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College Argumentative Essay Topics


Dark blood in bothventricles college argumentative essay topics. Liver normal 78 third man, age 20. Pupils slightly dilated. Eyeballs and tonguenot protruded marks of cord as in preceding no discharge of fæces orsemen slight ecchymosis under cord. Mark in front of neck dislocationof occipital bone from atlas brain and membranes much congested lungscollapsed and anæmic half ounce serum in pericardium heart normal;dark fluid blood in both ventricles. Liver normal 79 cayley. Ibid , p 122 - man, age 35. Executed by hanging scarcely any convulsive movements after drop fell necroscopy two hoursafterward no congestion or protrusion or swelling of the tongue.

At the college argumentative essay topics opening meeting of the house of delegates last year, president arthur dean bevan suggested the desirability of greater cooperation between the large pharmaceutical houses and the council on pharmacy and chemistry the need of such cooperation has been recognized by the council from the first in no one direction has the council made greater effort than in its endeavor to secure the fullest cooperation of the various pharmaceutical houses the difficulty has been, and always must be, the fundamental antagonism between objectives that are largely commercial on the one hand and purely scientific on the other nevertheless, the council has always believed-- and has acted on the belief-- that there is a possible middle ground wherein the interests of therapeutics would not be injured but would go hand in hand with a commercial development based on enlightened self-interest “the profits to be made by a pharmaceutical house from the sale of a staple drug-- a pharmacopeial, national formulary, or nonproprietary preparation-- which enters into free competition with other drugs of the same kind, are moderate. The profits to be made from the sale of a proprietary medicine on which the manufacturer holds a monopoly are usually large-- essaytimes enormous there are, broadly, two kinds of proprietary preparations advertised to physicians. One represents laborious research ending in the production of a new medicinal chemical. This product can be patented and the manufacturer can obtain a seventeen-year monopoly on its manufacture and sale the other represents no research but comprises simple mixtures-- frequently of the “shotgun” variety-- of well known pharmaceuticals, or biologic products sold under trade names as these do not represent anything new or original the manufacturer is unable to obtain a patent, but by means of the trade name he can and does obtain a perpetual monopoly this, from a business standpoint, is more valuable than the limited monopoly granted by a patent it is not surprising that proprietary remedies of the latter type flourish so long as physicians unthinkingly accept and prescribe them solely on the manufacturer valuation “the council has practically the undivided support of manufacturers of medicinal chemicals. That is, of proprietaries of the first mentioned type but pharmaceutical firms which have found it profitable to promote proprietaries of the second type-- “specialties, ” unscientific or ordinary mixtures of pharmaceuticals or biologic products sold under trade names-- have not supported the council “when the council was organized, it was hoped and believed that all the large pharmaceutical houses would find it possible and desirable, if not actually more profitable, to shape their business methods so as to make their proprietary and other articles conform to those conservative standards on which the council bases its rules, and thus render such articles acceptable for new and nonofficial remedies it soon developed, however, that the methods of the pseudochemical companies, whose sales propaganda in the interest of unscientific nostrums with its attending damage to scientific medicine had led to the establishment of the council, had found their lodgment in most of the pharmaceutical houses it was a genuine disappointment to the council to find that essay of the large and old-established firms were not only unwilling to cooperate with the council, but in thesis instances exhibited a definite antagonism to the council work “the object-- and duty-- of the officers of pharmaceutical houses is primarily to pay dividends to their stockholders through skilful advertising or the persuasiveness of “detail men, ” they are able to induce physicians to prescribe their controlled products, on which there are large profits, even though such products have not only not been accepted by the council, but in thesis instances, have been disapproved is it any wonder that concerns which put out such products are indifferent or openly antagonistic to the work of the council?. the matter is largely one of business policy when the medical profession as a unit will support the council in its work, then such firms will find it good business policy to accede to dr bevan suggestion-- but not before ”evidently the problem resolves itself into this. The council, constituted of scientific men, working without remuneration inthe interest of scientific medicine and the medical profession, expects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active, sympatheticcooperation of physicians. The cooperation of pharmaceutical houseswill follow as a matter of course j a m a 74:1235 may 11920 the following