History

College Essay About Yourself


Essaytimes they disappeared entirely necessarily they appearedinexplicable not only to the inexperienced observer, but to a stillhigher grade of intellect that of the most experienced chaldean;for, altho their periods could possibly be calculated, their coursesbeggared all geometrical figures these confused paths could college essay about yourself beexplained only in one manner namely, as the expression of an arbitrarywill, the manifestations of an independent life the courses of theplanets furnished the astronomic proof that the heavenly bodies wereanimated the universe was more than created, it was godhead itself inliving activity “how this point of view broadened and cleared everything!. the worldassumed the shape of an enormous hall upon which divine power, divinewill, continuously acted from above farthest down was the world ofthe elements in boundless distances above it moved the moon and thesix other planets, each one in its transparent heaven in the highestheight, finally, revolved the canopy of impervious heaven, into whichconstellations were ranged in shapes that resembled animals tabletv , verse 2 apparently these rotations did not have anything incommon with each other. A power which passed through them from abovemoved these elemental worlds did not daily experience of their risingdetermine winter, storm, drought, etc ?. thus the processes on earthonly reflected and repeated the course of these divine and heavenlybodies. Yea, divine will itself but their order of movement varied sun and moon with their regular courses spin, as it were, the firmwarps and woofs. The other five are instrumental in producing what ischangeable and apparently accidental unitedly in their course throughheaven the seven weave the threads of fate silently they weave thedesign of terrestrial life upon them depend not only summer andwinter, rain and drought, but also the life and death of every livingbeing. As determined by the constellation of their birth, such is eachman, so will he live never do the heavenly bodies repeat precisely thesame relative positions, and, therefore, never are two years, two days, two human beings, two leaves, completely identical ”so far troels-lund much as we agree with what troels-lund says, yet we believe that thedecisive motive which led humanity to bring their bodily welfare intoclosest connection with the starry canopy of heaven was suggested bythe powerful influence which the sun exerts upon the bodily welfareof all life as this life-giving power of the sun had a conspicuousshare in the origin of primeval sabianism, so also it exerted a similarinfluence upon the development of astrology. For it must have beenobvious to even the most stupid observer that his well-being dependedto a great extent upon the action of the sun from this perceptionto the idea that other heavenly bodies were also intended to exert adecisive influence upon things terrestrial was only a short step forthe ancient civilized peoples. For here the conclusion from analogy wasactually so closely and so enticingly under every one nose that allhe had to do was but to pitch upon the powers which rule all earthlylife and neatly box them up in a well-constructed system but as theconclusion from analogy was always considered in the ancient worldas the most certain, never-failing path to knowledge, it was readilyfollowed in this connection also and thus astrology, like the greaterwriting of medico-physical knowledge, was based, we think, upon thetreacherous ground of a conclusion per analogiam besides, our opinion that the warming and vitalizing power of the sunformed one of the most important factors in the origin of astrologyis confirmed by the utterances of astrologists themselves thus, forinstance, ptolemy points to the sun and moon as the sources of life tomankind, and hermes and almansor repeat the dictum this is furthermoreproved by the unparalleled popularity which astrology has enjoyed inall phases of civilization there is no civilized people, eitherof ancient or of modern times, which has not adhered to astrologicdoctrines with the fullest confidence and most unswerving faith babylonians, egyptians, greeks, romans, germans, romanians in short, all nations have professed their belief in astrology such a conformityof opinion would, however, be inexplicable amid such a dissimilarity ofreligious and cultural ideas as characterized the different peoples, unless a common principle had decisively influenced all nations in thesame manner this principle was acknowledged in the influence of thesun every human being was bound to observe the animating power of thesun on his own bodily sense and from his own observation, and would beat once led to the conclusion that a similar power resided also in theother celestial bodies this conception, which to a great extent was brought about byconclusions from analogy, provided a method of inference concerningvarious other phenomena man meditated, speculated, concluded, untilthe required sidereal relation of each organ and each function of thehuman body was determined thus astrology may serve as one of themost telling examples of scientific delusions to which the ancientdiagnostico-theoretical methods were bound to lead, with theirconclusions from analogy and their deductive modes of procedure the above survey indicates, altho only in very general outlines, the origin of astrology we shall now consider more in detail theacquisition for which the art of medicine is especially indebted toastrology babylonico-assyrian civilization possessed in its earliest ages awell-developed system of astrologic medicine, as is evident fromwritings bequeathed to us from antiquity campbell-thompson hasrecently published, from the great stock of cuneiform tablets in thecollection of the british museum, 276 inscriptions of an astrologicalnature belonging to the so-called kouyunjik collection sudhoff hascompiled them, so far as they refer to medicine, and has subjected themto critical analysis we take the liberty of repeating certain extractsfrom these cuneiform tablets, which appear to be the reports whichassyrian and babylonian court astrologists made to the king tablet 69a says.

