History

College App Essay Prompts


3 there were marks ofblood on the prisoner hands and clothing after a long trial he wasconvicted, though the sentence was afterward commuted to imprisonmentfor life of course, as we have already stated, if a person isresponsible for a fall he is also responsible for the results of thefall this applies to thesis of the contused injuries and deaths fromfalls in prize-fights and drunken brawls we may sum up the points of evidence which help us to distinguishbetween an accidental and a homicidal injury much as we did when thequestion lay between accident and suicide 1 the evidence from thenature of the wound is not quite so conclusive as when the questionlies between suicide and accident for contusions and contused woundsare far college app essay prompts more often homicidal than suicidal, and accidental woundsare almost always of this class if, however, the wounds are incisedor punctured, this fact points almost certainly to homicide 2 asto situation, a homicidal wound may be situated almost anywhere. Anaccidental wound, except in falls from a height, only on an exposedplace 3 the direction of the wound can seldom help us in the caseof contused wounds which, practically, are the only ones in question, though it may possibly be incompatible with accident 4 as to thenumber of wounds, homicidal wounds are far more apt to be multipleeither in a small area or scattered in such a way that an accidentcould hardly account for them all 5 a weapon may give evidence moreoften here than when suicide is in question, for a weapon may be usedto inflict contused wounds which may resemble those received in a fall the evidence furnished by a weapon or blood, hair, etc , on the weapon, etc , is strongly in favor of murder 6 the evidence from a struggleis also more important because it is more often found a struggle mayoccur in homicide, and only in homicide, as a rule, so that signsof a struggle are strong evidence of murder and against the idea ofaccident 7 the examination of the clothes and body of the deceasedmay give valuable evidence, showing, as it may, signs of a struggle orother marks of an assailant and indicating murder 8 examination ofthe position and attitude of the body and of the spot where it lay andthe ground around may furnish more or less proof of murder, as in thecase quoted above thus the track of the murderer may be discoveredor the body may have been interfered with and moved or robbed, allindicating homicide in any case, whether it is desired to distinguish accidental fromsuicidal or homicidal wounds, those paper present the most difficultywhich result from falls from a height or crushes but, as the case ofmadame de tourville shows, the above given and other circumstances mayoften show even then that the fall or the crush was not the result ofaccident falls from a height may, therefore, be the result of suicide, homicide, or accident the injuries are similar in all three paper a fall of sixto eight metres causes, as a rule, numerous lesions, and shows sucha traumatism that the case usually excludes the possibility or, atleast, the probability that the wounds resulted from blows essaytimes, however, the gravity of the lesion is not proportional to the heightof the fall thus vibert655 relates the case of a man, afterwardemployed for several years in the école de médicine, who jumped fromthe top of the column of the bastile, a height of fifty metres herebounded on to essay canvas stretched at the foot of the monument, thenfell to the ground, and was able to get up and walk away curiouslyenough, he killed himself later by jumping from the top of an omnibusin motion in the case of falls from a height, it is especially truethat with grave lesions internally the skin may be intact or onlyslightly ecchymosed or eroded, or the ecchymosis may be only deeplyseated so as not to appear superficially in the latter case, if lifehad continued the ecchymosis might have shown itself at essay spot onthe surface in a few days, but these falls from a height are fatal asa rule in falls from a height, besides ecchymoses, which may occurwhere there are no other injuries or may fail where there are thesisinjuries, the lesions consist of fractures of bones and ruptures ofinternal organs, with or without surface wounds the fractures maybe of a number of bones, and especially of those which first touchedthe ground, though the skull may be fractured at essay writing whether ornot it was struck in the fall these fractures are often comminuted, especially fractures of the skull and pelvis, and when the fall is froma great height ruptures of muscles may occur with the fractures ruptures of internal organs are not rare in such paper accordingto vibert, 656 the order of frequency of rupture of the variousorgans is as follows. Liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, stomach, intestines, bladder, brain rupture of the liver occurs especially onthe anterior and inferior surfaces and the bleeding is rather abundant the healthy spleen does not rupture readily, except from a severetraumatism, but if it is hypertrophied it may rupture spontaneouslyfrom muscular violence the lung may be ruptured internally withoutshowing the rupture on the surface and with the ribs intact two suchpaper are mentioned by vibert, 657 and he refers to others mentionedby nelaton and holmes rupture of the brain without fracture of theskull is very rare, though paper have been observed and reported, among others by casper-liman in falls from a height the rupture ofthe aorta, mesentery, diaphragm, and larynx have been noted it shouldbe remembered in this connection that rupture of the liver, intestine, bladder, etc , may be caused by contusions without sign of violenceexternally, and such paper cannot, therefore, be attributed to fallsunless there are other signs of the latter in crushes caused by a heavy vehicle, the lesions resemble in thesisrespects those due to a fall from a height thus we find fractures andinternal ruptures, but we more often and regularly find subcutaneousecchymoses and ecchymoses between the muscles the skin is oftenstripped up extensively and the injuries are generally limited to theregion injured it is rare to find that the cause of the injury leavesno trace on the skin, for it usually gives the form to the erosionsor ecchymoses essaytimes, for instance, the marks of a horseshoe areclearly visible ruptures of internal organs may occur here too whenthere are slight external marks of violence or even none at all thusvibert658 relates the case of a man with the head crushed, but withno signs of injury to the trunk save a few erosions at the level ofthe sternum, who had not only rupture of the kidneys, the liver, andthe spleen, but also of the lungs and of the heart in the heart theapex was completely detached