History

College Essay Guide


It isgood against poison, pestilence, corrupt and unwholeessay air, helpswindiness in the stomach, causeth an appetite to one victuals, veryprofitable in falls and bruises, congealed and clotted blood, thebitings of mad-dogs. The leaves chewed in the mouth, cleanse the brainof superfluous humours, thereby preventing lethargies, and apoplexes malva mallows the best of authors account wild mallows to be best, and hold them to be cold and moist in the first degree, they areprofitable in the bitings of venomous beasts, the stinging of bees andwasps, &c inwardly they resist poison, provoke to stool. Outwardlythey assuage hard swellings of the privities or other places. Inclysters they help roughness and fretting of the entrails, bladder, or fundament. And so they do being boiled in water, and the decoctiondrank, as i have proved in the bloody flux majorana see amaracus mandragora mandrakes fit for no vulgar use, but only to be used incooling ointments marrubium, album, nigrum, fœtidum marrubium album, is common horehound hot in the second degree, anddry in the third, opens the liver and spleen, cleanses the breast andlungs, helps old coughs, pains in the sides, ptisicks, or ulceration ofthe lungs, it provokes the menses, eases hard labour in child-bearing, brings away the placenta see the syrups marrubium, nigrum, et fœtidum black and stinking horehound, i taketo be all one hot and dry in the third degree.

Melancholic. Found dead had torn up writing of a sheet, fastened it around his neck and the ends around a bed-post, then placedhis feet against the farther post and pressed, tightening the ligature illustration 42 roth. Ibid , p 9 - man, age 68. Melancholic. Found dead in bed had made loose ligature of cravat, tied into it a piece of wood. Theligature lay in front of larynx had attempted suicide once before 43 ibid - son-in-law at 36 years of age had committed suicide in thesame way 44 ibid - man, age 63. Found dead in his bed. Cord around neckinclosing piece of wood 45 maschka. Vier ger öff med , 1883, xxxviii , pp 71-77 - woman, age 45 a cloth was found wound tightly three times around her neck infront of larynx, and tied in a simple knot there were also injuriesof the head at first it was thought that she had been murdered, butmaschka concluded that she had committed suicide 46 ibid - woman. Supposed to have been murdered by her son therewere marks on the neck and other injuries, and hemorrhage into thebrain maschka concluded that the marks on the neck were not due tostrangulation 47 hackel. Dorpat diss , 1891, p 34 - man, age 48. Strangledhimself with writing of a mattress was found lying on his back, dead, holding the ends in his hand there was a double mark of ligature 48 binner. Zeitsch f med-beamte, 1888, i , pp 364-368 - woman;suicided by choking herself with her hands for other paper, see tidy, “med jur , ” paper 20 to 65. Maschka, “handbuch, ” p 625 accident 49 bédié. Rec de mém de méd , etc , paris, 1866, xvi , pp 482-484 - soldier, age 39, found dying, lying on his bed.

Then boil the water with its like weight ofsugar into a syrup college essay guide. Put the syrup into a pot, and put the boiled fruitas whole as you left it when you cut it into it, and let it remainuntil you have occasion to use it 3 roots are thus preserved. First, scrape them very clean, and cleansethem from the pith, if they have any, for essay roots have not, aseringo and the like. Boil them in water till they be soft, as we shewedyou before in the fruits. Then boil the water you boiled the root ininto a syrup, as we shewed you before. Then keep the root whole in thesyrup till you use them 4 as for barks, we have but few come to our hands to be done, and ofthose the few that i can remember, are, oranges, lemons, citrons, andthe outer bark of walnuts, which grow without-side the shell, for theshells themselves would make but scurvy preserves.