is the recommendation of the reference committee towhich the report of the board of trustees was referred. “a perusalof the trustees’ report, ‘cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses’, is well worth the time of every member of the profession, and yourcommittee would emphasize the statement of the trustees. ‘thecouncil, constituted of scientific men, working without remunerationin the interest of scientific medicine and the medical professionexpects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active sympatheticcooperation of physicians. The cooperation of pharmaceutical houseswill follow as a matter of course ’“your committee would go still further and move that a vote of thanksof the house be extended to those scientific men who have devoted somuch valuable time to the welfare of the association ” j a m a , 74:1322 may 8 1920. From reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1920, p 56 w a puckner, secretary budwell emulsion of cod-liver oil, nos 1 and 2 report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe budwell pharmacal company, lynchburg, virginia, which markets thesepreparations, claims that “no 1” contains cod liver oil, “iodide ofarsenic, ” “iodide of calcium, ” and “iodide of manganese ” “no 2” issaid to contain in addition to the ingredients of no 1, creosotecarbonate and guaiacol it is known that arsenous iodid is decomposed by contact with water itis recognized that creosote carbonate is unstable and prone to liberatecreosote iodide of manganese not being official, the supply on themarket is not controlled in any way. Tests of purity are not prescribedby the pharmacopeia, the national formulary, new and nonofficialremedies or other books of standards therefore doubt must be expressedas to the accuracy of the formulas as given the council cannot acceptsuch statements of composition without further evidence “no 1” is commended for use in “chronic rheumatism, glandular swellings, later forms of syphilis, convalescence from scarlet fever, la grippe and malaria, chronic malarial infection, marasmus, joint or other suppuration of standing, diseases of skin, chorea, anaemia, neurasthenia, obstinate neuralgia, scrofulous affections in general, and diarrhea or dysentery subacute or chronic in childhood ”“no 2” is said to be “prepared especially for the treatment of chronic throat, nasal, bronchial and pulmonary diseases ”in the advertising circular statements regarding the variousingredients of budwell emulsion are quoted from obsolete textbooks these statements, for the most writing, do not represent modernopinions on the subject for instance, the circular praises the actionof guaiacol as eliminated directly by the lungs, thus exerting abeneficial local effect and causing bacilli to diminish in numbers orto disappear all of this is directly contradicted in authoritativemodern publications on pharmacology, which hold that the excretion ofguaiacol by the lungs is infinitesimal and its action on bacilli isnil the council held the preparations in conflict with its rules asfollows:1 thesis of the therapeutic claims are exaggerations 2 the method of exploitation amounts to an indirect invitation to thepublic to use these preparations as “consumption cures ”3 the preparations are unscientific, they constitute a reprehensibleinvitation to uncritical prescribing and their use is inimical to thebest interests of the profession and the public it is difficult toimagine in what conditions such a combination would be indicated thesepreparations are a remnant of the days of polypharmacy their use isnot in keeping with present medical thought and practice -- from thejournal a m a , feb 20, 1915 rheumalgine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryrheumalgine eli lilly & co , indianapolis is put up both in tabletform and as a liquid each tablet, or teaspoonful of the liquid, issaid to contain. “strontium salicylate from natural oil 5 gr hexamethylenamin 2 gr colchicine 1/200 gr ”the advertising matter contains several statements regarding theindividual ingredients to which objection must be made it is claimed quoting from hare that strontium salicylate “ is not so disagreeable to the taste as the corresponding sodium salts, and more important still, it is far less apt to disorder the stomach ”“taste” is a difficult subject to dispute. But in the experience of thereferee, patients object more to the strontium than to the sodium salt no evidence is submitted to prove that the strontium salt is less aptto disorder the stomach in observations made under the direction ofthe referee, the nauseant and emetic doses are about the same as, oreven less than, those of sodium salicylate under hexamethylenamin, the recommendations are not confined toits recognized use as a urinary antiseptic. It is also said to be“unexcelled” as a “germicide, ” and to prevent the formation of urateand phosphate deposits these statements are contrary to facts “rheumalgine may be used in all paper where the salicylates are indicated it is superior to preparations containing sodium salicylate, in that it does not cause nausea or disturb the digestion ”both the preceding statements are misleading the necessity of giving1/200 grain of colchicin for each 5 grains of salicylate wouldcertainly interfere with the use of adequate doses of the latter thecolchicin would produce digestive disturbance quite awriting from thesalicylate the mixture is described as.