and floating in the pericardium, whichwas intact there was no fracture of the ribs nor subcutaneous orsub-muscular ecchymoses the age of the subject was thirty-two, sothat the costal cartilages were not probably ossified, which may haveaccounted for the absence of fracture of the ribs crushes by the fall of heavy weights resemble the latter class ofcrushes, and differ from falls from a height in the fact that thewounds are usually limited to one region the lesions themselves aremore or less similar similar internal lesions may be caused by thecompression of the chest and body by the knee of a murderer, which mayoccasion rupture of the internal organs, fractures of ribs, etc thus, too, from the pressure of a crowd the ribs may be fractured and thelungs injured it is writingicularly in these paper of injury from crushesor falls from a height that we may have most difficulty, as far as themedical evidence goes, of distinguishing between accident, suicide, and murder but the various points and considerations mentioned abovewill essaytimes enable the medical witness to clear up the case inessay paper the non-medical evidence, circumstantial and otherwise, maybe sufficient of itself, or at least in conjunction with the medicalevidence in falls from a less high place the difficulty is essaywhat different, for here there may arise the question between a fall and a contusion orcontused wound, and the question generally lies between accident andmurder, or, very rarely, between accident and suicide we have referredto both of these questions above, and from the facts mentioned the casecan often be solved of more than one injury which was the first inflicted?. We can essaytimes tell the order in which wounds were received, butthe question is rarely answerable with certainty if one wound ismortal and one or more are not, whether the wounds are suicidal orhomicidal, it has essaytimes been considered that the former must havebeen inflicted last but we cannot admit that as a general rule themost grave wound was the last inflicted for the murderer or suicide, especially the former, may go on wounding after the infliction of amortal wound, especially as it is the exception, and not the rule, to die instantly after a mortal wound several assailants may haveinflicted wounds at the same time, which would still further increasethe difficulty the question might then arise, which assailant hadinflicted the mortal wound or which had first inflicted a mortal wound?. Under such circumstances, it would not be easy to give a specificanswer there are several signs which may indicate which wound wasfirst inflicted in certain paper an instrument may become duller oreven bent or twisted after and on account of the first wound, and thesubsequent wounds would vary accordingly the wound of the clothescorresponding to the first stab-wound may be and often is only bloodyinternally, while the second and following wounds are bloody on bothsides the following case quoted by taylor659 from the annalesd’hygiene, 1847, p 461, illustrates this point a man received threestabs from an assailant, one in the back at the level of the eighthrib, traversing the lung and heart and causing rapid death, and two onthe left elbow, cutting the coat and shirt but only grazing the skin the first one was evidently the first inflicted, for both the wounds inthe clothing on the arm were bloody externally at the edges, althoughthere was no blood effused here the correctness of this opinion wasconfirmed at the trial the point of a knife arrested and broken off in a bone may show thatthis was the last wound the amount of bleeding may show which was thefirst wound thus if several severe wounds have been inflicted, allor several of which would naturally cause profuse hemorrhage, and oneshowed signs of such hemorrhage while another did not, the former wouldbe likely to be the first wound inflicted or if one showed slighthemorrhage where much would be expected, this fact would indicate thatit was one of the last inflicted the absence of the signs of spurtingblood may tell which of two or more fatal wounds were first inflicted, for this would indicate that this wound was inflicted when the heartaction was weakened by loss of blood or even after death, and theother wound or wounds which did not present this sign would have beenthe first received in fact, if any of the signs are present about awound which we have seen to indicate that a wound was inflicted at anytime after death, this would show that this wound was not the firstreceived, and that the other or others were inflicted earlier questions as to the consequences of wounds not fatal may often bebrought up in civil actions for damages in certain countries thequestion of the consequences as to incapacity may determine whetheran injury shall be the ground of a criminal as well as of a civilaction thus in france an injury which involves an incapacity of twentydays or more subjects the assailant to a criminal action the term“incapacity” in this instance refers to general incapacity and notto incapacity for fine and professional work the latter, however, comes in under the civil action which may be instituted against theassailant or those directly or indirectly responsible for the injury the amount of the incapacity, its causes, whether due wholly or writinglyor not at all to the given injury, the probable duration of theincapacity, the treatment which it has and will necessitate, and thesisother such questions form writing of the medical testimony required insuch paper essaytimes with slight wounds the results, accompaniments, and complications may prolong the incapacity very greatly, as also thestate of health and the habits of the wounded person, the neglect oftreatment, improper treatment, etc any bodily or mental infirmity or ill-health which may result from aninjury and its necessary treatment in the past and future, all thesequestions and thesis more unnecessary to mention may be required of themedical witness no general rules can be laid down for all such paper in giving his testimony the medical man must depend in any writingicularcase upon his knowledge, judgment, and experience we can seldom give a precise solution of the question of survivalto determine the succession or inheritance if several of a family dietogether in an accident in case of death from inanition, cold or heat, or in drowning especially, if essay have wounds more or less grave inthemselves, we can essaytimes form an opinion with wounds we cannotoften do so, although in case of murder, the nature of the wounds, theposition of the bodies, the examination of the spot of the accident ortragedy, may essaytimes help us to form an opinion incised and punctured wounds and wounds of blunt instruments regionallyconsidered the several varieties of wounds which we have