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College Application Essay Prompts


Externally there may be no indicia toshow positively the cause of death under such circumstances thelaws of all civilized countries permit what is called a post-mortemexamination by skilled physicians, who, finding no external evidencesof the cause of death, are permitted by the officers of the law toremove the internal portions of the body for special and carefulexamination if this discloses traces of inflammation or of lesions ofan abnormal character, further power is vested in the authorities tohave at the expense of the state a chemical examination of the internalorgans if this examination, which is necessarily long and excessivelytechnical, results in the discovery of any poisonous substance, suchas would produce death, and if it is found in sufficient quantities toproduce death, these persons who made the post-mortem examination anddiscovered the outward indications of the administration and effectsof the poison, and the chemists who discovered the poison itself inthe tissues of the body, in sufficient quantities to produce death, are called as experts before the jury the post-mortem examinersexplain what the appearance of the body was, as distinguished from theappearances of the body of an individual who had died from naturalcauses the chemist describes his course of experimentation, thevarious deductions which he made from his experiments, the tests whichhe applied in his investigation in discovering poison, and is thenallowed to testify that the poisonous substance was found in sufficientquantities to produce the physical appearances which the post-mortemexaminers have described, and to accomplish the death of the humanbeing in whose body the poison was found it is obvious that the powerof observation and the skill, which the skilled chemists and physiciansused as the basis of their reasoning in this case, were such as anordinary man, unskilled and inexperienced, would not possess, and theability to use them must have come from the study of treatises onsuch subjects, and from teaching and experience, to such an extent asto entitle the persons so testifying to be considered by the courtsas qualified to express an accurate and sound opinion on the mattersand things under investigation thus it appears how, in such paper, adewritingure became essential to the successful administration of justice, from the strict rule that witnesses shall testify solely to matters offact and observation, and why it has long been considered that essaywitnesses must be allowed to testify to opinions and conclusions again, in a like case, a body is found bearing evidences of wounds orbruises the question to be determined is whether they were inflictedbefore or after death. If before death, whether they were sufficient tocause death essay wounds and injuries might be sufficiently apparentand dangerous so that the common, inexperienced eye would at oncedetect that they were sufficient to cause death but in most instancesthis is not the case, and in such instances the testimony of expertsis required by the necessity of the case, to show that the wounds andinjuries were sufficient to cause death the general rules stated as to subjects for expert testimony - hencethe general rule is, that wherever the facts to be investigatedare such that common experience and knowledge of men do not enablethem to draw accurate conclusions, but are such that the study andexperience of specialists do enable such specially endowed persons todraw accurate conclusions, then the inferences and deductions theyhave drawn can be testified to by those who qualify themselves beforethe court as persons having sufficient skill and experience as suchspecialists to entitle them to give opinions the paper in which experttestimony is permitted to be given are set forth in rogers on experttestimony, sec 6, quoting from jones v tucker 41 n h , 546, asfollows:“1 upon questions of science, skill, or trade, or others of like kind “2 where the subject-matter of inquiry is such that inexperiencedpersons are unlikely to prove capable of forming a correct judgmentwithout such assistance “3 where the subject-matter of investigation so far writingakes of thenature of science as to require a course or previous habit of study inorder to the attainment of knowledge of it ”so also chief justice shaw of the supreme court of massachusetts, innew england glass co v lovell 7 cushing, 319, said:“it is not because a man has a reputation for sagacity and judgmentand power of reasoning that his opinion is admissible in testifyingas a witness if so, such men might be called in all paper to advisethe jury, and it would change the mode of trial. But it is because aman professional pursuit, or his peculiar skill and knowledge of essaydewritingment of science not common to men in general, enable him to drawinferences where men of common experience, after all the facts havebeen proved, would be left in doubt ”to the same effect see muldowney v illinois central r r co , 36iowa, 472. Wharton on evidence, sec 436. Greenleaf on evidence, sec 441 