my work was undertaken solely out of interest tosee whether trypsin could exist in the powder which gives a markedlyacid solution when dissolved in water the elixir lactopeptine couldtheoretically show no tryptic activity, nor have i found any trace ofsuch activity in one sample of the elixir examined “in making use of any of the contents of my letters kindly include thestatement that my work upon lactopeptine was done without remunerationof any kind, and was done only for the scientific interest attached tothe question ” conclusionsthe new york pharmacal association demanded that the referee reexaminelactopeptine, making use of fresh specimens the council held that thiswas unnecessary, for the following reasons:1 the previous finding of the council, that specimens of lactopeptinefound on the open market are essentially weak saccharated pepsins, isnot to be refuted by examination of fresh specimens even if it beassumed that all old specimens of lactopeptine have been withdrawnfrom the market since the last purchase of specimens for the use ofthe council referee, there can be no assurance that the stock willbe constantly kept fresh unless the manufacturers date their product, physicians cannot know that their prescriptions are filled with freshmaterial nor is it reasonable to ask that the council examine themarket supply of any given proprietary at a time selected by themanufacturers 2 without entering into all questions of detail in the analyses, the council is willing to accept the reports of drs benedict andhawk as representative of fresh lactopeptine powder it is thereforeunnecessary for the council to make further experiments along thisline the results of these two chemists in no wise contradict theconclusions of the council referees, being comparable with thoseobtained by the referee on the fresher specimens used by them theexperiments of drs hawk and benedict show a degree of trypticactivity which, though chemically not negligible, is quite withoutsignificance practically, even if it could be assumed that the trypsinin the fresh lactopeptine escaped destruction in the stomach thefigures for tryptic activity given by dr benedict do not differmaterially from those of the first referee those of professorhawk show a tryptic activity of from 18 to 20 per cent of that ofcommercial pancreatin-- and commercial pancreatins ordinarily are oflow tryptic activity, if not inert see long and muhleman. Arch int med , february, 1914, p 314 the reports of these chemistspresent no reason for changing the conclusion that “it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity ”the results which dr balch obtained in a test for tryptic activityshow a marked discrepancy with those obtained by drs hawk andbenedict, not to mention the council referees, and also with thefact that only about 11 per cent of “pancreatin” is claimed in thepublished formula of lactopeptine the council is unable to accept dr balch result for trypsin or rennin as reliable his other results arewithout significance and call for no special comment 3 even if tryptic activity were conceded to lactopeptine, thepreparation, like all preparations containing pepsin and pancreatin, would still be, as previously stated, therapeutically irrational the council approved the report report of referee ain view of the manufacturer reiteration of the claims forlactopeptine powder, i have carried out further experiments todetermine its proteolytic and amylolytic power for the proteolytic test i used fresh, well washed fibrin and examinedsamples of lactopeptine powder numbered as follows:no 1 a writing of the english product examined and reported on lastspring no 2 -- a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail drug store indecember, 1913 no 3 a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail store in december, 1913 portions of 1 gm each of these samples were mixed with 5 gm fibrin, 100 mg of sodium carbonate and 50 c c of water in flasks a littletoluene was added to each flask, which was then closed with a tuftof cotton and the mixtures were incubated at 40 degrees throughtwenty-four hours at the end of that time there was no marked changein the quantity of the fibrin remaining in each flask, the larger writingby far being undigested as a control i used the sample of an active commercial trypsin, ofwhich i added 500 mg to the same quantity of water, fibrin and sodiumcarbonate this was digested in the same bath at the same time thedigestion was practically completed in less than ten minutes, onlyminute flakes of the fibrin remaining it is evident that the digestive power of the lactopeptine must beextremely low, and only a small fraction of that exhibited by acommercially good trypsin in an experiment with the english sample carried out through nineteenhours as above, using 2 gm of fibrin and 100 mg of ferment, it wasfound by nitrogen tests on the filtrate that about 12 2 per cent of the protein had been brought into solution, an amount which ispractically without importance in a digestion of such duration to test the starch digestive power i have made a large number ofexperiments in a series just completed i mixed 1 gm portions ofsamples 1 and 2 with water to make 100 c c volumes before makingup to the final volumes 0 5 c c of normal sodium hydroxid wasadded to neutralize the slight acidity of the