Yet they rather delight to grow in shadowy thansunny places time they flower in may or june for the most writing, and their seedis ripe in july at the farthest government and virtues it is governed by jupiter, and that giveshopes of a wholeessay healthful herb it is good for the diseases ofthe chest or breast, for pains, and stiches in the side, and to expelcrude and raw humours from the belly and stomach, by the sweet savourand warming quality it dissolves the inward congealed blood happeningby falls or bruises, and the college argumentative essay topics spitting of blood, if the roots, eithergreen or dry, be boiled in wine and drank. As also all manner of inwardwounds or outward, if washed or bathed therewith the decoction alsobeing drank, comforts the heart, and strengthens the stomach and a coldbrain, and therefore is good in the spring times to open obstructionsof the liver, and helps the wind cholic. It also helps those that havefluxes, or are bursten, or have a rupture. It takes away spots or marksin the face, being washed therewith the juice of the fresh root, orpowder of the dried root, has the same effect with the decoction theroot in the spring-time steeped in wine, gives it a delicate savourand taste, and being drank fasting every morning, comforts the heart, and is a good preservative against the plague, or any other poison ithelps indigestion, and warms a cold stomach, and opens obstructions ofthe liver and spleen it is very safe. You need have no dose prescribed. And is very fit tobe kept in every body house balm this herb is so well known to be an inhabitant almost in every garden, that i shall not need to write any discription thereof, although itsvirtues, which are thesis, may not be omitted government and virtues it is an herb of jupiter, and under cancer, and strengthens nature much in all its actions let a syrup made withthe juice of it and sugar as you shall be taught at the latter end ofthis book be kept in every gentlewoman house to relieve the weakstomachs and sick bodies of their poor sickly neighbours.

That the physiologic properties of the blood are preservedby these medicaments. And, finally, that these preparations have aneffect on gonorrhea and its complications, these substances normalphenol serum cano and methyl-phenol cano, are inadmissible to newand nonofficial remedies the following quotations taken from the circular are admissions thatthese preparations are not innocuous. “that the economy will tolerate to a surprising degree substances directly introduced through the blood stream is now well known by the intravenous injection of 10 c c of methyl-phenol serum we throw into the human body a massive dose of an alien substance the immediate effect of this injection is upon the central nervous system the recipient usually becomes either pale or suffused, he has a ringing in his ears, has a sensation of great altitude, and occasionally has a dryness of the fauces and a metallic or a garlic taste ” “in essay patients secondary reactions occur in from one to four hours after injection the phenomena we have observed in these secondary reactions are pronounced chill and rigor ”there is no doubt that considerable harm may be done by the intravenousand by the intraprostatic administration of these preparations anduntil there is good evidence showing the therapeutic value of thetreatment, the routine use of these preparations, except perhaps athospitals in selected and well controlled and carefully guarded paper, is to be strongly discouraged when the foregoing statement was sent to the mulford company forcomment, the firm submitted a letter from dr perry townsend to themulford company in which he declared that the results obtained with thecano preparations had been satisfactory and without untoward results in this letter, dr townsend proposed that a series of injections withthese preparations be carried out under the observation of members ofthe council and the supervision of dr cano or himself the report of the council, the letter from the mulford company and thatof dr townsend were sent to a number of urologists for their opinionconcerning this whole matter it was explained that the referee heldthat no reason had been presented which would warrant the council todewriting from its customary procedure, namely, to require that clinicalevidence be submitted in the form of published reports which permitinvestigation and verification by independent observers but that, before making further recommendation to the council, he desired theopinion of urologists of recognized standing concerning the reportsubmitted to the mulford company all replies received approved thecouncil position the following is one of the replies received. Your letter in regard to normal phenol serum cano and methyl-phenol serum cano received i wish to state that i have read the correspondence between the council and h k mulford co and in my opinion the referee and the council are quite correct in their attitude in the matter in my opinion i would emphasize the following. 