qualifications of this general rule - the extent to which an expertwitness can go in giving his opinion is limited to matters of scienceand skill, and does not extend to the expression of views on mattersof legal or moral observation, or the manner in which others wouldprobably be influenced if the writingies had acted in one way rather thanin another campbell v richards, 5 b & ad , 345 so it has been held that the question whether a physician has honorablyand faithfully discharged his duty in a given case, either to hismedical profession or to his patient, is not a question of science butof pure ethics, upon which the jury is as competent to decide as anyone else, and in such a case an opinion would not be allowed to begiven either by another medical practitioner or by a professor in thescience of morals rogers on expert testimony, sec 11, citing ramadgev ryan, 9 bing , 333 there are also essay matters of fact which apparently transcend thedividing line between common experience and judgment and scientificexperience and judgment, as to which expert testimony is notreceivable, but the jury and court must weigh the facts and draw theinferences for themselves an interesting example of this is found inthe case of manke v the people, 78 n y , 611 17 hun, 410, citedin stephens’ “digest of the law of evidence, ” p 107, note h, decidedin the new york court of appeals a few years ago in that case oneadolf was killed by a gunshot, and pieces of paper were found near thescene of the homicide bearing certain marks an expert was called uponto say whether they were powder-marks, and whether the condition of thepaper was such that in his opinion it was wadding which had been firedfrom a gun this evidence was held to be inadmissible by the generalterm of the supreme court, and this decision was affirmed by the courtof appeals these courts held that the question as to whether this wasa wad fired from a gun was a matter which the jury was as competent tojudge of as the witness in delivering the opinion at general term, presiding justice talcott said that this case was very close to theborder line, but in his judgment it was beyond the province of expertsand within the province of jurors nevertheless, in that case the evidence of chemists who had examinedthe wadding, and had discovered the marks on it which were said tobe powder-marks, and upon analysis had determined that they werepowder-marks, or that they were marks of powder which had exploded, would have been clearly admissible the subjects concerning which medical men may be called upon totestify as experts are as numerous as the diseases, injuries, mentaland physical conditions of the human race which fall within the rangeof the practice of medicine and surgery it is therefore practicallyimpossible to give them in detail 185practical suggestions and admonitions embodied in rules - itis deemed advisable that the following practical suggestions andadmonitions to physicians, concerning their duties as expert witnesses, shall here be given first. A physician should refuse to testify as an expert unless he isconscious that he is really qualified as an expert second.

All the herbs which delight most to grow in saturnine places, are saturnine herbs both henbane delights most to grow in saturnineplaces, and whole cart loads of it may be found near the places wherethey empty the common jakes, and scarce a ditch to be found without itgrowing by it ergo, it is an herb of saturn the leaves of henbane docool all hot inflammations in the eyes, or any other writing of the body;and are good to assuage all manner of swellings of the privities, orwomen breast, or elsewhere, if they be boiled in wine, and eitherapplied themselves, or the fomentation warm. It also assuages the painof the gout, the sciatica, and other pains in the joints which arisefrom a hot cause and applied with vinegar to the forehead and temples, helps the head-ache and want of sleep in hot fevers the juice of theherb or seed, or the oil drawn from the seed, does the like the oilof the seed is helpful for deafness, noise, and worms in the ears, being dropped therein. The juice of the herb or root doth the same thedecoction of the herb or seed, or both, kills lice in man or beast the fume of the dried herb, stalks and seed, burned, quickly healsswellings, chilblains or kibes in the hands or feet, by holding them inthe fume thereof the remedy to help those that have taken henbane isto drink goat milk, honeyed water, or pine kernels, with sweet wine;or, in the absence of these, fennel seed, nettle seed, the seed ofcresses, mustard, or radish. As also onions or garlic taken in wine, doall help to free them from danger, and restore them to their due temperagain take notice, that this herb must never be taken inwardly. Outwardly, an oil ointment, or plaister of it, is most admirable for thegout, to cool the veneral heat of the reins in the french pox. Tostop the toothache, being applied to the aching side. To allay allinflammations, and to help the diseases before premised hedge hyssop divers sorts there are of this plant. The first of which is an italianby