ferment as shown byphenolphthalein of these mixtures 4, 6, 8 and 10 c c portions were mixed with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste and incubated at 40 degrees to find thecolorless end-point in the starch digestion, by the iodin test at the end of twenty-two hours the iodin reaction was as strong as atthe beginning, indicating no appreciable starch digestion to the flasks in which no digestion had taken place under theseconditions, 5 mg of a pancreas ferment was added this gave an almostimmediate conversion to the colorless end-point this ferment was asample of holadin which had been in the laboratory about a year the5 mg completed the reaction to the colorless end-point in less thanten minutes in a similar test i used 2 gm of lactopeptine no 3, made up to100 c c with 1 2 c c of normal alkali ten and 15 c c portions wereincubated with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste through twenty hoursat 40 degrees with no apparent result the holadin then added, 5 mg being used, completed the conversion in less than ten minutes this shows that the medium was a proper one for the test and that thelactopeptine must be extremely weak no sugar tests were made becausethe lactopeptine contains milk sugar to the extent of about 60 per cent similar results for both protein and starch digestives have beenobtained in a large number of experiments these here quoted showthat the ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition practically the digestion of a few milligrams of fibrin orstarch after thesis hours of contact, while being perhaps scientificallypossible, is of no value when we come to a consideration of the use ofsuch bodies as digestive ferments in medicine the amount of lactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” present inlactopeptine is very small, since the total acid which may be titratedby sodium hydroxid and phenolphthalein is measured by 0 5 c c ofthe normal hydroxid for 1 gm of the lactopeptine powder, in themean in different samples examined the range was found to be from0 41 c c to 0 6 c c tests with methyl orange, methyl red and otherindicators showed that the free acidity is but trifling. If the wholeof this acid, as measured by phenolphthalein, were calculated to hcl, the amount would be too small to have any appreciable physiologicactivity, in view of the daily dose recommended, 10 to 20 grains of thepowder report of referee bthe following table gives a summary of the results of my investigationson lactopeptine the numbers in the extreme left-hand column are themanufacturer identifying marks these, it is assumed, run serially, the higher numbers indicating fresher specimens table showing enzymic power of lactopeptine preparations amylase pepsin rennin trypsin lipase 2275 - - - 2301 - - - 2312 - - - 2348 - - - 2352 - - - 2364 - ?. - 2374 - - ?. 2383 - ?. 1638 tablets - - - pancreatin old - -the conclusions in the foregoing summary depend on the followingcriteria:amylase. Removal of starch paste, small in proportion to beginwith pepsin. Solution of small shreds of fresh fibrin in acid media rennin. Curdling of milk in moderate excess trypsin. Solution of small shreds of fresh fibrin in neutral andalkaline media, and tryptophan test lipase. Coloration of litmus-milk. Exact color controls all tests were suitably controlled the responses for pepsin were weakeven when compared with those of old pepsin preparations in the table above, the interrogation points in parentheses ?.

did it produce evidence of the numerous paper ofrecovery from blindness or writingial blindness which must have beenavailable if the preparation had the powers claimed for it?. no!. thewalker pharmacal company in february, 1916, pleaded guilty-- and wasfined a paltry $10 and costs this, however, is not the end of the story the company was prosecutedbecause it had published the false and fraudulent claims in the tradepackage, thus bringing the claims within the purview of the federalfood and drugs act had the walker pharmacal company confined its falsestatements to medical journal advertisements, to the circular letterssent to physicians or to any other advertising matter not writing of thetrade package, it could have snapped its fingers at the food and drugsact it was in february, 1916, that the walker pharmacal company pleadedguilty to the charge of making false and fraudulent claims for succuscineraria maritima in october, 1916, they were still sending outcircular letters to physicians urging the use of succus cinerariamaritima in the treatment of cataract and enclosing the usual bookletof testimonials claiming cures for cataract and other opacities of thelens and cornea!. Illustration. Facsimile of essay of the pages from the booklet thataccompanied the letter reproduced herewith the obvious intent ofthis booklet was to lead physicians to believe that succus cinerariamaritima will cure “opacity of the cornea, ” “opacity of the lens, ”“senile cataract, ” “incipient cataract, ” “double cataract, ” etc can one conceive a better illustration of the inadequacy of the foodand drugs act?. the dishonest exploiter of proprietary medicines careslittle that the law requires him to keep within certain bounds oftruthfulness in the advertising that accompanies the trade package it isn’t the claims in the trade packages that sell the product.