been considering varyconsiderably in their nature, their effects, their danger, and inthesis other ways according to the region of the body in which they aresituated essay of these varieties are common in one situation andalmost never occur in others although the nature of wounds found inthe several regions of the body is not as important for a medicaljurist as their danger and their influence in causing death, we willnow consider the differences they exhibit on account of the region inwhich they occur wounds of the head these are often characterized by their apparent harmlessness andtheir real gravity sooner or later we might almost make the oppositestatement and say that those apparently grave are often virtuallyharmless, though this would be true only in a limited sense and incertain paper as to their nature, we find punctured wounds extremely rarely, incised and lacerated wounds often, while contusions and contusedwounds are still more common incised and lacerated wounds of thehead involve the scalp almost exclusively these wounds heal remarkablywell, even when the attachment is merely by a narrow pedicle, owingto the abundant blood-supply hemorrhage from the incised wounds isoften free, for the vessels cannot retract, but it is seldom dangerousunless the wounds are very extensive the only way in which they differmaterially from similar wounds elsewhere is in the greater frequencyof complicating erysipelas here than elsewhere this is probablyowing to the presence of septic conditions, as the head is generallydirtier than other writings of the body, and slight wounds especiallyare neglected if the scalp is shaved over a wide margin and cleanedlike other writings of the body, erysipelas is found little or nooftener than with similar wounds elsewhere the density of the scalpis so great that the redness and swelling accompanying inflammationsis comparatively slight if erysipelas follows slight wounds of thehead, there is essay reason to suspect constitutional predisposition orcareless treatment from infection of such wounds of the scalp abscessor diffuse cellulitis of the scalp may develop as well as erysipelas the constitutional symptoms in such a case may be marked or evensevere, but the prognosis is favorable in very rare paper necrosis ofthe skull may result or the inflammation may even extend to the brain these incised and lacerated wounds of the scalp are usually accidentalor inflicted by another. They are rarely self-inflicted contusionsand contused wounds are the most common forms of injury to the head these two kinds of injuries are almost invariably inflicted by anotheror are accidental we have already seen that contused wounds of thescalp or over the eyebrow may closely resemble incised wounds in theselocalities this fact should be borne in mind, as careful examinationcan usually distinguish them if they are fresh and until they begin togranulate these wounds are liable to the same complications as incisedwounds, in fact more liable, as the contusion makes the wound moresusceptible to inflammation and the edges are more apt to be infectedat the time of the injury one of the results of contusions of the head is the extravasation ofblood, most often between the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalismuscle and the pericranium these extravasations are usually in theform of a hematoma such hematomata often present a hard circular oroval rim with a softer centre, and may readily be mistaken for fractureof the skull with depression the diagnosis between hematoma anddepressed fracture is not usually difficult, however, for with hematomathe ridge is elevated above the level of the skull and is movable onthe surface of the skull. Also the wounded edges often pit on pressure with depressed fracture, on the other hand, the edge is at or about thelevel of the rest of the skull. It is sharper, more irregular, and lessevenly circular contusions and the resulting hematoma may occasionallyend by suppurating, but this event is rare contusions and contusedwounds may occasionally show the marks of a weapon, indicating thatthey were inflicted by another also the position of the injury willindicate its origin, whether it is accidental or inflicted by another, for the former would not naturally occur on the vertex unless the fallwas from a considerable height another result of injuries to the head, especially of contusions andcontused wounds, is fracture of the skull this may be simple orcompound, depressed or not, etc fractures are serious inasmuch asthey imply a degree of violence which may do damage to the brain the fracture itself, especially if properly treated, affords a goodprognosis, irrespective of any brain lesion one variety of fracture ofthe skull offers an exception to this favorable prognosis, and that isfractures of the base of the skull these may be fatal directly frominjury of the vital centres at the base of the brain or soon fatal fromhemorrhage in these writings or the fatal result may be secondary to aninflammation or meningitis which good treatment is often unable toprevent it should not be considered that these fractures are uniformlyfatal, for quite a considerable proportion recover fracture of thebase usually occurs as the result of a fall the injured person mayland on the feet or buttocks, and yet receive a fracture of the base ofthe skull, the force of the fall being transmitted through the spine tothe base of the skull fracture of the base of the skull usually occursfrom an injury to the vault, not by contre coup, but by extensionof a fissure found higher up in the skull this extension takes placein the same meridian line of the skull with that of the force whichproduced the fracture, and in this way the base of the skull isfractured in different writings according to the point and direction ofthe application of the force thus in case the force compresses theskull antero-posteriorly the fracture will pass antero-posteriorlytoward the base from the front or the back, whichever received the blow see fig 13 fractures of the vault of the skull occasionally occuropposite to the point struck. This may occur by contre coup, but notalways so, as not infrequently in such rare paper a close examinationmay reveal an extension of a fissure from the point injured to theopposite pole of the skull the shape and rarely the size of a fractureof the skull, especially if punctured in character, may show the shapeand more rarely the size of the instrument or object which producedit awriting from fracture of the base, the prognosis in fracture of theskull is serious, mainly on account of the danger of inflammation, which is greater in compound fractures, and also on account of the moreremote danger of irritation from depressed fragments causing epilepsy, insanity, etc , at a later period illustration.

