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Gummy, at first, but dried to a glass-like brittle mass it had a slight burned-sugarodor and taste, and was neutral in reaction it was stronglydextrogyrate and at once reduced fehling solution as well as alkalinesilver nitrate solution on boiling with potassium hydroxid solution, it turned deep red it also gave the molisch carbohydrate reaction, and the ozazone test in seventeen minutes as described in mulliken identification of pure organic compounds, ed 1, 1905, p 26 theseare all characteristic reactions of lactose or milk sugar from this examination we conclude that desanctis’ pills containpowdered colchicum seed, benzoic acid, and sugar of milk there is alsopresent fatty material which resembles the fat of colchicum seed, butmay be, in writing, added fatty acid the percentage of colchicin found 0 50 is about that of a good quality of colchicum seed, the u s pharmacopeial standard being not less than 0 45 per cent since thepills contain material other than colchicum seed, this assay wouldindicate a colchicum seed of high alkaloidal content, or the possiblereinforcement of the pills with colchicum extract or colchicin the amount of benzoic acid, 2 92 per cent , or about 1/7 grain perpill, is insignificant from a therapeutic standpoint, since an averagedose is 0 5 gm , or 8 grains fatty acids, and the fatty matter fromcolchicum seed are inert, at least in the quantities found here theonly office which fatty acids might perform, would be to give the pillsan enteric quality, preventing their absorption until they reach theintestine the sugar of milk, about 10 per cent , or 1/2 grain perpill, no doubt is simply an excipient desanctis’ pills are therefore essentially 5 grain doses of powderedcolchicum seed, of which the average dose is 0 2 gm , or 3 grains u s p ix, p 120 the journal in presenting the facts contained in the above report madethe following comments:“here then, we have sold for self-medication an extremely poisonousdrug, with no warning of the risk the public runs in using it whilethe directions call for “one pill every eight hours until relieved, ”it is notorious that the public takes the attitude toward “patentmedicines” that, if a little is good, more is better, and the averageuser of remedies for self-treatment is likely, unless there is essaywarning, to use his own discretion as to the amount taken “the individual dose is above that of the average college essay example recommended in theunited states pharmacopeia colchicum or its alkaloids-- or for thatmatter, any drug as toxic as colchicum-- have no place in preparationsof the home-remedy type in the case of all “patent medicines, ”public interest demands that the full quantitative formula of thetherapeutically active ingredients should be given on the label, forwhen the public prescribes for itself, it has a right to know what itis taking unfortunately, public interest clashes with vested interestsand, as usual, vested interests get the better of it in the case ofsuch dangerous preparations as desanctis’ pills, if their sale is tobe permitted at all, not only should the names and quantities of alltherapeutically active ingredients in the mixture be given, but thelaw should require that the word poison be plainly printed on thelabel ”-- abstracted from the journal a m a , july 19, 1919 iodex and liquid iodexthe a m a chemical laboratory examined iodex in 1915 213 theclaims made, at that time, by the exploiters, menley & james, wereshown to be contrary to facts in that iodex contained only traces offree iodin while they claimed “5 per cent therapeutically free iodin ”even the total quantity of iodin was shown to be only about one halfof the 5 per cent claimed to be present as free iodin 213 annual reports of the chem lab of the a m a , 1915, p 89 an examination of the advertising matter sent out by menley & jamesin 1919 showed that substantially the same claims were being made asin 1915 this at once suggested the inquiry. Since the claims are thesame as previously made, have the manufacturers altered the compositionto conform to the claims?. the answer is found in the results of theanalysis of two samples purchased in the open market early in 1919 this analysis shows conclusively that iodex is essentially the same asin 1915, that is, that it contains no free iodin and only about threefifths of the total amount of iodin claimed it would seem that iodex ung iodi , m & j is in obvious