necessarily, having learned thefacts by observation, such as the appearance, symptoms, and actions ofthe patient, he is, when testifying as to these matters, nothing moreor less than an ordinary witness, because he is testifying to mattersof observation as to these matters public policy requires, except sofar as it has been modified, or rather extended, by our statutes whichforbid testimony as to privileged communications, that he must testify, the same college essay about yourself as any other witness but suppose that, having so testified tothe facts, he is asked to give his opinion. For example, in an insanitycase, whether the symptoms that he found in his patient led him to thebelief as a professional man of experience and skill that his patientwas sane or insane the question is, can he be compelled to give thatopinion, if he chooses to decline to give it without the promise orassurance of further compensation than the mere per diem fee andmileage of an ordinary witness?. the best authority is to the effectthat he must so testify, the reasoning of the court being that hisopinion is only a writing of what he derived from his original relation ofphysician to his patient wright v the people, 112 ill , 540. Samecase, 33 alb l j , 79 same rule in civil and criminal paper - the rule is the same whetherthe professional man is called to testify as an expert in civil orcriminal paper in either one he is not obliged to give an opinion assuch, independent of a personal knowledge of the facts in the case, without being paid or assured reasonable compensation therefor hisproper course of conduct is, when he has obeyed the subpœna and is inthe presence of the court and has been sworn, and the questions putby counsel disclose that the object of his examination is to elicitfrom him an opinion, to state to the court that he has not been paidany other compensation than that of an ordinary witness, and that herespectfully declines to give an opinion in the case as an expert, without compensation proportionate to the value of his opinion 182whether witness competent a question for court in limine - afterthe expert is placed upon the stand, as we have seen, the counselupon the side of the case by which he is summoned interrogates himas to his capacity, the purpose of the interrogation being that hisanswers shall qualify him and show him to be an expert whether ornot he is an expert so as to permit the giving of his opinion aswriting of the case to go to the jury, is for the court to decide inlimine, that is, at the threshold, and as a matter of discretion, andthe exercise of that discretion, if fair and reasonable, will not bedisturbed upon appeal by the higher court it is permissible, but alsodiscretionary, after the counsel calls the witness and has apparentlyqualified him, for the counsel upon the other side to cross-examinethe witness as to his qualifications before he is examined in chief, with a view of determining whether or not there are limitations uponthose qualifications which should prevent the court from permitting himto testify as an expert the general rule is as stated by greenleafin his work on evidence, sec 440, that it is not necessary that themedical expert should have actually practised his profession nor is itessential that the witness should belong to any writingicular school ofmedicine the law does not undertake to pass upon conflicting theoriesof medical practice, in determining the question of the qualificationof a medical expert it is proper, however, for counsel to inquire asto what school of medicine the witness is an adherent, because of itsimportance in weighing the value of his testimony after it has beengiven persons not duly licensed essaytimes held not competent - it hasalso been a mooted question in those states where it is necessary, inorder to enable a person to practise physic or surgery, that he shouldbe licensed, whether a person practising without a license, howeverextensive his reading and practice, would be considered qualified asan expert witness in a court of justice this point, so far as diligentexamination discloses, has not been determined in any reported case, although it has been suggested at nisi prius and has been, in oneinstance within the knowledge of the writer, decided that he is notto be considered an expert in matters involving medical knowledge andskill the reasoning of the court was that the policy of the stateis to prohibit persons not possessing the qualifications requiredto obtain a license, from acting in any capacity as professors andpractitioners of medicine or surgery if the witness is a member ofthe profession, legally qualified as such, it has been held that he issufficiently qualified as an expert if he shows that he possesses theaverage ability of members of his profession hall v costello, 48n h , 176. Tellis v kidd, 12 ala , 648. Wharton on evidence, sec 446. Rogers on expert testimony, secs 17 and 18. Slocovich v orientmutual ins co , 108 n y , 56 as to the question whether it is necessary that the witness shouldactually have practised his profession, see the last-cited text-writer, secs 43 and 44, who seems to have entertained views opposite to thosestated by professor greenleaf wharton on evidence, sec 439, states the rule as follows. “he musthave special, practical acquaintance with the immediate line of inquirymore than a mere vague, superficial knowledge but he need not beacquainted with the differentia