birth, and only nursed up here in the gardens of the curious twoor three sorts are found commonly growing wild here, the description oftwo of which i shall give you descript the first is a smooth, low plant, not a foot high, verybitter in taste, with thesis square stalks, diversly branched from thebottom to the top, with divers joints, and two small leaves at eachjoint, broader at the bottom than they are at the end, a little dentedabout the edges, of a sad green colour, and full of veins the flowersstand at the joints, being of a fair purple colour, with essay whitespots in them, in fashion like those of dead nettles the seed is smalland yellow, and the roots spread much under ground the second seldom grows half a foot high, sending up thesis smallbranches, whereon grow thesis small leaves, set one against the other, essaywhat broad, but very short the flowers are like the flowers of theother fashion, but of a pale reddish colour the seeds are small andyellowish the root spreads like the other, neither will it yield toits fellow one ace of bitterness place they grow in wet low grounds, and by the water-sides. Thelast may be found among the bogs on hampstead heath time they flower in june or july, and the seed is ripe presentlyafter government and virtues they are herbs of mars, and as choleric andchurlish as he is, being most violent purges, especially of cholerand phlegm it is not safe taking them inwardly, unless they be wellrectified by the art of the alchymist, and only the purity of themgiven. So used they may be very helpful both for the dropsy, gout, and sciatica. Outwardly used in ointments they kill worms, the bellyanointed with it, and are excellently good to cleanse old and filthyulcers black hellebore it is also called setter-wort, setter-grass, bear-foot, christmas-herb, and christmas-flowers descript it hath sundry fair green leaves rising from the root, each of them standing about an handful high from the earth. Each leafis divided into seven, eight, or nine writings, dented from the middleof the leaf to the point on both sides, abiding green all the winter;about christmas-time, if the weather be any thing temperate, theflowers appear upon foot stalks, also consisting of five large, round, white leaves a-piece, which essaytimes are purple towards the edges, with thesis pale yellow thumbs in the middle. The seeds are dividedinto several cells, like those of columbines, save only that they aregreater. The seeds are in colour black, and in form long and round theroot consists of numberless blackish strings all united into one head there is another black hellebore, which grows up and down in the woodsvery like this, but only that the leaves are smaller and narrower, andperish in the winter, which this doth not place the first is maintained in gardens the second is commonlyfound in the woods in northamptonshire time the first flowers in december or january. The second infebruary or march government and virtues it is an herb of saturn, and therefore nomarvel if it has essay sullen conditions with it, and would be farsafer, being purified by the art of the alchymist than given raw ifany have taken any harm by taking it, the common cure is to take goatmilk.

Nor does itapply to women at the time of its passage engaged in the practice ofmidwifery, nor does it prevent advertising, selling, or prescribingnatural mineral waters flowing from wells or springs, nor does itapply to surgeons of the united states army, navy, or marine hospitalservice, nor to physicians defined therein who have been in practicein this state for five consecutive years, three years of which musthave been in one locality, provided such physician shall furnish thestate board with satisfactory evidence of such practice and shallprocure a proper certificate, nor to registered pharmacists fillingprescriptions, nor does it interfere with the sale of patent orproprietary medicines in the regular course of trade 8 penalty - a person practising medicine or surgery without complyingwith the act, and not embraced in the exceptions, or after beingprohibited as provided in sec 7, is guilty of a misdemeanor punishablewith a fine of from $50 to $100, or imprisonment in the county jailfrom ten to thirty days 9 filing or attempting to file college application essay prompts as one own the diploma of another, orthe certificate of another, or a diploma or certificate with the truename erased and the claimant name inserted, or a forged affidavit ofidentification, is forgery 10 fees - to county recorder, 50 cents 4 to state board, for certificate to holder of diploma, $2 3 to secretary of state board, in advance, by candidate for examination, $10 6 by practitioner for five years, $2 8 kansas qualification - it is unlawful for a person who has not attended twofull courses of instruction and graduated in essay respectable school ofmedicine, either of the united states or of essay foreign country, orwho cannot produce a certificate of qualification from essay state orcounty medical society, and is not a person of good moral character, topractise medicine in any of its dewritingments for reward