It also helps much to cleanse inwardimposthumes or ulcers in the reins of bladder, or in those that void abloody or foul urine the distilled water of the fruit, or the leavestogether with them, or the berries, green or dry, distilled with alittle milk and drank morning and evening with a little sugar, iseffectual to all the purposes before specified, and especially againstthe heat and sharpness of the urine i shall only mention one way, amongst thesis others, which might be used for ordering the berries, tobe helpful for the urine and the stone. Which is this. Take three orfour good handfuls of the berries, either green or fresh, or dried, andhaving bruised them, put them into so thesis gallons of beer or ale whenit is new tunned up. This drink taken daily, has been found to do muchgood to thesis, both to ease the pains, and expel urine and the stone, and to cause the stone not to engender the decoction of the berries inwine and water is the most usual way. But the powder of them taken indrink is more effectual chervil it is called cerefolium, mirrhis, and mirrha, chervil, sweet chervil, and sweet cicely descript the garden chervil doth at first essaywhat resembleparsley, but after it is better grown, the leaves are much cut in andjagged, resembling hemlock, being a little hairy and of a whitish greencolour, essaytimes turning reddish in the summer, with the stalks also;it rises a little above half a foot high, bearing white flowers inspiked tufts, which turn into long and round seeds pointed at the ends, and blackish when they are ripe. Of a sweet taste, but no smell, thoughthe herb itself smells reasonably well the root is small and long, andperishes every year, and must be sown a-new in spring, for seed afterjuly for autumn fails the wild chervil grows two or three feet high with yellow stalks andjoints, set with broader and more hairy leaves, divided into sundrywritings, nicked about the edges, and of a dark green colour, whichlikewise grow reddish with the stalks. At the tops whereof stands smallwhite tufts, of flowers, afterwards smaller and longer seed the rootis white, hard, and enduring long this has little or no scent place the first is sown in gardens for a sallad herb.