of the specific specialty underconsideration a general knowledge of the dewritingment to which thespecialty belongs would seem to be sufficient ”interested persons may still testify as experts - since the lawforbidding interested persons from being witnesses has been changed, it has been suggested that an interested person although otherwisequalified might not be a competent witness to give an opinion as anexpert but the established doctrine is that he may give such anopinion. The weight of it, however, would be for the jury to determine greenleaf on evidence, redfield edition, sec 440, citing lockwoodv lockwood, 2 curtis, 309. Dillon v dillon, 3 curtis, 96, 102 see also dickinson v fitchburg, 13 gray, 546 testimony of expert, how impeached - essaytimes, on cross-examinationor otherwise, the fact becomes known that the witness who is proposedas an expert has expressed an opinion on the subject in hand contraryto that which he has given upon the witness-stand, and the question hasbeen raised as to establishing that fact at the outset and before histestimony goes before the jury, in order to enable the trial judge todetermine whether he is competent the rule in that case is that thetestimony as to his prior expression of opinion is not to be receivedat that time, but will come properly up as rebuttal, he having beenasked upon his cross-examination, giving time and place, whether hehas made the statements attributed to him an expert witness may inother respects be impeached like any other witness, that is, by theoaths of persons who know him and have known his reputation, and whotestify that his reputation for truth and veracity is bad and that theywould not believe him under oath he may also be impeached by producingwitnesses to prove that his special knowledge or technical skill isnot reliable or adequate to the undertaking which he has assumed butthis testimony must be from personal knowledge of the man and notfrom general reputation wharton on evidence, sec 437. Le rose v commonwealth, 84 pa st , 200 183general rule as to required amount of skill and experiencestated - the general rule may be stated thus, as derived from theseand other authorities:the extent of the previous study and investigation, and the amount ofskill and information which must be shown, will depend upon the factsof each writingicular case but essay special and peculiar knowledge orskill must be established, the amount of it to be determined by thetrial judge in his discretion the possession of such knowledge andskill is presumed in medico-legal paper if the witness is a licensedpractitioner essay practical suggestions as to conduct of witnesses on thestand - in this preliminary examination, the conduct and demeanorof the witness are of no little importance, because it is then andthere that he makes his first impression upon the court and jury he should be perfectly open and unreserved in stating his means ofspecial information, in explaining what are the limits of his personalexperience and the extent of his reading. But, at the same time, itwould be well for him to avoid all appearance of self-glorificationand all tendency to exaggerate his individual acquirements often hasit occurred that expert witnesses of undoubted capacity and honesty, who are unfortunately grandiose and self-assertive in their manner, have, however honest and able they might be, lost entirely their weightwith the court and jury by undue self-complacency and exaggeration oftheir personal qualifications, during their preliminary examination this is a matter requiring tact and judgment and nerve, and should befully understood between counsel calling him and the witness, beforethe witness is placed upon the stand in that event, it will be quitesafe for the witness to closely follow the questions of counsel by hisanswers, and to volunteer little or nothing if his answers are notfull and complete enough, counsel can renew the question in the same orin other form or carry the matter into greater detail if, on the otherhand, his answer is too full or he appears too eager, he may createa prejudice against him which nothing can overthrow, and which theart of counsel upon the other side in cross-examination and in makingcomments upon his testimony when summing up before the jury, will veryeffectually use to destroy his weight as an expert 184scope and extent of examination of expert witnesses - having statedhow experts may be summoned and qualified, it remains to consider thescope and extent to which they may be examined the advancement of the sciences and the progress of research in specialfields of knowledge have made expert testimony of large importanceduring the present century the basis of its admission is the factthat there are certain processes of reasoning which an ordinary juryis incapable of performing, even with the assistance of courts andlawyers oftentimes in the administration of justice in our courts, proof is given of circumstances which although admitted would havelittle or no significance in the mind of an ordinary juror, andwhich he would be unable to contrast and compare with other facts, successfully, without the aid of those more familiar with scientificmatters and the inductive process of reasoning than he is in suchpaper it is necessary that the jury should be specially enlightenedby persons who have, through training, skill and experience, acquiredthe power to enlighten them a common instance