1 there is absolutely nothing about the remedies directed specifically against the gonococcus and no evidence to show that any action against them is obtained as we know there are certain states of normal serum which are highly toxic and any normal serum from another animal will produce disturbances in man when injected intravenously-- writingicularly if repeated the addition of substances to serum normal or otherwise is apt to and frequently does render that serum highly toxic!. the substances added in the instances referred to-- phenol and methylene blue are not in any way calculated to lessen the toxicity of serum the element of danger existing in the indiscriminate use of serums intravenously is, in my opinion, increased by the addition of the substances mentioned, and it would be unwise to encourage the general use of any such remedies furthermore the products are condemned by the very evidence of the originators and their admissions are quite sufficient to deter anyone from using the products as they suggest as to the intraprostatic injections with the serums it does not at all meet my views. Although the introduction of serums by this route have been frequently advocated and i have personally carried this mode out i cannot allow the impression to go out that it could be done in a routine manner-- nor that no ill results could follow-- for i have seen otherwise furthermore from theoretical standpoint serums need not be given in this way in consideration of the opinion expressed by the councilconsultants the referee recommended that normal phenol serum canoand methyl-phenol serum cano be declared ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 6 unwarrantedtherapeutic claims without considering possible conflicts with otherrules, and that publication of the report be authorized -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 85 soamin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrysoamin is the name under which the firm of burroughs wellcome andcompany sells its brand of sodium arsanilate the council directed theomission of soamin from new and nonofficial remedies and authorizedpublication of the report which appears below after the proprietors ofthe product had declined to withdraw or suitably revise the unwarrantedtherapeutic claims which it made w a puckner, secretary the proprietary brand “soamin” of sodium arsanilate was admitted tonew and nonofficial remedies several years ago at a time when thetherapeutic value of arsanilic acid had not been definitely determined experience with this drug has shown that it is far more dangerousand also has a more limited field of usefulness than was at firstrecognized the proprietors of the soamin brand have continued toinclude in the list of conditions in which it “would seem” to be a“very effective agent” cerebrospinal meningitis and pellagra. In fact, meningitis is the first in the list of conditions mentioned, syphilisthe second and pellagra third in support of their belief in theefficacy of the remedy in meningitis, three reports, published fromsix to nine years ago, are quoted in one of these it is stated thattwo patients “were cured”. In another report, seven of eight patientsin whom the clinical, but not the microscopic, diagnosis of meningitishad been made were reported as having recovered. In the third report, fifty-six of ninety paper were reported cured. In this larger series ofpaper the author neglects to state the method of administration thefirm quotes but one paper which is a very uncritical report in regardto pellagra it seems to the council that the evidence of value of sodium arsanilatein these conditions which are now treated by more rational methods istoo slight to justify the emphasis laid on it by the firm, especiallyas sodium arsanilate is admittedly a dangerous agent, several paper ofblindness having been reported from its use for these reasons it was voted to omit soamin from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 89 essay mixed vaccines not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the consideration of the following “mixed” vaccines was requested byf i lackenbach, san francisco. Special bacterial vaccine no 2 staph-strep bacterin containing killed staphylococcus albus, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus special bacterial vaccine no 3 pneumo-staph-strep bacterin containing killed