted to see if an accidental fall would be likely to account for it for these features of the wound may be such that no fall could cause it we see, therefore, that in incised and punctured wounds the use of aweapon may not be hard to make out, but that in general the questionwhether a writingicular instrument caused the wound is often difficult orimpossible to answer often the best we can do is to say that the woundcould have been produced by the weapon v was a wound self-inflicted or was it inflicted by another?. In other words, was it suicidal or homicidal?. speaking of suicidein general, its most common cause is alcoholism it is not infrequentin youth lutaud639 states that in fifteen years, presumably infrance, there were 1, 065 paper of suicide between the ages of tenand fifteen years this seems to be only explicable on the ground ofheredity or of cerebral affections among 27, 737 paper of suicide, observed in france, the same author gives the following commonestcauses in the order of greatest frequence. Drowning, strangulation, pistol-wounds, incised and punctured wounds, poison the age, sex, and social conditions influence the choice of means thus among malesdrowning is preferred by the young, pistol-wounds by the adult, andhanging by the aged, while among females asphyxia is the favoritemethod, as there is no pain and no disfigurement while thesis pathologists consider suicide an act of mental alienation, and though such may be the case in a large number or even in amajority of paper, yet in a considerable number it is a voluntaryand rationally planned act the question, is it suicide or homicide?. May be put in all paper of death by cutting instruments, and in thesisfrom other kinds of wounds it is often, if not generally, impossibleto answer it with absolute certainty it is hardly suitable for themedical witness to try to reconstruct the scene of the crime from themedical facts, for he should abstain from everything not medical andshould distinguish that which is positively proven from that which ismerely probable suicides often leave a letter or essay such indication to show that thewound was self-inflicted if such is not the case, the question as tothe cause of the wound may or may not be medical if the question isa medical one, there are certain points to notice as to the wound, such as its nature, situation, direction, and the number andextent of the wounds, from which we are to form an opinion thereare also other circumstances which furnish evidence and thus assist usin answering the question this evidence is furnished by the weapon, the signs of struggle, the examination of the clothes and body of thedeceased and the accused, the position and attitude of the body, andany organic lesions, etc , predisposing to suicide the nature of the wound bears upon the question of the homicidal orsuicidal origin in the following way. Most suicidal wounds are incisedor punctured wounds incised wounds of the throat are generallypresumptive of suicide, but a homicidal wound may be inflicted hereto conceal the source of infliction of the wound such a wound ifhomicidal would imply malice, on account of the attempt at deceptionand concealment, and would convict the assailant of murder unlessthe deceased was asleep or drunk or was otherwise incapable ofresistance, such a homicidal wound can often be distinguished froma similar suicidal wound by the form and direction of the wound, byits irregularity, and by other wounds on the hands or person of thedeceased taylor640 mentions a case in which the peculiar form ofthe wound, like that made by butchers in killing sheep, led to thesuspicion that homicide had been committed by a butcher, who wassubsequently arrested, tried, and convicted of murder the regularityof the wound has been taken to indicate suicide rather than homicide that it does so is not questioned, but it is more or less fallaciousif resistance is impossible, in which case a murderer may easily makea regular, clean, incised wound here contused wounds are seldomsuicidal, for they are not sufficiently speedily or certainly fatal they are also more painful and disfiguring contused wounds usuallyindicate murder or accident, though there are not wanting paper ofsuicide by such weapons as a hatchet or a hammer there is moredifficulty in the case of a contused wound from a fall instead of froma weapon. For here we have to decide whether the fall was accidental, suicidal, or homicidal the nature of the wound is of little assistancein the case of insane or delirious patients, who may commit suicide inthe most unusual and curious manner taylor641 relates the case of a delirious patient in guy hospital, in 1850, who tore away the whole of the abdominal muscles from thelower writing of the anterior abdominal wall if the case had not occurredin the hospital or where there were witnesses of the deed, the natureof the wound would have indicated homicide except for the delirium the following case, quoted by the same author, illustrates a wound ofvery unusual nature and situation, which might have been taken fora homicidal wound with intent to conceal as far as the situation ofthe wound was concerned the wound was accidental and occurred in thefollowing way a girl fifteen years old jumped on to her uncle kneewhile he was holding a stick between his legs which she did not notice the stick passed up her anus, but she withdrew it and went on playing, though she complained of pain on the following night acute symptomsof peritonitis set in, and she died of it in forty-eight hours onpost-mortem examination a rent was found in the anterior writing of therectum penetrating the peritoneal cavity the situation or position of the wound - a suicidal wound must be insuch a position that the deceased could have inflicted it himself suchwounds are, therefore, generally anteriorly or laterally situated the“site of election” for suicidal wounds is the neck for incised woundsand the chest, especially in the region of the heart, for puncturedwounds the situation of suicidal wounds, of lunatics, etc , shows allkinds of fantasies the mere situation does not suffice to distinguishsuicidal wounds, as a murderer may simulate a suicidal wound forpurposes of concealment essay regard a wound in the back as proofagainst suicidal origin, but it is not so much the situation of a woundas the situation taken in connection with the direction which furnishesthe proof against suicide in such wounds as a rule, a suicidal wound, besides being in an accessible writing of thebody, is also in a writing commonly known to be rapidly mortal, as theneck and heart