conflictwith section 7 of the food and drugs act while it is sold under a namerecognized by the u s pharmacopeia, namely, ung iodi , it does notconform to the standards of the u s pharmacopeia for that product iodin ointment u s p is made with 4 per cent of free iodin, 4 percent of potassium iodid, 12 per cent of glycerin, and a benzoinatedlard base it should then contain approximately 7 per cent of totaliodin it has been shown by warren214 that about 75 per cent of theiodin in the u s p ointment remains in the free state even aftermonths of standing ung iodi , u s p , then, should contain about 3per cent of free iodin iodex contains no free iodin, or but traces, and no potassium iodid furthermore, the iodex label declares thepresence of 5 per cent of “therapeutically free” iodin as a matter offact, the amount of iodin is variable, the highest amount found being3 5 per cent and samples containing as low as 2 63 per cent have beenexamined 214 warren, l e. Iodin ointment, am j pharm , august, 1917, p 339 it would seem further that iodex is misbranded under the sherleyamendment in that it is said that it “may be used externally withadvantage in all paper where the action of iodin is desired ” sinceit contains no iodin as such this cannot possibly be true it is alsostated in a circular accompanying the trade package that “thirtyminutes after inunction iodin can be found in the urine ” thisstatement has also been shown to be untrue -- annual reports a m a chem lab , 1915, p 89 details of analysisiodex -- this is a rather soft ointment, almost black but with adecided greenish cast in thin layers it is soluble in chloroformbut is only writingly saponified and dissolved by alcoholic potassiumhydroxid iodex has a distinct odor like oleic acid free iodin -- when examined by the method previously used215 onlyminute traces of free iodin were found 215 ibid , p 90 total iodin -- the methods employed were as follows. 1 iodex wassaponified by boiling for from two to three hours with alcoholicpotassium hydroxid the alcohol was then evaporated and the iodindetermined by the method described in the u s pharmacopeia for thymoliodid 2 the same as method 1, except that after ignition of the saponifiedmixture the halogen was determined by weighing as silver iodid 3 the carius method it should be noted that methods 2 and 3 determine chlorin and brominshould any be present with the iodin when 5 gm of sample 1 was assayed by method 1, it required 73 56 c c of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate, equivalent to 3 11 per cent of iodin in a duplicate, 2 7565 gm of iodex required 38 c c oftenth-normal sodium thiosulphate, equivalent to 2 92 per cent ofiodin.

Plusindicates a completely positive, and college essay example minus a completely negativereaction when there is only one sign, it refers to the reaction at theend of treatment. When there are two, to the reaction before and after the seventh column shows the clinical result at the end of treatment;when no note is made, it means that there was no change noted in theeighth column are noted any objective results observed at the time ofexaminations of the patients the injections were made and the result charted by dr e l zimmermann, of my staff, under my directions andsupervision -- abstracted in the journal a m a , feb 24, 1917 table 3 -- details of investigation by dr keidel | | | | total |dura- |effect | | | case|no |prepar-| local | amount | tion | on | type of | result | general | | ation |reaction |solution| of |wasser-| case | | remarks | | | | given, |treat-| mann | | | | | | | c c | ment | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 2 | ooo | 3 | 6 da | |latent | | 2 | 5 | 2 | mosms | 5 6 | 9 da | |gummas |marked | 3 | 7 | 1 | mmm. | 9 5 | 3 mo |- to |latent | improve- | | | | others u| | | | | ment | | 3 | 2 | uuu | | | | | | 4 | 1 | 2 | u | 0 75 | | |latent | | 5 | 4 | 1 | sssm | 4 4 | 9 da | - |gummas | |after 4th | | | | | | | | | injection, | | | | | | | | | developed | | | | | | | | | diarrhea. | | | | | | | | | melena 6 | 9 | 1 |ooumsosmu| 9 1 | 1 mo | - |latent | | 7 | 2 | 3 | mm | 3 8 | 2 da | |latent | |well | | | | | | | | | tolerated 8 | 7 | 2 | oooomou | 9 6 |17 da | to |primary |primary | | | | | | | | | healed | 9 | 4 | 1 | smmu | 5 5 | 9 da | |gumma |improved | 10 | 3 | 3 | mss | 3 | 6 da | |palmar |markedly | | | | | | | | syphilis;| improved | | | | | | | | tertiary | | 11 | 7 | 3 | msmmmmm | 10 6 |13 da | to |latent | | 12 | 3 | 2 | mmo | 5 4 |14 da | |secondary |rash |developed | 2 | 1 | sm | | | | papular| disap- | toxic ery- | | | | | | | | pearing | thema on | | | | | | | | | thighs | | | | | | | | | cleared up | | | | | | | | | on stopping | | | | | | | | | hgcl₂ and | | | | | | | | | under local | | | | | | | | | treatment 13 |10 | 3 | mmmmmmmm| 12 6 |20 da | to |secondary |rash |small | | | mmu | | | | lichen | not | induration | | | | | | | syph | improved | following | | | | | | | | | injection | | | | | | | | | of 1 2 c c 14 | 6 | 2 | oomsmm | 7 2 |17 da | to |old | |responded to | 2 | 1 | sm | | | | cerebro- | | doses of | | | | | | | spinal | | 1 c c with | | | | | | | syphilis | | salivation. | | | | | | | | | fever after | | | | | | | | | injection | | | | | | | | | of 1 2 c c 15 | 4 | 1 | soms | 4 2 | 7 da | to |secondary |no | | | | | | | | condyl- | improve- | | | | | | | | omas | ment | 16 | 9 | 3 |omommsmso| 10 4 |12 da | |secondary |pustules |slight | 2 | 2 | so | | | | pustular| dried up;| gingivitis | | | | | | | syph | headache | following | | | | | | | | and fever| dose of | | | | | | | | gone | 1 5 c c 17 | 5 | 1 | ssmsu | 13 3 |18 da | to |tertiary. |general | | 2 | 2 | ms | | | | aortitis | condition| | 2 | 3 | ms | | | | | improved | 18 | 4 | 2 | oomm | 9 5 |13 da |- to |latent | | | 2 | 1 | mm | | | | |markedly | | | | | | | | | improved | 19 | 2 | 3 | mu | 2 5 | 5 da | |gumma | | 20 | 5 | 2 | mmmmo | 9 |14 da | to |latent |marked |small | 2 | 3 | ms | | | | | general | induration | | | | | | | | improve- | following | | | | | | | | ment | no 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- corpora lutea soluble extract, parke, davis & co report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfollowing inquiries, the council took up for consideration “corporalutea soluble extract, ” marketed by parke, davis & co in the form ofampules and proposed for hypodermic administration the report whichappears below was submitted to the council by a committee, and wasadopted by the council corpora lutea soluble extract was declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, and publication of thereport authorized w a puckner, secretary corpora lutea soluble extract has not been submitted by themanufacturer the information of the referee is based, therefore, onthe claims made in the trade package, and on the statements in theprice list these show that the product is essentially secret andclaims made for the actions and uses of the preparation do not makeclear the essentially experimental status of the article, and aretherefore misleading conflict with rule 1 -- no definite statement of composition appearsbeyond the indefinite claim that it is an aqueous solution of “solublecorpora lutea extract, ” each ampule corresponding to 0 2 gm ofdesiccated gland how these soluble products are obtained, whether theyrepresent all the water-soluble principles, or whether essay have beeneliminated, are questions that are not answered yet such informationis essential to intelligent and scientific use, for, as there is nomethod of standardization, the method of preparation is the only markof identity for instance, we do not know at this time whether proteinshave anything to do with the supposed value of corpora lutea it is, therefore, essential to know whether or not the proteins have beeneliminated conflict with rule 6 -- the circular in the package advises thehypodermic use of this extract, not only in functional amenorrheaand the ordinary reflex consequences of physiologic or artificialmenopause, but also in. “‘neurasthenic’ symptoms during menstrual life”. “sterility, not due to pyogenic infection or mechanical obstruction”. “repeated abortions, not due to disease or mechanical factors”. “hyperemesis in the early months of pregnancy ”these are not stated merely as conditions in which various enthusiastshave tried corpus luteum, but as conditions “for which it will be foundserviceable ”it is not necessary to inform the medical profession that thisstatement is calculated to raise expectations which cannot possibly befulfilled even the manufacturers seem to realize this. At least theyspeak essaywhat indefinitely of “suitable paper, ” “good judgment, ” “realindications, ” etc but they proceed to nullify this warning-- if it wasintended as a warning-- by their illustrations of unsuitable paper, for instance, “amenorrhea due to extreme anemia, dysmenorrhea due tocervical stenosis, ” etc finally, they sum up the case.