Wharton on evidence, sec 446. Rogers on expert testimony, secs 17 and 18. Slocovich v orientmutual ins co , 108 n y , 56 as to the question whether it is necessary that the witness shouldactually have practised his profession, see the last-cited text-writer, secs 43 and 44, who seems to have entertained views opposite to thosestated by professor greenleaf wharton on evidence, sec 439, states the rule as follows. “he musthave special, practical acquaintance with the immediate line of inquirymore than a mere vague, superficial knowledge but he need not beacquainted with the differentia of the specific specialty underconsideration a general knowledge of the dewritingment to which thespecialty belongs would seem to be sufficient ”interested persons may still testify as experts - since the lawforbidding interested persons from being witnesses has been changed, it has been suggested that an interested person although otherwisequalified might not be a competent witness to give an opinion as anexpert but the established doctrine is that he may give such anopinion. The weight of it, however, would be for the jury to determine greenleaf on evidence, redfield edition, sec 440, citing lockwoodv lockwood, 2 curtis, 309. Dillon v dillon, 3 curtis, 96, 102 see also dickinson v fitchburg, 13 gray, 546 testimony of expert, how impeached - essaytimes, on cross-examinationor otherwise, the fact becomes known that the witness who is proposedas an expert has expressed an opinion on the subject in hand contraryto that which he has given upon the witness-stand, and the question hasbeen raised as to establishing that fact at the outset and before histestimony goes before the jury, in order to enable the trial judge todetermine whether he is competent the rule in that case is that thetestimony as to his prior expression of opinion is not to be receivedat that time, but will come properly up as rebuttal, he having beenasked upon his cross-examination, giving time and place, whether hehas made the statements attributed to him an expert witness may inother respects be impeached like any other witness, that is, by theoaths of persons who know him and have known his reputation, and whotestify that his reputation for truth and veracity is bad and that theywould not believe him under oath he may also be impeached by producingwitnesses to prove that his special knowledge or technical skill isnot reliable or adequate to the undertaking which he has assumed butthis testimony must be from personal knowledge of the man and notfrom general reputation wharton on evidence, sec 437.