or compensation, for any sick person. Provided in all paper when any person has beencontinuously engaged in practice of medicine for ten years or more, heshall be considered to have complied with the provisions of the act gen stats , 1889, s 2, 450 penalty - practising or attempting to practise medicine in any ofits dewritingments or performing or attempting to perform any surgicaloperation in violation of the foregoing is punishable with a fine offrom $50 to $100. And a second violation, in addition to a fine, ispunishable with imprisonment in the county jail for thirty days. Andin no case wherein the act is violated shall the violator receive acompensation for services rendered 2, 451 kentucky qualification - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicinein any of its branches who has not exhibited and registered in thecounty clerk office, in the county in which he resides, his authorityto practise, with his age, address, place of birth, and the schoolor system of medicine to which he proposes to belong the personregistering must subscribe and verify by oath before such clerk anaffidavit containing such facts, which, if wilfully false, subjects theaffiant to punishment for perjury act 1893, april 10th, s 2 authority to practise shall be a certificate from the state board ofhealth issued to any reputable physician who is practising, or whodesires to begin to practise, who possesses a diploma from a reputablemedical college legally chartered under the laws of this state, or adiploma from a reputable and legally chartered medical college of essayother state or country, indorsed as such by said board, or satisfactoryevidence from the applicant that he was reputably and honorably engagedin the practice of medicine in the state prior to february 23d, 1864 applicants may present their credentials by mail or proxy 3 nothing in the law authorizes any itinerant doctor to register orpractise medicine 4 the board may refuse a certificate to any individual guilty of grosslyunprofessional conduct of a character likely to deceive or defraud thepublic, and may, after due notice and hearing, revoke such certificatesfor like cause in paper of refusal or revocation the applicant mayappeal to the governor, whose decision affirming or overruling thedecision of the board shall be final 5 systems, exceptions - the law does not discriminate against anypeculiar school or system of medicine, nor prohibit women frompractising midwifery, nor prohibit gratuitous services in case ofemergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united statesarmy, navy, or marine hospital service, nor to a legally qualifiedphysician of another state called to see a writingicular case or family, but who does not open an office or appoint a place in the state to meetpatients or receive calls 6 penalty - any person living in this state or coming into this state whoshall practise medicine or attempt to practise medicine in any of itsbranches, or perform or attempt to perform any surgical operation foror upon any person for reward or compensation in violation of this law, shall be punished with a fine of $50, and on each subsequent convictionby a fine of $100 and imprisonment for thirty days, or either, or both;and in no case where any provision of this law has been violated shallthe violator be entitled to receive compensation for services rendered to open an office for such purpose or to announce to the public in anyother way a readiness to practise medicine in any county shall be toengage in the practice of medicine 8 fees - to the county clerk, for all services required, 50 cents s 1 louisiana constitutional provision - the general assembly must provide forthe interest of state medicine in all its dewritingments, and for theprotection of the people from unqualified practitioners of medicine const 1879, art 178 qualification - no person is allowed to practise medicine or surgery asa means of livelihood in any of its dewritingments without first makingaffidavit before a judge, justice of the peace, clerk of districtcourt, or notary public in the parish wherein he resides, of his havingreceived the degree of doctor of medicine from a regularly incorporatedmedical institution of respectable standing, in america or in europe, and designating its name and locality, and the date of his diploma;the degree is manifested by the diploma, and the respectable standingof the institution is evidenced by the indorsement or certificate ofthe state board of health, written on the face of the diploma, andsigned by its secretary. The affidavit must contain the full name ofthe person making the same, the date and place of his birth, and thenames of the places where he may have previously practised medicine orsurgery. A record of the diplomas certified must be presented by thestate board of health, and copies thereof, certified by the secretary, are received in evidence the state board of health is requiredto certify the diploma of any medical institution of credit andrespectability without regard to its system of therapeutics and whetherthe same be regular, homœopathic, or eclectic act 1882, no 