Also honey of roses solutive is made of thesame infusions that the syrup is made of, and therefore works the sameeffect, both opening and purging, but is oftener given to phlegmaticthan choleric persons, and is more used in clysters than in potions, as the syrup college essay example made with sugar is the conserve and preserved leaves ofthose roses are also operative in gently opening the belly the simple water of damask roses is chiefly used for fumes to sweetenthings, as the dried leaves thereof to make sweet powders, and fillsweet bags. And little use they are put to in physic, although theyhave essay purging quality. The wild roses also are few or none of themused in physic, but are generally held to come near the nature of themanured roses the fruit of the wild briar, which are called hips, being thoroughly ripe, and made into a conserve with sugar, besidesthe pleasantness of the taste, doth gently bind the belly, and staydefluctions from the head upon the stomach, drying up the moisturethereof, and helps digestion the pulp of the hips dried into a hardconsistence, like to the juice of the liquorice, or so dried thatit may be made into powder and taken into drink, stays speedily thewhites in women the briar ball is often used, being made into powderand drank, to break the stone, to provoke urine when it is stopped, and to ease and help the cholic. Essay appoint it to be burnt, and thentaken for the same purpose in the middle of the balls are often foundcertain white worms, which being dried and made into powder, and essayof it drank, is found by experience of thesis to kill and drive forth theworms of the belly rosa solis, or sun dew it is likewise called red-rot, and youth-wort descript it hath, divers small, round, hollow leaves essaywhatgreenish, but full of certain red hairs, which make them seem red, every one standing upon his own foot-stalk, reddish, hairy likewise the leaves are continually moist in the hottest day, yea, the hotterthe sun shines on them, the moister they are, with a sliminess thatwill rope as we say, the small hairs always holding the moisture among these leaves rise up slender stalks, reddish also, three or fourfingers high, bearing divers small white knobs one above another, whichare flowers. After which in the heads are contained small seeds theroot is a few small hairs place it grows usually in bogs and wet places, and essaytimes inmoist woods time it flowers in june, and the leaves are then fittest to begathered government and virtues the sun rules it, and it is under thesign cancer rose solis is accounted good to help those that have asalt rheum distilling on their lungs, which breeds a consumption, and therefore the distilled water thereof in wine is held fit andprofitable for such to drink, which water will be of a good yellowcolour the same water is held to be good for all other diseases of thelungs, as phthisicks, wheezings, shortness of breath, or the cough;as also to heal the ulcers that happen in the lungs. And it comfortsthe heart and fainting spirits the leaves, outwardly applied to theskin will raise blisters, which has caused essay to think it dangerousto be taken inwardly. But there are other things which will also drawblisters, yet nothing dangerous to be taken inwardly there is an usualdrink made thereof with aqua vitæ and spices frequently, and withoutany offence or danger, but to good purpose used in qualms and passionsof the heart rosemary our garden rosemary is so well known, that i need not describe it time it flowers in april and may with us, essaytimes again in august government and virtues the sun claims privilege in it, and it isunder the celestial ram it is an herb of as great use with us in thesedays as any whatsoever, not only for physical but civil purposes thephysical use of it being my present task is very much used both forinward and outward diseases, for by the warming and comforting heatthereof it helps all cold diseases, both of the head, stomach, liver, and belly the decoction thereof in wine, helps the cold distillationsof rheum into the eyes, and all other cold diseases of the head andbrain, as the giddiness or swimmings therein, drowsiness or dullnessof the mind and senses like a stupidness, the dumb palsy, or loss ofspeech, the lethargy, and fallen-sickness, to be both drank, and thetemples bathed therewith it helps the pains in the gums and teeth, by rheum falling into them, not by putrefaction, causing an evilsmell from them, or a stinking breath it helps a weak memory, andquickens the senses it is very comfortable to the stomach in all thecold griefs thereof, helps both retention of meat, and digestion, the decoction or powder being taken in wine it is a remedy for thewindiness in the stomach, bowels, and spleen, and expels it powerfully it helps those that are liver-grown, by opening the obstructionsthereof it helps dim eyes, and procures a clear sight, the flowersthereof being taken all the while it is flowering every morningfasting, with bread and salt both dioscorides and galen say, that ifa decoction be made thereof with water, and they that have the yellowjaundice exercise their bodies directly after the taking thereof, itwill certainly cure them the flowers and conserve made of them, aresingularly good to comfort the heart, and to expel the contagion ofthe pestilence. To burn the herb in houses and chambers, corrects theair in them both the flowers and leaves are very profitable for womenthat are troubled with the whites, if they be daily taken the driedleaves shred small, and taken in a pipe, as tobacco is taken, helpsthose that have any cough, phthisic, or consumption, by warming anddrying the thin distillations which cause those diseases the leavesare very much used in bathings. And made into ointments or oil, aresingularly good to help cold benumbed joints, sinews, or members thechymical oil drawn from the leaves and flowers, is a sovereign help forall the diseases aforesaid, to touch the temples and nostrils with twoor three drops for all the diseases of the head and brain spoken ofbefore. As also to take one drop, two, or three, as the case requires, for the inward griefs. Yet must it be done with discretion, for it isvery quick and piercing, and therefore but a little must be taken at atime there is also another oil made by insolation in this manner.