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It is very pliable and strong at38 c , and adheres exceedingly well to the skin, although it detacheseasily this mixture, which is easy to prepare, is inexpensive, thecost of the materials being approximately 10 cents a pound 176 the “asphalt varnish” used was obtained from remien & kuhnertcompany, chicago 177 while needless, a color resembling “ambrine” may be obtained bythe addition of coloring agents both hull and sollmann noticed that tarlike substances and meltedparaffin do not mix well this is noticeable in “ambrine, ” which cannotbe college essay guide called an “elegant” preparation the difficulty may be overcome byfirst mixing hot olive oil and asphalt. The asphalt will then go intosolution it is interesting to note that the suggested formula as wellas others which were also prepared is not as plastic as the paraffinitself 178 this is also true of “ambrine ” on the other hand, themelting point of the paraffin is higher the important point, however, in compounding all paraffin preparations, is to select a proper gradeof paraffin as elaborated below 178 in a personal communication dr sollmann expressed the opinionthat the synthetic preparation is inferior to the paraffin used in theformula, basing the view on the greater plasticity of the paraffin for practical purposes, the paraffin will most probably serve as wellas the mixture, especially when it is held in place by bandages, but ibelieve that the mixture is more adhesive examination of paraffins and paraffin preparationsillustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of a fullpage magazine advertisement of “thermozine, ” the name under which“ambrine” was sold to the public the name “paraffin” generally applies to a colorless and tastelesswaxlike substance that is solid at ordinary temperature it is composedof saturated hydrocarbons, that is, they are unable to take up any morehydrogen, and thereby are quite stable. The hydrocarbons in paraffinhave the general formula of c↓{n}h↓{2n2}, ranging as high as c₂₄h₅₀ toc₂₇h₅₆ paraffin may be found in crude form in coal, from which sourcethe first paraffin candles were made it may be produced from thedistillation of brown coal, as in gerthesis, or from bituminous shale in america, it is obtained chiefly from the distillation of crudepetroleum, being in the residue after the distillation of such productsas naphtha gasoline, kerosene and the lubricating oils the residueis treated by one of a number of processes causing the unpurifiedsolid paraffin to be made available the crude paraffin is eithersold as such, or is refined paraffin or “paraffin waxes”179 aredesignated in the trade by their melting points which in the “americanstandard” is expressed in fahrenheit degrees, and as to their stateof refinement as “crude, ” “semirefined” and “fully refined” paraffin there are certain chemical and physical differences so that two refinedwaxes having the same melting point would not have the same plasticity the higher melting point varieties of paraffin are hard and tough atroom temperature. When melted, paraffin expands and forms a thin mobileliquid 179 paraffin is essaytimes spoken of as “white wax ” this isunfortunate, as “white wax” is an official name for “white beeswax, u s p ” the term “white wax” is also often applied to “chinese wax, ”which is formed from an insect living on the tree ligustrum lucidum illustration. Photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine”giving the conditions in which the stuff was alleged to be “veryuseful ”the significant requirements of paraffin for surgical dressings arethat it should be solid at body temperature, at the same time havingflexibility and adhesiveness, together with a certain amount ofstrength a number of brands of paraffin are sold in the united states, so that it seemed advisable to examine essay of them and compare themwith certain paraffin-film preparations they were tested as to theirmelting points, plasticity, ductility, strength of film, etc melting point determination -- the melting point was determined bythe method of the u s pharmacopeia ix, p 596 the melting pointas obtained by this method is lower than the melting point used bymanufacturers of paraffin after conversion to fahrenheit pliability and ductility, limit temperature 180-- a little of themelted wax was poured from a teaspoon on the surface of the water atabout 40 c , in a tin pan bread mold this formed a fairly thin film the temperature of the water was then lowered by the addition of coldwater at each temperature the pliability and ductility were testedthus:180 i am indebted to dr torald sollmann for these methods pliability test -- the film, immersed in water, was doubled on itself, note being taken whether or not it broke ductility test -- the film was pulled under water, note being takenwhether it stretched on being pulled and broke with a ragged fracture;or whether it broke sharp without stretching it is desirable thatthe pliability and ductility be preserved at as low a temperature aspossible cotton films, adhesives and detachability 180-- the melted wax wasapplied as it would be for burns. Namely, a thin layer was painted onthe inner surface of the forearm with a camel hair brush, 181 atransverse strip about an inch wide being made this was covered witha very thin layer of absorbent cotton, and over this another layer ofmelted wax was painted as soon as this had cooled a little, it wascovered by a few layers of bandage and left on for at least an hour atthe end of that time, the bandage was removed the cotton film shouldbe found at the place at which it was applied, showing that it issufficiently adherent it should detach without “pulling” the skin 181 when painting a surface with a paraffin film, i found that thetemperature of the paraffin should not be too close to the meltingpoint, but several degrees above. Otherwise it does not “set” well illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of thecarton in which “ambrine” is now sold the results of these tests are given in the accompanying table it canbe seen that nearly all the paraffins examined have properties whichwould make them useful, the notable exceptions being nos 8, 15 and16 the more satisfactory products would be those having a meltingpoint about 47 c , ductility of 30 or below, and plasticity of 28 orbelow the paraffin described in the u s pharmacopeia is not sosatisfactory, the required melting point being between 50 and 57 c the use of paraffin bandages has been suggested by fisher182 andsollmann 183 in such paper, it may very likely be that a paraffin ofhigher melting point would be more satisfactory, owing to its greaterresistance and tougher fiber 182 fisher, h e. Nonadhering surgical gauze, the journal a m a , march 25, 1916, p 939 183 sollmann, torald. Paraffin-covered bandages, the journala m a , april 21, 1917, p 1178 summary1 “ambrine” is essentially paraffin in which a small amount of fattyand asphalt-like body is incorporated. Like most secret mixtures, itscomposition varies 2 a simple formula for a paraffin film, similar in chemicalcomposition but superior in physical properties to “ambrine, ” is thatdescribed as formula 21 the superiority is due to using a grade ofparaffin that is better adapted to the purpose the cost of materialsis about 10 cents a pound 3 the properties of the paraffin used for a surgical dressing areimportant a number of different grades have been examined, in order todetermine the ones that appear most promising paraffins nos 3, 4, 10, 11 and 25 are the best in the table, and surpass “ambrine” itself 4 it is exceedingly probable that further experience will show thatfor most purposes simple paraffin will serve just as well as themixtures-- if, indeed, not better addenda reprinted from the annual report of the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association, vol 10 1917, p 32since the foregoing was published, two other products-- “cerelene” and“stanolind surgical wax”-- were submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for investigation as to their acceptability for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies in this connection the laboratory wasrequested to examine them “cerelene” is manufactured by the holliday laboratories, pittsburgh according to the manufacturers, “cerelene” is a compound composed of84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate and 1 per cent elemi gum as ordinarily marketed, “cerelene” contains the followingmaterials.