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Common College Essay Prompts


Richardson906 recommends artificial circulation by injection of vessels, or electric excitation. Jennings907 recommends the same. Richardson908 also considers fully the subject of artificial respiration and electrical excitation. Woillez909 has described and recommended what he calls a spirophore after the removal of a foreign body the irritation remaining may causea sensation as if the body was still lodged death may occur from hemorrhage after its removal post-mortem appearances these are mainly those of asphyxia there may also be evidences ofexternal violence, homicidal or accidental, as of pressure on thechest persistent deformity, flattening of the nose and lips, andexcoriation of these writings may result from forcible closure of mouthand nose the skin and conjunctiva usually show patches of lividity andpunctiform ecchymoses. Especially lividity on the lips and limbs theface may be pale or violet.

Especially should the dorsal extremitiesbe examined this examination will often indicate that there has beena mortal struggle before death the impression of a hand or of essayof the fingers is often found on the skin of a dead body the exactsituation where found should be noted this may be of importance, aswhen it occurs where it would have been impossible or improbable forthe deceased to have caused it for appearances in death from lightning or electricity, see vol i , p 701 et seq , and in death from hanging, strangulation, and garroting, see vol i , pp 713, 746, 781, et seq internal examination having completed the examination of the external writings of the body, thenext proceeding is to open the body and make an internal examination this should be done by following a regular method, so as to examine therelations of writings and not to injure one organ while removing another in opening the various organs an incision should be made which willexpose the greatest amount of surface at one cut never make a numberof small and always unsatisfactory incisions in an organ in openingcertain organs like the brain and heart, the incisions are so plannedthat the writings of the organ may be folded together, and, if necessary, their relations to one another and the whole organ studied such organsare opened as one would open a book to examine its pages it is important to remember that after death the blood leaves thearteries and left side of the heart, and collects in the veins and theright cavities of the heart especially does it collect in the vesselsof the most dependent portions common college essay prompts of the body and of the various organs, so that local congestions may often disappear after death. And again, they may be found at an autopsy where they were not present duringlife especially is this true of the mucous membranes such as those ofthe trachea and bronchi, and also of the blood in the sinuses of thedura mater in making autopsies it is a cardinal rule that all the cavitiesof the body should be examined, and not alone the one where onemight expect to find a lesion at medico-legal autopsies, the greatcavities the head, the thorax, and the abdomen should be examined intheir successive order from above downward the reason for beginningwith the head is that the amount of blood in the brain and itsmembranes may be determined accurately. For, if the heart and greatvessels of the neck are opened first, the blood will drain away fromthe brain and local congestions disappear in pathological autopsies, the opening of the head first is not so important, and often thevertebral column need not be opened at all, for it is a complicatedprocess and takes time. But in medico-legal paper, especially where aquestion as to the cause of death may arise, and has not satisfactorilybeen determined, after all the other cavities are examined thevertebral column should always be opened and the cord removed the head make an incision across the vertex of the skull from ear to ear dissect the anterior flap forward until within about three inches ofthe bridge of the nose, and the posterior flap backward to the externaloccipital protuberance examine the internal surface of the scalp forecchymosis and evidences of injury a circular incision is then madewith a saw through the cranium as far backward and forward as theflaps have been reflected an incision through the temporal muscle isnecessary so that the teeth of the saw may not become clogged by themuscle fibres when the cranium has been sawed through, a stout hook isinserted under its upper edge and it is removed with a quick jerk ifthe dura mater is very adherent to the calvaria, it may be necessaryto remove it with the bone, by cutting through it at the level of thecranial incision examine the calvaria as also the other bones of theskull after the brain has been removed and the dura stripped off, forevidence of fracture note the symmetry, thickness, and density of the cranial bone, andremember that depressions along the sagittal suture are for thepacchionian bodies, and are not pathological dura mater - the dura mater may be slightly adherent to the boneof the cranium this is especially seen in old people and doesnot indicate disease the pacchionian bodies are seen along thelongitudinal sinus examine the internal surface of the dura materfor the presence of clots, tumors, or inflammatory lesions open thelongitudinal sinus and examine for thrombi remove the dura mater byan incision following the cranial incision, the falx cerebri betweenthe anterior lobes being drawn back and divided note whether the duramater is adherent to the pia mater, and the condition of its internalsurface pia mater - the brain, covered by the pia mater, is now exposed note the degree of congestion of the membrane, its adherence, and theexistence of pus, blood, or serum on its surface or in its meshes remember that a considerable amount of serum may be present withinnormal limits, especially in cachectic subjects, without indicatingdisease, but when the serum is so extensive as to raise the pia materand to depress the convolutions, we have a pathological amount whichmay be a simple dropsy due to essay general cause, or the result of achronic meningitis enough serous effusion in the pia mater to producea condition which has been called by essay writers “serous apoplexy, ” ibelieve never occurs as a primary condition loss of transparency and thickening of the pia mater, especially alongthe longitudinal fissure, is often seen in old people and does notindicate disease brain - remove the brain by raising the anterior lobes with thefingers of the left hand and cutting through the nerves, vessels, and the tentorium as they appear the medulla is cut as low down aspossible, and the brain as it rolls out is caught in the left hand after being placed on a clean board or in a large clean dish, itis minutely examined the average weight of an adult male brain isforty-nine and one-half ounces. Of the female, forty-four ounces itsproportional weight to that of the rest of the body is as 1 to 45 lay the brain first upon its convex surface and examine the arteriesat the base for atheroma, thrombi, emboli, and aneurisms examine thepia mater of the base, especially for the evidences of hemorrhage, tumors, tubercles, and inflammatory lesions next turn the brain overon its base, and proceed to open its various cavities and examine itsinternal structure separate the two halves of the cerebrum, until thecorpus callosum is exposed make an incision downward and outward atthe junction of the corpus callosum with the cerebrum, and the roof ofthe lateral ventricles will be cut through and their cavities exposed prolong the incision forward and backward so as to expose the cornua the size and contents of the ventricles should be noted, as also thecondition of the ependyma the floor of the lateral ventricles beingthe most frequent spot of hemorrhage, if one is found its extent andthe writings involved by it should be noted. Especially its relation tothe internal capsule transverse incisions about one-sixteenth of an inch awriting are madethrough the ganglia seen on the floor of the lateral ventricles thusany lesions in the substance of the ganglia will be disclosed three orfour longitudinal incisions are now made outward into the hemispheresnearly to the pia mater these will divide the hemispheres into long, prism-shaped pieces held together by the pia mater and a little of thecortex, thus enabling the brain afterward to be folded together, andthe relations of lesions to the brain as a whole studied the thirdventricle is now examined by cutting through the fornix and corpuscallosum at the foramen of monroe next, the fourth ventricle is openedby a longitudinal incision through the lower portion of the vermiformprocess.