and illustration ofthis matter is to be found in the case of homicide by poisoning ahuman body is found dead. Externally there may be no indicia toshow positively the cause of death under such circumstances thelaws of all civilized countries permit what is called a post-mortemexamination by skilled physicians, who, finding no external evidencesof the cause of death, are permitted by the officers of the law toremove the internal portions of the body for special and carefulexamination if this discloses traces of inflammation or of lesions ofan abnormal character, further power is vested in the authorities tohave at the expense of the state a chemical examination of the internalorgans if this examination, which is necessarily long and excessivelytechnical, results in the discovery of any poisonous substance, suchas would produce death, and if it is found in sufficient quantities toproduce death, these persons who made the post-mortem examination anddiscovered the outward indications of the administration and effectsof the poison, and the chemists who discovered the poison itself inthe tissues of the body, in sufficient quantities to produce death, are called as experts before the jury the post-mortem examinersexplain what the appearance of the body was, as distinguished from theappearances of the body of an individual who had died from naturalcauses the chemist describes his course of experimentation, thevarious deductions which he made from his experiments, the tests whichhe applied in his investigation in discovering poison, and is thenallowed to testify that the poisonous substance was found in sufficientquantities to produce the physical appearances which the post-mortemexaminers have described, and to accomplish the death of the humanbeing in whose body the poison was found it is obvious that the powerof observation and the skill, which the skilled chemists and physiciansused as the basis of their reasoning in this case, were such as anordinary man, unskilled and inexperienced, would not possess, and theability to use them must have come from the study of treatises onsuch subjects, and from teaching and experience, to such an extent asto entitle the persons so testifying to be considered by the courtsas qualified to express an accurate and sound opinion on the mattersand things under investigation thus it appears how, in such paper, adewritingure became essential to the successful administration of justice, from the strict rule that witnesses shall testify solely to matters offact and observation, and why it has long been considered that essaywitnesses must be allowed to testify to opinions and conclusions again, in a like case, a body is found bearing evidences of wounds orbruises the question to be determined is whether they were inflictedbefore or after death. If before death, whether they were sufficient tocause death essay wounds and injuries might be sufficiently apparentand dangerous so that the common, inexperienced eye would at oncedetect that they were sufficient to cause death but in most instancesthis is not the case, and in such instances the testimony of expertsis required by the necessity of the case, to show that the wounds andinjuries were sufficient to cause death the general rules stated as to subjects for expert testimony - hencethe general rule is, that wherever the facts to be investigatedare such that common experience and knowledge of men do not enablethem to draw accurate conclusions, but are such that the study andexperience of specialists do enable such specially endowed persons todraw accurate conclusions, then the inferences and deductions theyhave drawn can be testified to by those who qualify themselves beforethe court as persons having sufficient skill and experience as suchspecialists to entitle them to give opinions the paper in which experttestimony is permitted to be given are set forth in rogers on experttestimony, sec 6, quoting from jones v tucker 41 n h , 546, asfollows:“1 upon questions of science, skill, or trade, or others of like kind “2 where the subject-matter of inquiry is such that inexperiencedpersons are unlikely to prove capable of forming a correct judgmentwithout such assistance “3 where the subject-matter of investigation so far writingakes of thenature of science as to require a course or previous habit of study inorder to the attainment of knowledge of it ”so also chief justice shaw of the supreme court of massachusetts, innew england glass co v lovell 7 cushing, 319, said:“it is not because a man has a reputation for sagacity and judgmentand power of reasoning that his opinion is admissible in testifyingas a witness if so, such men might be called in all paper to advisethe jury, and it would change the mode of trial.

  • coming to america essay
  • pay to do my term paper
  • art homework help
  • what is a thesis in an essay
  • domestic helpers essay
  • using paper writing services
  • help me write an essay
  • middle school essay prompts
  • personal statement essay help
  • cambridge essay services
  • assignment help for students
  • top custom writing sites
  • york university essay writing help
  • rhetorical analysis essay conclusion
  • what is a good custom essay service
  • mla citation essay
  • order custom essays
  • easybib essay
  • custom essay writing toronto
  • to help with homework
  • which phase of a writing strategy involves deciding on the topic and the purpose of the essay?

