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a gunshot injuryfrom a bullet implies at least one wound, namely, that of entrance, and perhaps another, that of exit it does not always happen that thebullet passes through the body the appearance of the wound of entranceis usually one of irregular circular puncture, its edges perhapsslightly torn or lacerated, with a purplish or dark areola, varying inwidth from a line or two to one-half inch when the weapon is firedclose to the body there are likely to be more or less powder-marks, and possibly actual burning from the heat and flame of the gunpowder if the writing of the body injured had been covered by clothing at thetime, the marks of powder and of burning would probably be confined tothe same bleeding is usually slight and occurs more commonly from thewound of entrance than from that of exit regularity of either of thesewounds depends in large measure upon the angle at which the bullet hasstruck the surface when striking very obliquely the wound may be moreoval or college essay paper help the bullet may have ploughed a furrow or a channel, by a studyof which the relative position of the assailant and the assailed atthe moment of injury may, perhaps, be determined it is of importanceto determine if possible the approximate distance at which the bulletwas fired, since the question of self-defence, for instance, may hingeupon evidence of this character the charge of powder and the weight ofthe bullet being known, one may essaytimes estimate this distance by thedepth of penetration or the appearance of the bullet still, the natureof the tissues must figure largely in such consideration thesis suicideswho shoot themselves in the head show only one wound of entrance andnone of exit experiments testing powder-marks - powder-marks and burns fromweapons ordinarily used will scarcely appear when the distance hasexceeded ten or twelve feet lachese, of antwerp, found that infiring a gun even from a distance of only four feet the skin was onlywritingially blackened as the result of experiments made with a ballard rifle, old style, 44calibre, with bullets of 220 grains and 28 grains of powder, dr balch, of albany, found that powder-marks were made at distances as follows:at two feet, writingicles too numerous to count, with essay of thelubricant blown upon the board;at four feet the same;at six feet the same;at eight feet, nine grains of powder;at ten feet, five grains of powder in one case and six in another that these were powder-grains were shown in court by picking essayof them out, placing them on a glass, and igniting them with agalvano-caustic point from those at ten feet no distinct flash couldbe elicited. From those obtained at eight feet distinct flashes wereseen trans new york state med soc , 1881 in the celebrated case of peytle, brought in 1839 for the murder of hiswife, who had been killed by two bullets entering near the nose, theeyebrows, lashes, and lids were completely burned, and a large numberof powder grains were imbedded in the cheeks experiments being madein order to ascertain the distance necessary to produce these effects, it was found that the weapon must have been held within a distance oftwelve inches wounds of entrance and of exit - a great deal has been written intime past about the peculiarities of the wounds of entrance and ofexit, much of which cannot be maintained under expert criticism it istrue that the wound of entrance will usually be well defined, the skinslightly depressed and appearing as above noted it is true also thatpowder-marks will appear about this wound rather than that of exit usually, too, the orifice of exit is larger, less regular, its edgeseverted slightly, with more or less laceration of the skin, and quitefree from any powder-marks or evidence of burning the depression atthe border of the wound of entrance differs after essay days, by whichtime the contused margins slough away, and its appearance is dailychanged by a process of granulation providing the individual recoveror live long enough according to dupuytren, the hole in the clothingis smaller than that made by the same bullet in the skin these areall points worth remembering when fitting bullets into wounds whichthey are supposed to have made. But the conditions under which gunshotpunctures occur are constantly varying, and the significance of localmarkings is mainly the product of experience, care, observation, and reasoning thus the shape of either of these wounds will dependnaturally upon the integrity of the bullet and its original shapeand dimensions matthysen experiments give the following.

And the leaves chewed in the mouth eases thetooth-ache, and these virtues being put together, shew the herb to college essay paper help bedrying and binding achilles is supposed to be the first that left thevirtues of this herb to posterity, having learned them of this masterchiron, the centaur. And certainly a very profitable herb it is incramps, and therefore called militaris directions for making syrups, conserves, &c &c having in divers places of this treatise promised you the way of makingsyrups, conserves, oils, ointments, &c , of herbs, roots, flowers, &c whereby you may have them ready for your use at such times when theycannot be had otherwise. I come now to perform what i promised, and youshall find me rather better than worse than my word that this may be done methodically, i shall divide my directions intotwo grand sections, and each section into several chapters, and thenyou shall see it look with such a countenance as this is section i of gathering, drying, and keeping simples, and their juices chap i of leaves of herbs, &c chap ii of flowers chap iii of seeds chap iv of roots chap v of barks chap vi of juices section ii of making and keeping compounds chap i of distilled waters chap ii of syrups chap iii of juleps chap iv of decoctions chap v of oils chap vi of electuaries chap vii of conserves chap viii of preserves chap ix of lohochs chap x of ointments chap xi of plaisters chap xii of poultices chap xiii of troches chap xiv of pills chap xv the way of fitting medicines to compound diseases of all these in order chapter i of leaves of herbs, or trees 1 of leaves, choose only such as are green, and full of juice. Pickthem carefully, and cast away such as are any way declining, for theywill putrify the rest. So shall one handful be worth ten of those youbuy at the physic herb shops 2 note what places they most delight to grow in, and gather themthere. For betony that grows in the shade, is far better than thatwhich grows in the sun, because it delights in the shade. So also suchherbs as delight to grow near the water, shall be gathered near it, though happily you may find essay of them upon dry ground.