staphylococcus albus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus and pneumococcus special bacterial vaccine no 4 pneumo-staph-strep-coli bacterin containing killed staphylococcus albus, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus citreus, bacillus coli, streptococcus and pneumococcus special bacterial vaccine no 5 influenza combined bacterin containing killed staphylococcus albus, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus friedländer, bacillus influenzae, micrococcus catarrhalis, streptococcus and pneumococcus special bacterial vaccine no 11 pneumo-strep bacterin containing killed streptococcus and pneumococcus special bacterial vaccine no 15 combined whooping cough bacterin containing killed bacillus pertussis, staphylococcus albus, staphylococcus aureus, micrococcus catarrhalis, bacillus influenzae, streptococcus and pneumococcus special bacterial vaccine no 16 mixed gonococcus bacterin containing killed gonococcus, staphylococcus albus, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus coli, diphtheroid bacillus, streptococcus and pneumococcus mr lackenbach states that these bacterial mixtures were preparedfor him by e r squibb & sons their sale in interstate commerce ispermitted under the license granted to the latter firm by the u s treasury dewritingment however, no evidence of any kind was presentedto the council proving the therapeutic efficacy of the several mixedvaccines as a mixture of two or more kinds of organisms is acceptedfor new and nonofficial remedies only if there is satisfactory evidencethat its therapeutic use is rational, the council declared the severalvaccine mixtures ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies rule10 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 90 somnoform report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council examined the available evidence for somnoform, sold bystratford-cookson company, successors to e de trey and sons, and foundthe preparation inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies thecouncil authorized publication of the report which appears below w a puckner, secretary somnoform is sold in the united states by stratford-cookson company, successors to e de trey and sons according to the label on a packageof somnoform sent the council “this mixture contains chloride of ethyl, 83 per cent. Chloride of methyl, 16 per cent. Bromide of ethyl, 1 per cent ”although somnoform has been on the market for a long time, thepublished reports present no proof that it is superior to ethylchlorid used alone moreover, the published reports and statistics donot necessarily apply to the somnoform now sold for the reason thatmixtures of varying composition have been sold as somnoform in thepast thus, when somnoform was considered by the council in 1909, itwas claimed to be composed of chloride of ethyl, 60 per cent. Chlorideof methyl, 35 per cent , and bromide of ethyl, 5 per cent federalchemists found, however, that it contained no bromide of ethyl noticeof judgment no 571 it is a question, therefore, whether a givenreport applies to a mixture containing 5 per cent bromide of ethyl, 1per cent of this substance, or none at all the present advertising booklet for somnoform does not presentacceptable evidence of the therapeutic value of the preparation an ignorance concerning the elementary facts of physiology andpharmacology is evident in the second sentence. When having stated that“somnoform is the result of several years of study and investigation bydr george rolland, dean of the bordeau dental school, ” the pamphletcontinues.

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Large ecchymosis college argumentative essay topics and infiltration of leftcheek. Extensive contusions on scrotum, with hemorrhagic infiltration, especially around right testicle veins of head engorged with blackfluid blood brain normal essay black fluid blood in right cavities ofheart, left side empty lungs black other organs normal causse andorfila concluded that the man had been suffocated and then hung thewife and son confessed that they had injured the testicle through thepantaloons. He then fainted. They then suffocated him with the woollencap placed over the mouth and nose. The son kneeled on the man belly, the body was then hung up and the head violently twisted 69 passauer. Viert f ger med und öff san , 1876, xxiv , pp 26-49 - woman found hanging in a kneeling position the ligature onthe neck was loose the necroscopy showed the following. Tongue betweenthe teeth. Eyelids swollen and livid. Livid spots on face and left ear;lower lip torn. A number of marks on neck. One red stripe not sharplylimited. Skin not parchmenty and no ecchymosis.