And that the reason such as have it ascending in their genesis, are such greedy eaters if you cannot stay till the moon be in oneof them, let one of them ascend when you administer the medicine the digestive virtue is hot and moist, and is the principal of themall, the other like handmaids attend it the attractive virtue draws that which it should digest, and servescontinually to feed and supply it the retentive virtue, retains the substance with it, till it beperfectly digested the expulsive virtue casteth out, expels what is superfluous bydigestion it is under the influence of jupiter, and fortified by hisherbs and plants, &c in fortifying it, let your moon be in gemini, aquary, or the first half of libra, or if matters be come to thatextremity, that you cannot stay till that time, let one of them ascend, but both of them together would do better, always provided that themoon be not in the ascendent i cannot believe the moon afflictsthe ascendent so much as they talk of, if she be well dignified, and ina sign she delights in the retentive virtue is in quality cold and dry. Cold, because thenature of cold is to compress, witness the ice. Dry, because the natureof dryness, is to keep and hold what is compressed it is under theinfluence of saturn, and that is the reason why usually saturnine menare so covetous and tenacious in fortifying of it, make use of theherbs and plants, &c of saturn, and let the moon be in taurusor virgo, capricorn is not so good, say authors, i can give noreason for that neither. Let not saturn nor his ill aspect molestthe ascendent the expulsive faculty is cold and moist. Cold because that compassesthe superfluities. Moist, because that makes the body slippery andfit for ejection, and disposes it to it it is under the dominion ofluna, with whom you may join venus, because she is of the samenature also in whatsoever is before written, of the nature of the planets, take notice, that fixed stars of the same nature, work the same effect in fortifying this, which ought to be done in all purgations, letthe moon be in cancer, scorpio, or pisces, or let one of thesesigns ascend although i did what i could throughout the whole book to expressmyself in such a language as might be understood by all, and thereforeavoided terms of art as much as might be, yet, 1 essay words ofnecessity fall in which need explanation 2 it would be very tediousat the end of every receipt to repeat over and over again, the way ofadministration of the receipt, or ordering your bodies after it, or toinstruct you in the mixture of medicines, and indeed would do nothingelse but stuff the book full of tautology to answer to both these is my task at this time to the first. The words which need explaining, such as are obvious tomy eye, are these that follow 1 to distil in balneo mariæ, is the usual way of distillingin water it is no more than to place your glass body which holds thematter to be distilled in a convenient vessel of water, when the wateris cold for fear of breaking put a wisp of straw, or the like underit, to keep it from the bottom, then make the water boil, that so thespirit may be distilled forth. Take not the glass out till the water becold again, for fear of breaking. It is impossible for a man to learnhow to do it, unless he saw it done 2 manica hippocrates, hippocrates sleeve, is a piece of woolencloth, new and white, sewed together in form of a sugar-loaf its useis, to strain any syrup or decoction through, by pouring it into it, and suffering it to run through without pressing or crushing it 3 calcination, is a burning of a thing in a crucible or other suchconvenient vessel that will endure the fire a crucible is such a thingas goldsmiths melt silver in, and founders metals. You may place it inthe midst of the fire, with coals above, below, and on every side of it 4 filtrition, is straining of a liquid body through a brown paper:make up the paper in form of a funnel, the which having placed in afunnel, and the funnel and the paper in it in an empty glass, pour inthe liquor you would filter, and let it run through at its leisure 5 coagulation, is curdling or hardening. It is used in physic forreducing a liquid body to hardness by the heat of the fire 6 whereas you find vital, natural, and animal spirits oftenmentioned in the virtues or receipts, i shall explain what they be, andwhat their operation is in the body of man the actions or operations of the animal virtues, are, 1 sensitive, 2 motive the sensitive is, 1 external, 2 internal the external senses are, 1 seeing, 2 hearing, 3 tasting, 4 smelling, 5 feeling the internal senses are, 1 the imagination, to apprehend a thing 2 judgment, to judge of it 3 memory, to remember it the seat of all these is in the brain the vital spirits proceed from the heart, and cause in man mirth, joy, hope, trust, humanity, mildness, courage, &c andtheir opposite. Viz sadness, fear, care, sorrow, despair, envy, hatred, stubbornness, revenge, &c by heat natural ornot natural the natural spirit nourishes the body throughout as the vitalquickens it, and the animal gives it sense and motion its office is toalter or concoct food into chile, chile into blood, blood into flesh, to form, engender, nourish, and increase the body 7 infusion, is to steep a gross body into one more liquid 8 decoction, is the liquor in which any thing is boiled as for the manner of using or ordering the body after any sweating, or purging medicines, or pills, or the like, they will be found indifferent writings of the work, as also in the next page the different forms of making up medicines, as essay into syrups, others into electuaries, pills, troches, &c was writingly to pleasethe different palates of people, that so medicines might be moredelightful, or at least less burdenessay you may make the mixturesof them in what form you please, only for your better instruction atpresent, accept of these few lines 1 consider, that all diseases are cured by their contraries, but allwritings of the body maintained by their likes.