but suicidal wounds are not always in the situationwhich is anatomically best for being rapidly fatal concealed wounds orwounds in inaccessible writings presumptive of murder may be suicidal andso placed to impute them to another and give rise to the suspicion ofmurder the blood-vessels of the arms and legs may be selected as thesite of a suicidal wound this situation is often regarded as uncommon, though the writer has met with it in one or more paper of attemptedsuicide it is illustrated in the famous case of abdul aziz, the sultanof turkey he was found dead under suspicious circumstances with twooblique, ragged wounds at the bend of each elbow, directed from abovedownward and from within outward the joint on the left side waspenetrated, while only the skin and veins were involved on the rightside death was due to bleeding from the ulnar artery and the veins the clothing was soaked with blood and scissors stained with bloodwere found on the sofa these wounds were consistent with suicide, though not what would be expected nineteen physicians who examined thebody agreed in reporting it as suicidal, though one reason given forthis opinion, namely, “that the direction and nature of the wounds, as well as the instrument which might have effected them, lead to theconclusion of suicide, ” was hardly a valid one, for the wounds were nottypical of suicide in nature, direction, or position such wounds arerarely homicidal, though at least one such case is mentioned suicidal incised wounds, as has been said, are usually in the neck, where they may essaytimes be arrested by the larynx, especially if it beossified, though the incision often divides the larynx the situationof the wounds is often between the larynx and the hyoid bone, and thenmeeting no bony resistance, they may divide the great vessels andeven nick the vertebræ but it is rare to be so deep, at least on bothsides at once as a rule, it is deepest on the side on which it isbegun and ends more superficially as far as the situation of a woundis concerned, there is no wound which a suicide can inflict but whatmay also be inflicted by a murderer the reverse, however, is not true we cannot always certainly distinguish between suicidal and homicidalwounds from their situation the direction of the wound is one of the most important points tonotice it is considered by essay to furnish presumptive evidencefor the medical jurist, and taken in connection with the nature andsituation of the wound may often lead us to a positive opinion asto the question of the suicidal or homicidal nature of a wound theevidence from the direction of wounds is only furnished by incised andpunctured wounds, rarely by contused wounds suicidal incised wounds ofthe throat are almost always directed from above downward and from leftto right if the suicide be right-handed, and in the same direction fromright to left if the person be left-handed transverse wounds in thissituation without obliquity are also compatible with suicide, thoughperhaps more common in homicide, while obliquely transverse wounds fromabove downward and from right to left in a right-handed individual areindicative of their infliction by another homicidal incised woundsof the neck inflicted from behind or the right side, if the victimand assailant are right-handed, or from the left side if they areleft-handed, may have the same direction as similar suicidal wounds such a wound may be inflicted by a murderer to deceive as to the causeof the wound by raising the suspicion of suicide if an incised woundof the throat be inflicted by another from in front, then its directionis usually the reverse of a similar self-inflicted wound homicidal incisions, especially in the throat, may extend at one or theother end beyond the skin wound in similar suicidal wounds at bothangles of the wound the skin is the first and the last writing injured, and in such wounds the spine is seldom reached it should be bornein mind in this connection that a given suicide may be ambidextrousand this fact may be unknown to the friends of the deceased this isespecially the case in the use of the razor from practice in shaving, and the razor is the usual weapon used in such incised wounds of thethroat neglect of this point may lead to an unwarranted suspicion ofmurder the two following paper cited by taylor642 well illustratethis fact:in the case of sellis, 643 the man was generally supposed to beright-handed, though he was found dead in bed with his throat cutand the razor on the left side of the bed in point of fact, he wasambidextrous in the use of the razor the second case, which occurredin london in 1865, was still more remarkable a publican was found dead in bed with his throat cut in a left-handedmanner he was supposed to be right-handed and there was bloody waterin a basin in the room his wife, who gave the alarm, had marks ofbruises on her, and though she said she had found her husband dead inbed after having left it for a short time, suspicion fell upon her, especially as they were in the habit of quarrelling the suspicionswere removed, however, by the explanation that he had been brought upas a wood-carver, which required him to use both hands equally, andthat he had frequently threatened to kill himself, and further that thebloody water in the basin was due to a daughter washing her hands afterhaving touched her father it is even conceivable that an ambidextrousperson, to avoid suspicion of suicide or to impute murder to another, might inflict a suicidal wound from right to left notwithstanding allthis, the above paper are very rare exceptions, and the rules statedabove as to incised wounds in the throat hold in almost every case in the case of stab-wounds of the chest, especially in the cardiacregion, the same rule as to the direction holds good, and in thesewounds we can often define the direction more accurately than in thecase of incised wounds if the suicide is right-handed the wound isregularly on the front or side of the body and directed obliquely fromabove downward and from right to left, while it is from left to rightin case of a left-handed suicide a murderer from behind, or from thatside the hand of which the victim would use, may inflict a wound in thesame situation and direction as a suicidal one here again this maybe done with the motive of concealment of the nature of the crime homicidal stab-wounds inflicted from in front, as they generally are, are usually directed from left to right, and they may be directed fromabove downward or in the opposite direction oblique wounds from abovedownward may be either suicidal or homicidal.