The root perishesin winter government and virtues these also belong to dame venus, and beingdried and beat to powder, are as great strengtheners of the kidneys asany are. Neither is there a better remedy than it. A dram at a timetaken in white wine to prevent the stone, or to cleanse the kidneysof gravel or stoppage the ordinary french beans are of an easydigestion.

1 the property of inducing and maintaining anesthesia with practical freedom from postoperative nausea, and 2 the property of inducing and maintaining college essay paper help analgesia conscious insensibility to pain as distinguished from anesthesia insensibility to pain plus narcosis the du pont ether and the claims made for it are seemingly based on thework of one man, “james h cotton, m a , m d , toronto, canada, ” whopublished an article on “cotton process ether and ether analgesia, ”in the american journal of surgery for april, 1919 however, cottondid not give the composition of the “new” ether nor, so far as weare aware, has his work been corroborated in view of the inquiriesreceived, the secretary of the council on pharmacy and chemistry askedthe du pont chemical works for the composition of the new ether fromthe firm reply we quote one paragraph. “ the procedures of manufacture, and the exact composition of our ether, we regard as confidential information which we are entitled to retain unless a condition were to arise in which we were unable alone to satisfy the demand for this type of ether ”it has been recognized-- and incorporated in the “principles of medicalethics”-- that the use of a therapeutic agent of unknown compositionis unscientific and contrary to the best interests of the medicalprofession and the public. But it is thesis times more serious for aphysician to employ a secret or semisecret substance as an anesthetic a physician using such a semisecret substance would have little defenseif the patient should die -- query in the journal a m a , feb 21, 1920 a note from the manufacturersin the query and minor notes dewritingment of the journal of february21, essay inquiries from physicians relative to “cotton process ether”were answered in referring to the composition of this product it wasstated that the secretary of the council on pharmacy and chemistry hadasked the manufacturers, the du pont chemical works, for information onthis point and one paragraph from the firm reply was quoted anotherparagraph from the same letter was omitted. And to this omission themanufacturers took exception, expressing the opinion that by it thejournal led its readers to infer that the concern had “refused tofurnish any information whatever” regarding the composition of theether the following paragraph, italicized as in the original letter, is the one in question. “cotton process ether contains no components which do not occur in other anesthesia ethers its peculiar properties result from the thorough methods taken to exclude harmful impurities, such as aldehydes, peroxides, traces of acids, carbon monoxide, sulphur compounds, etc , and to include carefully regulated quantities of only such of the usual components as we have found to give distinctly beneficial properties to the ether we are willing to state that in this class we consider properly prepared ethylene of greatest importance, but we have not announced which of the beneficial components of anesthesia ether we include in our ether, or the amount of such components ”as the quotation shows, the paragraph is informative in a negativerather than in a positive way in that it states what cotton processether is not rather than what it is since that time, however, the manufacturers have notified the journal that they have definitelydecided to present cotton process ether to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for consideration and that in preparing the data required bythe council will define cotton process ether as follows. “an improved anesthesia ether consisting of highly refined diethyl oxid c₂h₅₂o, plus approximately two volumes of ethylene c₂h₄, 1/2 volume of carbon dioxide co₂ and 1 per cent by weight of ethyl alcohol ”-- from the journal a m a , may 22, 1920 dionol“dionol” is advertised to physicians by the dionol company ofdetroit if one takes the word of the manufacturers, the therapeuticpossibilities of dionol are apparently limited only by the blue sky even the company admits that “the unprecedented range of action” ofthis marvel “may come as a surprise ” a glance over the published “casereports” confirms the inference from “bed sores, ” “bubo, ” “catarrh”and “circumcision” through “croup, ” “deafness, ” “dysmenorrhea”and “eczema, ” including “endometritis, ” “erysipelas, ” “gastritis”and “hemorrhoids, ” not omitting “osteomyelitis, ” “otitis media, ”“pneumonia” and “ptomaine poisoning, ” down through the pathologicalphabet to “quinsy, ” “sciatica, ” “spinal curvature, ” “varicose veins, ”and “whooping cough” one concludes that here at last is a catholiconindeed what is dionol?. first it should be said that the preparation comes intwo forms. As an ointment and as an emulsion the ointment, so declarethe manufacturers, “is always required”. The emulsion may be used“as an auxiliary treatment ” the dionol “literature” when stripped ofthe verbal camouflage with which it abounds may be said to propoundthe following theories