Bull soc chem , 17 1915, 401 “studies of the decomposition of aspirin determined by titrametricmethods and by conductivity measurements indicate that the reaction isexceedingly complex, ” t and h chem abs , 10, 591 discussionawriting from the proposed revision of the standards for the meltingpoint and limit of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid, theexamination shows that there is no appreciable difference between thevarious brands of acetylsalicylic acid examined, all of them with oneexception acetylsalicylic acid, millikin, 5-grain capsules, purchasedon the open market complying with the tests described in this paper the journal of the american medical association, in past years, hasprotested repeatedly against the monopoly given to the bayer companyfor their “aspirin, ” contending that acetylsalicylic acid aspirinwas not new, and that “aspirin, bayer” was simply a good brand ofacetylsalicylic acid which could be bought in foreign countries atmuch lower prices than here although the patent in the united stateshas expired, “aspirin, bayer” is still being retailed at higher pricesthan other products which are now enjoying the privilege of americanmanufacture mr paul bakewell, 211 in an opinion answering the warning circular ofthe bayer co in reference to the use of the word “aspirin” by firmsother than bayer, argues very ably that acetylsalicylic acid, beforethe patent was granted, meant the impure substance which was not usedtherapeutically, while “aspirin” was designated as the improved product a new article of manufacture, the writingicular acetylsalicylic acid madeunder the hoffman patent and “is the substance now known in pharmacyas aspirin” statement made by an officer of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld co in u s circuit court, 1909 the products reportedin this paper are with the one exception the same as described inthe hoffman patent, and, in the sense of mr bakewell argument, are“aspirin ” however, it would seem better if the name acetylsalicylicacid, instead of aspirin, were used, especially by physicians intheir prescriptions because 1 it is a generic, scientific name. 2“aspirin, bayer” is sold at higher prices than other products, whereaschemically equivalent products sold under the descriptive name may bepurchased at a lower price finally, the manufacture of acetylsalicylicacid in this country is another example of the fact that americanchemists can produce the drug synthetics, and at the same time makeproducts as good as, if not better than, those of german origin 211 “in the matter of aspirin answer to the warning circular of thebayer co of june 1, 1917, ” by mr paul bakewell, monsanto chemicalworks i express my appreciation to dr w a puckner for his kindinterest -- from the journal of industrial and engineering chemistry, april, 1918 the standardization of commercial bismuth tribromphenate william rabak, ph g , sc b this work was begun in view of a request received by the council onpharmacy and chemistry from the medical section of the council ofnational defense for a report on the quality of bismuth tribromphenate, offered to the government by a certain firm in submitting a specimen of its product, “bismuth tribromphenolate, ”the firm claimed that “it is of high character, matching exactly thegerman product formerly imported into this country, ” and expressed thebelief that it would be found to conform to the standards for thispreparation in new and nonofficial remedies later a second specimenwas received from the same company, with the request that this besubstituted for that first received it was explained that the firsthad been taken from an experimental lot, and that the second, takenfrom the regular factory output, was identical with the first exceptthat it was free from odor because of the more thorough washing towhich it had been subjected accordingly, the examination which isreported below refers to the second specimen only new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, defines bismuth tribromphenate asbasis bismuth tribromphenate having the formula bi c₆h₂br₃o₂oh bi₂o₃, and it is required to yield not less than 49 5 per cent of bismuthoxid the chemical formula requires 46 2 per cent bismuth, or 51 6per cent bismuth oxid, bi₂o₃, and 49 2 per cent tribromphenate, c₆h₂br₃ oh it describes it as a “fine, yellow, nearly odorless andtasteless powder, neutral in reaction, ” and “only slightly soluble inwater, alcohol, chloroform, liquid petrolatum and vegetable oils ” itis required to yield tribromphenol to which a melting point of 95 c is assigned when decomposed by alkali and the alkali tribromphenatedecomposed by acid, the separated tribromphenol purified and dried as the new and nonofficial remedies description appeared looselydrawn-- it had been based on information furnished for the productxeroform when this, because of patent protection, was the only bismuthtribromphenate on the market-- it was decided to include in theexamination also specimens of the two brands of bismuth tribromphenateincluded in new and nonofficial remedies, namely, bismuthtribromphenate-merck merck and company and xeroform-heyden theheyden chemical works the merck specimen had been received by thecouncil from merck and company in 1915, while the heyden preparationwas obtained direct from the firm chicago branch in april, 1918 atthis time bismuth tribromphenate-merck could not be obtained from thechicago wholesale houses all three specimens were nearly odorless two of the specimens theresearch council specimen and merck products were of a lemon-yellowcolor, while the heyden preparation was of a grayish color bismuth determinationfour methods for the determination of the bismuth content of thespecimens were tried. A direct ignition to bismuth oxid -- this method was abandonedbecause of the tendency to ignite suddenly during the incineration andthe consequent loss of material b the method of the japanese pharmacopeia, third revised edition, translated by the pharmaceutical society of japan -- the methodconsists in treatment of the product with nitric