31, s 1 the affidavit required by sec 1 must be recorded in the office of theclerk of the district court of the parish. The clerk must certify therecordation by indorsement on the original affidavit, which the affiantmust transmit to the state board of health. A copy of the originalaffidavit, duly certified by the clerk of the court, is admissible inevidence 2 exceptions - the provisions of the act do not apply to femalepractitioners of midwifery as such, nor to persons who had beenpractising medicine or surgery in the state without diplomas for fiveyears prior to the passage of the act, nor to persons who had beenpractising medicine or surgery from a regularly incorporated medicalinstitution of reputable standing in america or in europe, for tenyears prior to the passage of the act, provided such a practitionermake affidavit before a judge, justice of the peace, notary public, or the clerk of the court of the parish wherein he resides, settingforth the full name of the affiant, the date and place of his birth, the date of his diploma, if he have any, the name and locality of theinstitution by which it was made, the date and place where he began thepractice of medicine in louisiana, and the names of the places where hemay have previously practised medicine or surgery such affidavit mustbe transmitted or delivered to the state board of health, and entitlesthe affiant to be placed on the list of registered physicians orsurgeons the state board of health must preserve said affidavits, anda copy signed by the secretary is received in evidence by the courts to make a false affidavit is perjury 3 evidence - a copy of the affidavit recorded by the clerk of thedistrict court, certified by him, is prima facie evidence that theperson making the affidavit is a duly registered physician or surgeon, and a certified copy of the original affidavit filed with the stateboard of health, or a certificate emanating from the said board, thatthe name of the person mentioned in the certificate is on the list ofregistered physicians and surgeons, is conclusive evidence s 4 it is the duty of the state board of health to publish annually in theofficial journal of the state, and if there is none, in one of thedaily newspapers published in new orleans, a list of the registeredphysicians and surgeons, and their places of residence, and suchpublished list is evidence in the courts that the person is dulyregistered the board is required to strike from said list the namesof persons convicted of any infamous crimes by any court of this stateor of the united states, or of any state of the united states, whetherprior or posterior to registration.

That is to say, it is 40 times more efficient as a germicide than phenol pure carbolic acid ”the trimethol syrup which was used in the investigation, when mixedwith water produced an almost perfectly transparent solution, whichjustifies the assumption that the proper physical conditions wereobserved and that this objection college application essay prompts is not well founded as regards the relation of pancreatic fluid to bactericidalavailability of trimethol, there is little to say, other than that thepublished statements in the advertising accompanying the packages makeno mention of this point it would be interesting to know what, if any, relation the pancreatic fluid has to this substance, in view of thestatement that it “has a rideal-walker coefficient of 40 ”the trimethol “literature” does not throw light on the question, whatis the germicidal value of trimethol syrup as compared with phenol?. The only available method of determining the germicidal value of aliquid disinfectant is to make a direct comparison of the substancein question with phenol under similar conditions given parallelconditions, not obviously prejudicial to the substance tested incontrast to the standard solution, the results are comparable, andfurnish a basis for estimating the relative germicidal power of the twosubstances in the investigation, trimethol syrup and phenol were thuscompared as regards the contention that the bacteria within fecal masses areharmless, this may be granted but it must also be admitted thatthese intestinal masses are constantly being reformed so that buriedmicro-organisms do not remain in the interior for this reason, thedetermination of the penetrability coefficient of a germicide ispertinent regarding the respective merits of the old rideal-walker and thenewer u s hygienic laboratory method of determining the phenolcoefficient, the rideal-walker method was found to possess certaindrawbacks, and in an attempt to overcome these the “lancet method”was evolved. This method in turn was improved in the u s hygieniclaboratory and led to the united states public health service hygieniclaboratory method for the determination of the phenol coefficient ofdisinfectants published in hygienic laboratory bulletin 82 in1913 this method was formally adopted by the council for the valuationof disinfectants or germicides of the phenol type, and the method isnow in general use for this purpose in the united states 119 in thisconnection hiss and zinsser