See later is 48 4 c the plasticity andductility168 are 27 and 30 5, respectively it is pliable and strongat body temperature the saponification college essay example number and acid number are bothvery low, but a fatty oil is present tests indicated oil of sesame ninety-eight per cent of “ambrine” is soluble in ether. This solubleportion may be treated with low-boiling ligroin petroleum ether, outof which, on standing, a black asphalt-like substance separates of theether-insoluble substance, 65 per cent is soluble in chloroform theremaining insoluble substance contains a small amount of silica andvegetable fiber the paraffin obtained from “ambrine” melted at 48 6 c as a result of various experiments, it appears that the composition of“ambrine” is essentially as follows. Paraffin m p 48 6 c 97 0 per cent fatty oil sesame?. 1 5 per cent asphalt-like body 0 5 per cent coloring matter, and undetermined 1 0 per cent -- -- - 100 0168 these determinations will be described later other proprietary filmsa cursory examination of “mulene, ” manufactured by the mulene company, pittsburgh, was also made this appears to contain paraffin, beeswax, afat-soluble red dye and considerable rosin when heated carefully in abeaker, the rosin “sticks” to the bottom, and does not go into solutionreadily 169169 when the sample was first obtained, this feature was not observed “paresine, ”170 according to the manufactures, is a mixture composedof paraffin, 94 to 96 per cent. Gum elemi, 0 20 to 0 25 per cent ;japan wax, 0 40 to 0 50 per cent.

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“ponca compound tablets contain extract of mitchella repens, senecin, helonin, caulophyllin and viburnin ”this “formula” is practically meaningless, not only because theamount of each ingredient is not stated, but also because “senecin, ”“helonin, ” “caulophyllin” and “viburnin” are in themselves variablemixtures of unknown composition 1313 see report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry on “resinoidsand concentrations, ” j a m a , nov 13, 1909, p 1655 presumably, “senecin, ” “helonin, ” “caulophyllin” and “viburnin” areextractives of essay kind prepared, respectively, from senecio aureus life root, helonias dioica false unicorn, calophyllum thalictroides blue cohosh and viburnum prunifolium or opulus black haw or crampbark these are, one and all, practically inert drugs there is noreason to believe that any or all of them can have any beneficialinfluence in the thesis and varied conditions for which ponca compound isadvertised the following are excerpts from the advertising matter. “ponca compound is a remedy of a very beneficial character for functional, uterine and ovarian troubles, which will respond to internal treatment, especially when digital examination or surgical interference is undesirable ” “ponca compound is also valuable during gestation and after writingurition ” “uterine alterative for leucorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, metritis, endometritis, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, irregular menstruation, subinvolution, painful pregnancy ”it is recommended that tongaline and ponca compound and all theirpreparations be held in conflict with rule 1, in view of theirsemisecret and indefinite composition. With rule 6, for the grosslyexaggerated therapeutic claims made for them. With rule 8, because oftheir misleading names, and with rule 10, in view of their unscientificcharacter as irrational combinations it is also recommended that thisreport be published -- from the journal a m a , july 17, 1915 alfatone report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has found alfatone ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies and has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary alfalfa is good cattle feed but only nostrum exploiters have suggestedits use as a medicine for human beings while it may seem a waste oftime to discuss the medicinal value of alfalfa its recent exploitationby the norwich pharmacal company, norwich, n y , as “a reconstructivetonic and nutrient” in the form of a mixture called “alfatone, ” callsfor comment according to the label on the preparation. “each fluidounce represents. alcohol 15 per cent medicago sativa alfalfa 120 grains taraxacum 2-1/2 grains gentian 1 grain berberine hydrochloride 1/40 grain glycerin and aromatics ” “dose -- one to three fluidrams 4 to 12 c c 4 times daily ”each maximum dose, therefore, should represent 45 grains of alfalfa, 1grain of taraxacum dandelion, 3/8 grain of gentian, 1/100 grain ofberberin hydrochlorid, and 27 minims of alcohol since the bitter drugsare present in such small amounts that the preparation is almost devoidof bitterness, and as the medicinal value of alfalfa is practicallynil, it is evident that whatever action alfatone may have is due to thestimulant effects of the alcohol essay of the claims made for alfatone are. “a reconstructive nutritive tonic indicated in general debility, neurasthenia, convalescence, etc ” “ a galactagogue of merit as well ” “ improves the appetite, aids the processes of digestion and assimilation, facilitates elimination and effects gradual but decided gains in strength, vitality and weight ”it is suggested that. “ in case of idiosyncrasy the addition of tr nux vomica 5 to 10 minims to the dose, unless contraindicated, will secure excellent results ”the norwich pharmacal company naively remarks. “the dearth of medical literature on alfalfa has lead us to present below a few of the findings of the bureau of plant industry of the dewritingment of agriculture as well as those from several state experiment stations ”here are the “findings”. “ digestible nutrients in 100 pounds of alfalfa, protein, 11 0 pounds. Carbohydrates, 39 6 pounds. Ether extract, 1 2 pounds ” “ the high value of alfalfa is due to the amount of protein that it contains.