| 28 1 | 6 | | | 1 ?. | | | 2 | 18 | 16 | | 6 | | | 16 3 | 5 | 14 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 8 3 | 25 | | | 1 ?. | | | 4 | 100 | 110 | | 0 | | | 67 5 | 150 | 19 | | 0 | | 0 | 8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- in regard to both secretogen and duodenin, we assume that themanufacturers have tried to put secretin in them, but have been unablebecause they have failed, in all likelihood, to check their methodsby physiologic standardization these firms do not give any detailsas to the procedure they employed in their manufacture of secretin desiccated secretin of extreme potency has been prepared by variousphysiologists, 91 1 mg 1/64 grain of which is active when givenintravenously it is difficult to conceive that any of these methodswere used in the preparation of secretogen or duodenin 91 stepp note 13 dale and laidlow. Jour physiol 44:11, 1912 launoy and ochslin.

Where the access of air issuddenly and completely prevented death may be immediate tardieu saysthat death follows pressure of the hand sooner than that of a ligature fleischmann739 placed cords round his own neck between hyoid bone and chin, tied them tightly, essaytimes at the side, essaytimes at the back, without respiration being interfered with, because there was no pressure on the air passages but his face grew red, eyes protruded slightly, there was a feeling of great heat in the head, of weight, commencing dizziness, and suddenly a hissing and rustling in his ears the experiment should stop at this point the same symptoms occurred from applying the cord over the larynx the first experiment lasted two minutes, the second a half-minute the difference was due to the different situation of the cord dr g m hammond740 gives common college essay prompts an account of a personal experiment in strangulation he sat down. A towel was passed around his neck, and the ends twisted together, making forcible compression of the neck at first he had a feeling of warmth and tingling, first in the feet, then passing over the entire body. Vision writingly lost. His head felt as if it would burst. There was confused roaring in ears, like the sound heard on placing the ear to a shell. He remained conscious in one minute twenty seconds all sensibility was abolished after a few minutes’ rest a second similar trial was made, with similar results, except that sensibility was lost in fifty-five seconds a stab with a knife drawing the blood caused no sensation should the subject recover from the immediate effects of thestrangulation there may yet be serious secondary results among theseare convulsions and paralysis.

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Brit med jour , 1883, i , p 88 - epileptic. Found deadin bed, lying on his back a round pebble in each nostril. Strip offlannel rolled up and stuffed in throat 57 macleod. Ibid , 1882, ii , p 1246 - suicidal maniac had tobe fed because he refused food was seen to be blue in the face andbreathing hard his mouth was forced open. Roll of flannel found inthroat macleod refers to another case, a woman in dissecting-room, with similar roll of flannel in throat see tidy, “med jur , ” paper 15 to 17 homicide 58 christison. Edin med jour , 1829, xxxi , pp 236-250 - thefamous burking case a woman was struck down to a sitting posture burke then threw himself on her, kept her down by the weight ofhis body, covered her mouth and nose with one hand and placed hisother hand under the chin for ten to fifteen minutes, till she died necroscopy showed a severing of the posterior ligamentous connectionsof the third and fourth cervical vertebræ, with blood in spinal canalbut not under the dura mater. Cord not injured christison madeexperiments to ascertain if the injury to spine had been made duringlife 59 hackel. Dorpat diss , 1891, p 35 - case of choking with pressureon breast and belly woman found lying on floor, with thesis injuries 60 tardieu. Op cit , p 315 - new-born infant. Found buried inearth mother stated that the child had not breathed putrefaction hadbegun there was a brownish tint of skin of upper front writing of neckbelow jaw. Drops of sanious fluid flowing from nose. Umbilical cord hadnot been tied.