acid, evaporation andsubsequent heating to bismuth oxid this method also was abandonedbecause of tendency toward sudden ignition with loss of material c the method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 -- themethod consists in decomposition of the product by heating on waterbath with normal sodium hydroxid solution, with formation of solublesodium tribromphenate and insoluble bismuth hydroxid the bismuthhydroxid is collected on a filter, washed with hot water until a fewdrops of the filtrate no longer turn litmus paper blue, dried andheated to constant weight and weighed as bismuth oxid d a m a method reports a m a chem lab , 1911, p 18 -- this method consists in dissolving the product in hot, stronghydrochloric acid, diluting, filtering and precipitating by saturationwith hydrogen sulphid the bismuth sulphid obtained is dissolved innitric acid and from the solution obtained the bismuth is precipitatedby addition of an excess of ammonium hydroxid and ammonium carbonate the precipitate is collected and converted to bismuth oxid by heat the following tabulation shows the results obtained by methods “c” and“d”:table 1 -- bismuth content of bismuth tribromphenate gm of gm of per cent method salt bi₂o₃ of bi₂o₃ no 1 research council spec c 2 1312 1 1754 55 1 no 1 research council spec d 0 5151 0 2772 50 03 no 2 merck & company c 2 0287 1 2543 61 8 no 2 merck & company d 0 5064 0 2634 52 01 no 3 heyden chem works c 2 0472 1 6020 78 2 no 3 heyden chem works d 0 5227 0 3546 67 8it is seen from the tabulation that the results obtained by the kollomethod method c are higher than those by the sulphid method methodd and that duplicate determinations show a rather wide variation theresults by the sulphid method are essaywhat lower than those by thekollo method, but duplicates agree fairly well in view of the factthat the kollo method will give excessive results if impurities suchas talcum, etc , are present and in consideration of the satisfactoryresults obtained in previous work with the sulphid method, the figuresobtained by this method are taken as indicative of the bismuth contentof the specimens examined calculating the per cent of bismuth oxidobtained to bismuth bi, the following values are obtained. Bismuth tribromphenolate, research council specimen. Bismuth, 44 8 per cent bismuth tribromphenate-merck, merck & co. Bismuth, 46 6 per cent xeroform, heyden chemical works. Bismuth, 60 7 per cent total tribromphenolthe content of tribromphenate radical, c₆h₂br₃o-, was determined bythe method of kollo apotheker zeitung, 1910, p 99 it consists intitrating the filtrate of the bismuth oxid determination of kollo, described under “c” bismuth determinations, with normal hydrochloricacid, using phenolphthalein as an indicator the cubic centimetersof normal alkali consumed multiplied by the theoretical factor 0 331gives the weight of tribromphenol combined and free contained in thespecimen the following results were obtained:table 2 -- determination of total tribromphenol in bismuth tribromphenate gm tribromphenol gm of calculated from per cent salt theoretical of total taken factor tribromphenol no 1 research council spec 1 7817 1 0592 59 44 no 2 merck & co 0 9743 0 5627 57 75 no 3 heyden chem works 2 0440 0 4303 21 04 uncombined tribromphenolthe definite chemical formula given in new and nonofficial remediesfor bismuth tribromphenate and the statement that it is “only slightlysoluble in alcohol ” requires the absence of uncombinedtribromphenol, but no method for its detection or determination isprovided in the u s patent 516, 358 expired march 13, 1911, issued to brunorichard seifert, assignor to dr f von heyden, for “phenol bismuthcompound” the freedom from uncombined tribromphenol was provided for bythe direction to wash with alcohol the product obtained in the swiss pharmacopeia the permissible content of uncombinedtribromphenol is limited thus. “if 0 5 gm be shaken with 5 c c of alcohol and 1 c c of the filtrate be diluted with 15 c c of water, neither a turbidity nor a flocculent precipitate should appear ”when this test was applied to the three specimens under examination, the merck and heyden specimens complied, while the research councilspecimen did not comply, with this requirement method 1 -- about 1 gm of bismuth tribromphenate was placed in aflask, 20 c c of 95 per cent alcohol added and shaken for fifteenminutes, after which it was filtered by suction through a gooch filterinto an erlenmeyer flask the flask was rinsed with 10 c c of alcoholand finally the filter was washed with 10 c c of alcohol, 25 c c of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid solution were added to the alcoholicfiltrate which was nearly but not perfectly clear containing thetribromphenol, and the residual alkali titrated with tenth-normalhydrochloric acid the number of cubic centimeters of tenth-normal alkali consumedmultiplied by 0 331 gave the weight of tribromphenol table 3 table 3 -- determination of free tribromphenol gm tribromphenol calculated from per cent gm of theoretical free salt taken factor tribromphenol research council spec 2 3351 0 3806 16 31 merck & co 0 7980 0 0364 4 56 heyden chemical works 1 9460 0 0132 0 68method 2 -- about 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate were placed in aglass stoppered erlenmeyer flask, 100 c c of alcohol were measured inand shaken during one-half hour and allowed to stand over night fiftyc c of the supernatant liquid were then removed by means of a pipet, a slight excess of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid added and the residualalkali titrated with tenth-normal hcl table 4 gives results obtained table 4 -- per cent of tribromphenol by method 2 gm tribromphenol calculated from per cent gm of theoretical free salt taken factor tribromphenol research council spec 2 0712 0 3905 18 85 merck & co 1 9417 0 0760 3 92 heyden chemical works 2 0440 0 0198 0 97table 5 gives a comparison of the results obtained by the two methods table 5 -- comparison of results by methods 1 and 2 method 1 method 2 research council spec 16 31 18 85 merck & co 