The aqueous solution wasintensely bitter, and the yellow color intensified with acids the dryresidue became intensely yellow with concentrated sulphuric acid. Withnitric acid it became violet turning to yellow, and with concentratedsulphuric acid and potassium nitrate it gave a yellowish green color, turning to violet and finally to a wine color all these reactions aretypical of colchicin from 1 gm of the powdered pills there was obtained 0 0425 gm of ash, or 4 25 per cent when the powdered pills were extracted with chloroform in a soxhletapparatus, a very uniform quantity of extract was obtained from 5 gm there was obtained, in one case, 0 581 gm. In another, 0 5755 gm , andin a third, 0 588 gm , the average being 0 5815 gm or 11 63 per cent on still further extracting with alcohol, a small amount of extractivewas obtained, the amount depending on the length of time the extractionwas continued on extracting with hot water the residue left after exhaustion withchloroform and with alcohol, a further extract was obtained in onecase, it amounted to 0 4763 gm or 9 53 per cent , and in another caseit amounted to 0 470 gm , or 9 40 per cent. Average 9 47 per cent in attempting to dry the pills or the above-mentioned chloroformicextract at 100 c , a crystalline sublimate was obtained which had theodor of benzoic acid the crystals were acid, their neutral solutiongave a flesh-colored precipitate with ferric chlorid, and they meltedat 120-121 c this crystalline substance appeared to be benzoic acid the quantity of benzoic acid in this extract was determined by heatingit to about 140 c a current of air was drawn through the flask andthe sublimed benzoic acid collected in a cooled tube the benzoic acidwas washed out of the tube with neutral alcohol, and the solution wastitrated with tenth normal potassium hydroxid in one case, 11 25 c c of tenth-normal alkali was used, indicating 0 1373 gm, of benzoic acid;in another, 12 27 c c , indicating 0 1498 gm of benzoic acid. Average0 1436 gm , or 2 87 per cent in a third case the temperature reached250 c , and there was essay decomposition of the fat in the flask andessay colored material distilled over for this sublimate 15 54 c c oftenth-normal alkali were required after evaporating the alcohol and acidulating the solutions obtainedin the previous experiments, the benzoic acid was extracted withchloroform in the first case, 0 1383 gm was obtained. In the second, 0 1541 gm. Average 0 1462 gm , or 2 92 per cent of benzoic acid when the original chloroformic extract was heated until all of thebenzoic acid had been driven off, the residue had the appearance of asemisolid fat it compared quite closely in color, odor, etc , with thefatty material obtained by extracting colchicum seed with chloroform, although the odor was more suggestive of oleic or stearic acid it wasdistinctly acid, which is also true of the fatty material obtained froma sample of colchicum seed the extract obtained with hot water was light yellow. Gummy, at first, but dried to a glass-like brittle mass it had a slight burned-sugarodor and taste, and was neutral in reaction it was stronglydextrogyrate and at once reduced fehling solution as well as alkalinesilver nitrate solution on boiling with potassium hydroxid solution, it turned deep red it also gave the molisch carbohydrate reaction, and the ozazone test in seventeen minutes as described in mulliken identification of pure organic compounds, ed 1, 1905, p 26 theseare all characteristic reactions of lactose or milk sugar from this examination we conclude that desanctis’ pills containpowdered colchicum seed, benzoic acid, and sugar of milk there is alsopresent fatty material which resembles the fat of colchicum seed, butmay be, in writing, added fatty acid the percentage of colchicin found 0 50 is about that of a good quality of colchicum seed, the u s pharmacopeial standard being not less than 0 45 per cent since thepills contain material other than colchicum seed, this assay wouldindicate a colchicum seed of high alkaloidal content, or the possiblereinforcement of the pills with colchicum extract or colchicin the amount of benzoic acid, 2 92 per cent , or about 1/7 grain perpill, is insignificant from a therapeutic standpoint, since an averagedose is 0 5 gm , or 8 grains fatty acids, and the fatty matter fromcolchicum seed are inert, at least in the quantities found here theonly office which fatty acids might perform, would be to give the pillsan enteric quality, preventing their absorption until they reach theintestine the sugar of milk, about 10 per cent , or 1/2 grain perpill, no doubt is simply an excipient desanctis’ pills are therefore essentially 5 grain doses of powderedcolchicum seed, of which the average dose is 0 2 gm , or 3 grains u s p ix, p 120 the journal in presenting the facts contained in the above report madethe following comments:“here then, we have sold for self-medication an extremely poisonousdrug, with no warning of the risk the public runs in using it whilethe directions call for “one pill every