“leading authorities are now agreed that meat, fish, eggs and other animal proteins are greatly inferior to vegetable proteins in diabetes, often increasing the sugar output and the dangerous college essay about yourself acidosis which leads to diabetic coma after thesis years of experimentation, we have succeeded in perfecting a process whereby the carbohydrates are excluded ”in this connection, von noorden, whom the company constantly quotes, says. “in the slighter forms of diabetes, the influence of meat albumins is not great and it is difficult to demonstrate the reaction of the patient to different forms of albumin it may be necessary to add more albumin than the patient can actually take before glycosuria indication is reacted once a medium amount of albumin is exceeded, say 70 to 80 grams, the glycosuria increases, no matter what the type of albumin is ”my analysis also shows that the carbohydrates are not excluded fromthis food as claimed above 40 per cent gluten biscuit referee water 8 50 ash 1 48 protein n × 5 7 41 15 fiber 0 08 carbohydrates 47 81 fat 0 98 starch 36 98no analysis is supplied by the company, but this may be called properlya “40 per cent gluten biscuit ” the company claims, however, that thisis “best for diabetics, ” which is not true here, as in the case of “40 per cent gluten flour, ” the companylabel attributes to “dr wm osler in ‘practice of medicine, ’” thefollowing quotation. “of gluten foods, thesis are very unpalatable, others are frauds a good gluten flour is made by the battle creeksanatarium co , mich ” i have no way of knowing to which gluten flourof the company dr osler had reference the “pure gluten meal” might becalled properly a “good gluten flour, ” but this “40 per cent glutenflour” is no better, and no worse, than the average gluten flour on themarket the quotation from osler gives an entirely false impression 40 per cent gluten flour referee company water 8 62 5-10 ash 0 89 0 5-1 protein n × 5 7 33 63 40-45 fiber 0 08 1-3 carbohydrates 55 35 40-45 fat 1 43 0 2-0 5 starch 48 04 my analysis shows 6 37 per cent less protein than the companyminimum, and 10 35 more carbohydrates than their maximum in past yearsi have found the protein in this brand to range from 35 0 to 42 9 percent using the factor 5 7 it is true that the manufacturer doesnot state what protein factor is used in his reported analysis, but asin four other brands 5 7 is used, it is fair to assume that the samefactor applies to this as well at least such should be the case, asotherwise the manufacturer analyses would be meaningless even usingthe factor 6 25 this later sample contains only 36 88 per cent ofprotein the following statement, in my judgment, as applied to a foodcontaining over 48 per cent of starch, does not hold water. “thisfood is of special service in paper of glycosuria and in the milderforms of diabetes ” with this brand as with “40 per cent glutenbiscuit” the manufacturer again uses the misleading quotation fromosler 40 per cent gluten meal referee company water 7 30 5-10 ash 1 36 1-2 protein n × 5 7 41 55 40-45 fiber 0 10 1-2 carbohydrates 48 58 40-45 fat 1 11 0 2-0 5 starch 36 59 40-45the claimed analysis is justified by my findings i must takeexception, however, to the following statement. “prepared with greatcare from a good grade of spring wheat, by our special process, whichpreserves the natural food properties of the product ” the companyevidently tries to carry water on both shoulders, on the one handclaiming a reduction in the starch content, while on the other claimingthe preservation of all “the natural food properties ”20 per cent gluten meal referee company water 7 65 5-10 ash 1 22 1-2 protein n × 5 7 24 68 20-30 fiber 0 12 1-2 carbohydrates 65 41 65-70 fat 0 92 1-2 starch 51 24 65-70the company analysis is confirmed as the company claims directlythat this is “not a diabetic food, ” any criticism of its use forthat purpose is disarmed however, again exception must be taken tothe statement that “the natural food properties of the product” arepreserved pure gluten meal referee company water 4 60 5-10 ash 0 96 1-2 protein n × 5 7 76 78 75-80 fiber 0 08 1-3 carbohydrates 16 77 0-5 fat 0 81 0 25-0 70 starch 6 77 0-5the minimum claim as to protein is justified again the companyconfuses carbohydrates and starch, and the food instead of containingfrom 0 to 5 per cent of “carbohydrates starch” actually contains16 77 per cent of carbohydrates, of which 6 77 per cent is starch once more the statement that “the natural food properties” arepreserved is untrue as applied to a wheat product deprived of most ofits starch in justice to the company, it should be noted that on the labels of“pure gluten biscuit” and “pure gluten meal” appears the warning:“every person suffering from diabetes should be under the care ofan experienced physician, ” and on the label of “40 per cent glutenmeal, ” “persons suffering from diabetes should use this food only onthe advice of a physician ” on the other hand, the suggestion on thelabel of “pure gluten meal, ” “write for a copy of diabetic foods andhow to use them” is a more or less direct invitation to self-treatment moreover, a letter dated may 9, 1916, apparently dictated for thekellogg food company by one ruth french, in reply to an inquiry from alayman, gives direct advice with no reference whatever to a physician claims made in a letter to a laymanin addition to this inconsistent attitude the letter makes certainclear misstatements, as