4 56 3 92 heyden chemical works 0 68 0 97the results obtained in method 1 the percolation method apparentlyare reliable and, as the method is the more simple, may be givenpreference combined tribromphenol tribromphenatethe amount of tribromphenol existing in the specimen in combination wascalculated by subtracting from the per cent of total tribromphenoldetermined, the per cent of free tribromphenol found by method 1 the figures obtained are given in table 6 table 6 -- the tribromphenate content of bismuth tribromphenate per cent of combined tribromphenol research council specimen 43 13 merck & co 53 19 heyden chemical works 20 36 summaryfrom the foregoing the specimens examined contain the percentagesshown in table 7 of bismuth bi, combined tribromphenate and freetribromphenol table 7 -- percentages of bismuth and of combined tribromphenate andfree tribromphenol per cent per cent per cent combined free bismuth tribromphenate tribromphenol research council specimen 44 8 43 13 16 31 merck & co 46 6 53 19 4 56 heyden chemical works 60 7 20 36 0 68this examination shows:1 the bismuth tribromphenolate submitted to the council ofnational defense, does not correspond to the description of bismuthtribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies 2 as now supplied, xeroform-heyden does not meet the requirements forbismuth tribromphenate, nor does its composition correspond to that ofthe product formerly supplied 3 the description in new and nonofficial remedies of bismuthtribromphenate should provide an upper, as well as a lower, limitfor the bismuth content. It should provide tests for the absenceof adulterants, and also set a limit of permissible uncombinedtribromphenol report to council of national defensethe results of this examination with reference to the researchcouncil specimen having been submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry, this body advised the medical section of the council ofnational defense as follows:1 the specimen of “bismuth tribromphenolate” sent to the councilof national defense complies with the new and nonofficial remediesdescription for bismuth tribromphenate, except that it containsconsiderable amounts approximately 16 per cent of alcohol-soluble, uncombined tribromphenol revision of n n r standardsthe results of the examination of the three specimens were sentto the heyden chemical works and to merck and co in each casedisclosing the identity of the writingicular firm product, askingaid in the standardization of the product after merck and co hadsubmitted valuable advice for a revision of the essaywhat loosely drawnstandards for bismuth tribromphenate in n n r , 1918, the inquirywhether the following proposed revision of the description of bismuthtribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies was acceptable, wassubmitted to both firms:bismuth tribromphenate -- bismuthi tribromphenas -- bismuthtribromphenol -- xeroform -- a basic bismuth tribromphenate of variablecomposition an amorphous, yellow, nearly odorless and tasteless powder, neutral to moistened litmus paper it is only slightly soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, liquid petrolatum and vegetable oils alkalies and strong acids decompose it it is stable at temperatures below 120 c when about 1 gm of the salt is boiled with 10 c c of sodium hydroxide test solution, the liquid filtered, and the filtrate acidulated with sulphuric acid, the white curdy precipitate produced, when washed and dried, melts at 90 to 95 c tribromphenol the contents of the filter dissolve completely in dilute hydrochloric acid insoluble inert material boil 1 gm of bismuth tribromphenate with 20 c c of a mixture of equal writings of acetic acid and distilled water, cool the solution and filter free the filtrate from bismuth by the addition of hydrogen sulphide, boil the mixture and again filter the latter filtrate leaves not more than 0 005 gm of residue on evaporation and gentle ignition alkalies and alkali earths shake for one minute in a separatory funnel, 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate, 20 c c of ether, and 20 c c of a mixture of equal volumes of hydrochloric acid and distilled water draw off the aqueous portion and concentrate to about 4 c c. Pour it into 100 c c distilled water, filter, evaporate the filtrate on the water bath to 30 c c , again filter and divide this filtrate into portions of 5 c c each mix one portion with an equal volume of dilute sulphuric acid. It does not become cloudy lead treat another portion with a slight excess of ammonia water.

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Bloody mucus escaped from the nose and mouth. The teeth were ground together. Urine and fæces were passed the efforts at respiration became very rapid it fell dead at the end of three and one-half minutes the symptoms of strangulation in the human subject resemble closelythose just described as occurring in the dog the first or preliminary stage lasts a variable time, according to thesuddenness and completeness with which the access of air is prevented;it lasts until there is a demand for the air in a case of homicide, injuries may be inflicted on the victim in this stage which may have animportant bearing on the cause of death blows on the head may causeunconsciousness, or even apoplexy. Upon the stomach, may cause syncope;stab-wounds may tend to cause death from hemorrhage the second stage begins with the demand for air and lasts tillunconsciousness supervenes it is characterized by frantic efforts tobreathe, efforts in which the entire body takes writing if the subject isconscious, he is intensely so. The expression of the face is intense;the eyes may protrude, the hands be clinched. The memory is unusuallyactive, and the events of a lifetime may rapidly pass before the mindin a few minutes the tongue may be thrust between the clinched teethand bitten. And urine, fæces, and semen may be discharged the third stage usually appears suddenly, and is characterized byunconsciousness and irregular involuntary movements, i e , spasms;these may end in opisthotonos.