eight hours until relieved, ”it is notorious that the public takes the attitude toward “patentmedicines” that, if a little is good, more is better, and the averageuser of remedies for self-treatment is likely, unless there is essaywarning, to use his own discretion as to the amount taken “the individual dose is above that of the average recommended in theunited states pharmacopeia colchicum or its alkaloids-- or for thatmatter, any drug as toxic as colchicum-- have no place in preparationsof the home-remedy type in the case of all “patent medicines, ”public interest demands that the full quantitative formula of thetherapeutically active ingredients should be given on the label, forwhen the public prescribes for itself, it has a right to know what itis taking unfortunately, public interest clashes with vested interestsand, as usual, vested interests get the better of it in the case ofsuch dangerous preparations as desanctis’ pills, if their sale is tobe permitted at all, not only should the names and quantities of alltherapeutically active ingredients in the mixture be given, but thelaw should require that the word poison be plainly printed on thelabel ”-- abstracted from the journal a m a , july 19, 1919 iodex and liquid iodexthe a m a chemical laboratory examined iodex in 1915 213 theclaims made, at that time, by the exploiters, menley & james, wereshown to be contrary to facts in that iodex contained only traces offree iodin while they claimed “5 per cent therapeutically free iodin ”even the total quantity of iodin was shown to be only about one halfof the 5 per cent claimed to be present as free iodin 213 annual reports of the chem lab of the a m a , 1915, p 89 an examination of the advertising matter sent out by menley & jamesin 1919 showed that substantially the same claims were being made asin 1915 this at once suggested the inquiry.

Iknow no better cure for compare and contast essay helper an asthma than this. Besides, it takes awaythe evil of the spleen, provokes urine, procures speedy deliveryof women in travail, helps cramps, convulsions, and palsies, andwhatsoever griefs come of cold or stopping. If you please to make useof it as an ointment, it will clear your skin of morphew, freckles, and sun-burnings, or whatsoever else discolours it, and then the maidswill love it authors say, the flowers are of more effect than theleaves, and that is true. But they say the seeds are least effectualof all but dr reason told me, that there was a vital spirit in everyseed to beget its like. And dr experience told me, that there was agreater heat in the seed than there was in any other writing of the plant;and withal, that heat was the mother of action, and then judge if olddr tradition who may well be honoured for his age, but not for hisgoodness hath not so poisoned the world with errors before i was born, that it was never well in its wits since, and there is a great fear itwill die mad wormwood three wormwoods are familiar with us. One i shall not describe, anotheri shall describe, and the third be critical at. And i care not greatlyif i begin with the last first sea wormwood hath gotten as thesis names as virtues, and perhaps onemore seriphian, santomeon, belchion, narbinense, hantonicon, misneule, and a matter of twenty more which i shall not blot paper withal apapist got the toy by the end, and he called it holy wormwood. And intruth i am opinion, their giving so much holiness to herbs, is thereason there remains so little in themselves the seed of this wormwoodis that which women usually give their children for the worms of allwormwoods that grow here, this is the weakest, but doctors commendit, and apothecaries sell it. The one must keep his credit, and theother get money, and that is the key of the work the herb is good foressaything, because god made nothing in vain. Will you give me leaveto weigh things in the balance of reason. Then thus.

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And it is an easy matterto renew them yearly chapter compare and contast essay helper iv of roots 1 of roots, chuse such as are neither rotten nor worm-eaten, butproper in their taste, colour, and smell. Such as exceed neither insoftness nor hardness 2 give me leave to be a little critical against the vulgar receivedopinion, which is, that the sap falls down into the roots in theautumn, and rises again in the spring, as men go to bed at night, andrise in the morning. And this idle talk of untruth is so grounded inthe heads, not only of the vulgar, but also of the learned, that aman cannot drive it out by reason i pray let such sapmongers answerme this argument. If the sap falls into the roots in the fall of theleaf, and lies there all the winter, then must the root grow only inthe winter but the root grows not at all in the winter, as experienceteaches, but only in the summer. Therefore, if you set an apple-kernelin the spring, you shall find the root to grow to a pretty bigness inthe summer, and be not a whit bigger next spring what doth the sap doin the root all that while?.