and propositions. First, that the nerves of thebody are electric conductors insulated from the surrounding tissues bythe nerve sheaths. Second, that inflammation breaks down the insulationwith the resultant escape of the current and an interference with thenormal metabolic action of the cells. Third, that dionol, when appliedto the body, penetrates the tissues, “coating the cells and with themthe nerve sheaths with a nonconducting layer which is sufficient toinsulate the nerve sheaths and stop the leak ”so much for the theory on which the alleged action of dionol is based dionol itself is a sort of glorified petrolatum not, of course, thatthe manufacturers describe it in any such crude and understandablelanguage according to the company, dionol is “composed of purehydrocarbons, especially selected with regard to specific gravity, viscosity and other necessary physical properties” which has been“perfectly deionized by our special scientific process under thebaines method ” it appears, from further reading, that ordinarypetrolatum will not “turn the trick”. Presumably because it does notovercome the human short circuits which the dionol company declare arealways present in inflammation when, however, the petrolatum has beensubjected to the “baines method” it achieves, it seems, an esotericvalue that puts to shame its plebeian origin the whole thing is very simple to those physicians that like this sortof thing this preparation should make a strong appeal -- from thejournal a m a , jan 26, 1918 glorified petrolatuman indiana physician sends us in a batch of leaflets detailing themarvels of “dionol” and thus comments. “i received the enclosed in the mail today and i am puzzled, perplexed and astounded i had formed the opinion that the profession was getting better. That it was more scholarly than formerly when the two course school was still in existence and any one could matriculate. That it was no longer possible for a ‘patent medicine’ manufacturer to palm off his wares on us after reading this stuff and realizing that such methods must be remunerative, i am deeply humiliated is it possible that educated physicians respond to this kind of advertising?. or has essay one perpetrated a joke on me?. if the profession can be thus successfully exploited one can no longer wonder at the following which every new ‘ic’ and ‘ism’ acquires ”it is a pity that the medical profession generally does not react tothe dionol and similar advertising as does our correspondent as theconcern continues to do business, the presumption is that at leastessay physicians are using dionol as was pointed out in the journalof jan 26, 1918, dionol seems to be a glorified and esoteric formof petrolatum the exploitation of dionol is based on the followingtheory.

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Also essentially thesame advertising as that discussed in the report was recently receivedby a physician from the chlorine products company the preceding facts having been reported to the council, publication ofthe report was authorized w a puckner, secretary chloron, chlorax and number “3” are preparations of essentially similarcomposition put out by the chlorine products company, inc , new york college essay paper help chloronchloron, according to the label, is “a stable chlorine remedy for thereduction of inflammation, relief of pain and for all wounds, burns, scalds and every description of sores except cancer and lupus ” itscomposition is given as. “free chlorine, 0 200 per cent. Calcium chloride, 0 190 per cent. Mercurous chloride, 0 030 per cent. Lithium chloride, 0 035 per cent. Calcium hydrate, 0 010 per cent. Water to 100 writings ”the council asked the manufacturers for further information in regardto the composition or preparation of chloron and received this reply. “chlorine gas is prepared in the usual way and purified and passed into water until a saturated solution is made “water to the extent of three times the volume of the chlorine solution is used to dissolve the necessary amount of calcium chloride, and the two solutions are mixed “the necessary amounts of lithium and mercurous chloride are then intimately mixed and made into solution this solution is then added to the above and the whole is agitated for essay minutes ”a specimen of chloron was examined in the a m a chemical laboratoryand the chemists reported:qualitatively the presence of the following constituents was confirmed:calcium, mercury, lithium, chlorid, free chlorin the solution wasalkaline of course, the declaration that chloron contains mercurouschlorid calomel is obviously incorrect, as mercurous chlorid cannotexist in a solution containing active free chlorin, but is oxidizedto mercuric chlorid corrosive sublimate as the solution was alkalinein reaction, it seemed unlikely that all the active chlorin was presentin the free state, as declared on the label quantitative determinationof free chlorin and of total active “available” chlorin gave. Freechlorin, 0 036 gm per hundred c c. Total “available” chlorin, 0 330 gm per hundred c c , or 165 per cent of the claimed amount a comparison of the information sent to the council with the analyticfindings leads to the conclusion that chloron is not of reliablecomposition as evidence of the therapeutic value of chloron, the following “casereports” were submitted.