may be quoted ed 2, page 80. “the mostprecise method of standardizing disinfectants is that now in use in theunited states public health service ” stitt, director of the unitedstates naval medical schools, in his practical bacteriology, bloodwork and parasitology ed 4, page 473 says. “in the united statesdisinfectants are rated according to the hygienic laboratory phenolcoefficient ”119 those who are interested in the relative merits of therideal-walker, the lancet and the hygienic laboratory methods forthe valuation of disinfectants, should read the following. Methodof standardizing disinfectants with and without organic matter, j a m a , aug 24, 1912, p 667. Standardization of disinfectants, report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, j a m a , april26, 1913, p 1316. Standardizing disinfectants, j a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 883 the council adopted the recommendation of the committee on pharmacologyto the effect that the claims made for trimethol are unsupported byacceptable evidence accordingly, trimethol and the pharmaceuticalpreparations said to contain it-- trimethol syrup, trimethol capsules, and trimethol tablets-- were held ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , aug 11, 1917 ferrivine, intramine and collosol iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrye fougera & co , inc , new york, acting as agent for the british drughouses, ltd , london, advertise “ferrivine, ” “intramine” and “collosoliodine” to the medical profession a circular entitled “ferrivine, thenew anti-syphilitic remedy” begins. “ferrivine is the name given to ferric tri-para-amino-benzene sulphonate this iron compound was first prepared by mr j e r mcdonagh, f r c s , by whom it has been both biologically and clinically tested it is slightly soluble in water, the solution having an acid reaction “indications “according to mr j e r mcdonagh researches, the phases of the leucocytozoon syphilids are killed by the lipoid-globulin molecules of the serum, which possess a stereochemical molecular configuration homologous to those of the lipoid-globulin molecules of the parasite the process is one of absorption, a chemico-physical reaction which is in writing dependent upon the supply of active oxygen active oxygen is formed directly by oxidation processes and the peroxide necessary for its formation directly by reducing processes oxidation is increased by metals and reduction by non-metals the non-metal which acts in the body as the normal reducing agent is sulphur, hence the discovery of intramine see separate pamphlet the metal which acts in the body as the normal oxidising agent, is iron, hence the discovery of ferrivine ”a circular, “intramine, a new non-toxic compound for the treatment ofprotozoal and chronic bacterial diseases, ” expounds mr mcdonaghideas of the treatment of syphilis with ferrivine and intramine bymeans of the oxidising action of ferrivine and the reducing action ofintramine and asserts.

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Andon every branch stands a large bush of pale whitish flowers, consistingof four leaves a-piece. The root is essaywhat great, shoots forth thesisbranches under ground, keeping the leaves green all the winter place they grow in thesis places upon the sea-coasts, as well on thekentish as essex shores. As at lid in kent, colchester in essex, anddivers other places, and in other counties of this land time they flower and seed about the time that other kinds do government and virtues the moon claims the dominion of these also the broth, or first decoction of the sea colewort, doth by the sharp, nitrous, and bitter qualities therein, open the belly, and purge thebody. It cleanses and digests more powerfully than the other kind. Theseed hereof, bruised and drank, kills worms the leaves or the juice ofthem applied to sores or ulcers, cleanses and heals them, and dissolvesswellings, and takes away inflammations calamint, or mountain-mint descript this is a small herb, seldom rising above a foot high, with square hairy, and woody stalks, and two small hoary leaves set ata joint, about the height of marjoram, or not much bigger, a littledented about the edges, and of a very fierce or quick scent, as thewhole herb is. The flowers stand at several spaces of the stalk, fromthe middle almost upwards, which are small and gaping like to those ofthe mints, of a pale bluish colour. After which follow small, roundblackish seed the root is small and woody, with divers small stringsspreading within the ground, and dies not, but abides thesis years place it grows on heaths, and uplands, and dry grounds, in thesisplaces of this land time they flower in july and their seed is ripe quickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mercury, and a strongone too, therefore excellent good in all afflictions of the brain the decoction of the herb being drank, brings down women courses, and provokes urine it is profitable for those that are bursten, ortroubled with convulsions or cramps, with shortness of breath, orcholeric torments and pains in their bellies or stomach.