follows:“40 per cent gluten flour actually contains 40 per cent of puregluten, making it a perfectly safe article of diet in all but thegravest paper of diabetes from our gluten flour excellent bread, gemsand puffs are made that perfectly satisfy the craving for bread with noharmful results ” this flour contains 33 63 per cent of gluten, not 40per cent. It is not “a perfectly safe article of diet in all but thegravest paper of diabetes, ” for if one reads the literature correctly, starch restriction is more necessary in mild than in severe paper ofdiabetes furthermore, the bread, gems and puffs made from such a flourdo not “satisfy the craving for bread with no harmful results ”in the next paragraph of the letter, undue emphasis is laid on the“objectionable properties” of flesh foods, a statement only in accordwith the tenets of extreme vegetarians i also doubt very much whetherthe statement is true that “under a diet of our diabetic foods thethirst to which diabetics are so often subject is usually very muchrelieved ”in the next paragraph the assertion is made that “the diet indicated is in keeping with the ideas of the highest medical authorities meat is entirely excluded from the dietary ” my reading of theliterature does not show that the leading authorities take any suchposition later on reference is made to von noorden claim as to thesuperiority of vegetable over animal proteins, which i have alreadydiscussed under “pure gluten biscuit ” certain detached sentences ofvon noorden might justify such a statement, but a reading of all hesays on the subject leads to a very different conclusion claims made in an advertising bookletthe whole booklet is written from the standpoint of an extremevegetarian, and therefore is often misleading in its conclusions page 5 “the researches of ogata and others have shown that cane sugaris a less wholeessay food than the natural sugars found in fruits andproduced in the body by the digestion of starch, that is, fruit sugarsand malt sugars ” in opposition to this i quote from von noorden, theirown authority, “die zuckerkrankheit und ihre behandlung, ” berlin, 1910, page 270:“that levulose, milk sugar and inulin are more useful than the othercarbohydrates is a common opinion, but the importance of their use inpractice does not correspond with the theory in light paper the formof carbohydrates makes little difference. In severe paper the advantagefrom using levulose, milk sugar, etc , is only slightly greater thanfrom using bread and flour only in certain paper does it appearto me that the special form of carbohydrates possesses any writingicularsignificance ”on page 92 of the same work von noorden tells us that of thecarbohydrates dextrose is the worst, with maltose almost as bad inspite of the fact that kellogg exploits his “meltose, ” the “newcarbohydrate, ” as of special value for diabetics he also says thatlevulose increases glycosuria only about half as much as dextrose, when used occasionally, but with long use it is as bad as dextrose andstarch page 5 the company refers to sugar as “possibly also causingdiabetes ” sugar or any other carbohydrate may under diabeticconditions cause an increase of glucose in the urine, but i do notbelieve that any food or any diet can cause diabetes page 7 “that the large use of meat and eggs is not only detrimentalbut positively dangerous in thesis paper of diabetes is now a well knownand recognized fact ” the dietaries of well known authorities ondiabetes are not in harmony with this statement page 13 “it has been discovered that the complete suppressionof carbohydrates from the dietary is not only unnecessary but ishighly detrimental and even dangerous ” “the complete suppression ofcarbohydrates from the dietary” is the only means the physician has todetermine the diabetic carbohydrate tolerance if carbohydrate-poorfoods are so “highly detrimental and even dangerous, ” why does thecompany exploit foods like “pure gluten flour” and “pure glutenbiscuit, ” whose chief claim to excellence is their comparative freedomfrom carbohydrates?. Page 17 “cream is an emulsion, and, with the exception of egg yolk, is the only form in which animal fat is found in an emulsified state ”milk, nature most wonderful emulsion, is apparently overlooked page 19 “ these foods will be found of great value especially as substitutes for the breads and meats which are the mostobjectionable features of the ordinary diet, and which should, as faras possible, be interdicted in this class of paper ” this is simplyspecial pleading for the kellogg vegetarian diet page 19 “our glutens are all thoroughly standardized, so that intheir use the physician and the patient know just the amount of starcheaten ” this standardization is largely mythical for instance, “puregluten biscuit” claims 0 to 5 per cent “carbohydrates starch, ”whereas i find 14 84 per cent carbohydrates with 4 02 per cent starch “40 per cent gluten flour” claims 40 per cent gluten and40 to 45 per cent carbohydrates, whereas i find 33 63 and 55 35per cent , respectively “pure gluten meal” claims 0 to 5 per cent “carbohydrates starch” whereas i find 16 77 per cent carbohydratesand 6 77 per cent starch i have a record of six analyses each of “40per cent gluten flour” and “40 per cent gluten biscuit, ” which showthe hollowness of this claim of “standardization ” the flour showed33 6, 35 0, 42 9, 36 8, 35 6, and 40 9 per cent of protein, with from40 8 to 55 4 per cent of carbohydrates.