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College Admissions Essay Format Heading Example


Reading fromleft to right, the college admissions essay format heading example five intravenous injections are. 1 three tabletsof secretogen digested with 15 c c 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acidand neutralized. 2 three tablets of secretogen boiled in 15 c c 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid and neutralized. 3 three tablets ofsecretogen in 15 c c 0 9 per cent sodium chlorid. 4 three tabletsof secretogen in 15 c c of 70 per cent alcohol. 5 15 c c elixirsecretogen tracing b. Reading from left to right, the four intravenousinjections are. 1 5 c c secretin made fresh from dog duodenalmucosa. 2 three tablets of duodenin digested in 15 c c 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid and neutralized. 3 three tablets of duodenin boiledin 15 c c 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid and neutralized.

Itis also a fact that it is one of the products that government officialsand the federal courts have declared to be sold under claims that are“false, fraudulent and misleading ” if “gray glycerine tonic” wasfraudulently exploited-- and the government and the courts have sodeclared it-- why is it necessary for the editor of college admissions essay format heading example a medical journal toapologize to his subscribers for having told them so?. -- editorial fromthe journal a m a , jan 1, 1916 hagee cordial of cod liver oil“under the deceptive heading ‘making cod liver oil palatable, ’ thecharlotte medical journal in its december issue prints a boost for‘cord ext ol morrhuae comp hagee, ’ or, as it is generally knownto the drug trade, ‘hagee cordial of cod liver oil ’“the boost intimates that this is a preparation in which cod liver oilhas in essay way been rendered palatable, and then goes on to say thatthis is a cod liver oil product which has not suffered the least lossof those essential elements which make the crude oil such a high-classreconstructive “at first sight one might question whether a cod liver oil productwhich contains absolutely no cod liver oil had not suffered the lossof essential elements but a closer reading discloses a significantqualification, namely, the phrase, ‘those elements which make thecrude oil such a high-class reconstructive ’“the boost is misleading from beginning to end the manufacturers havenot succeeded in this preparation in ‘making cod liver oil palatable, ’nor does their preparation in any way possess the virtues of cod liveroil these claims have again and again been refuted, but they continueto be published-- at a price but rarely in reputable medical journals ”the above is quoted from the weekly bulletin of the dewritingmentof health of the city of new york the bulletin is issued for theenlightenment of the public -- from the journal a m a , jan 8, 1916 hypno-bromic compounda physician in vermont writes. “this is simply a word of inquiry-- and of possible warning to other practitioners-- regarding a preparation known as hypno-bromic compound manufactured by h k wampole & co this compound is dispensed by druggists without prescription and contains in each ounce. “cannabis indica 1 gr “morphin 1/4 gr “potassium bromid 48 gr “hyoscyamus 1 gr “chloral hydrate 96 gr “i have at the present time three young women who are addicts to this preparation as the result of thoughtless prescriptions from physicians this mixture evades the working of the harrison act and may be dispensed freely at the discretion of the druggist and, as a result, these three paper of mine have been able, by visiting at the various drug stores in town, to keep an ample supply on hand at all times ”“hypno-bromic compound” is more than an unscientific mixture. It isa dangerous product and should not be sold indiscriminately over thedrug counter before the harrison narcotic law went into effect, “hypno-bromic compound” contained half a grain of morphin sulphate tothe ounce instead of its present one-fourth grain physicians rememberthat section 6 of the harrison law contains a joker-- put over bythe “patent medicine” interests-- that exempts proprietary remediescontaining one-fourth grain of morphin or less to the ounce from therestrictions of that act while it is illegal for a physician to writea prescription which contains morphin, no matter how small the amount, unless he conforms in all ways to the requirements of the harrisonnarcotic law, “patent medicine” concerns can sell indiscriminatelynostrums containing morphin up to this amount and the public can buythem without let or hindrance no reputable druggist would sell alayman over 700 grains of chloral hydrate or 2 grains of morphin or 8grains of extract of cannabis indica, without a prescription, yet, thedruggist may hand over 8 ounce bottles of hypno-bromic compound whichcontain 768 grains of choral hydrate, 2 grains of morphin sulphate, 8grains of extract of cannabis indica, 8 grains of hyoscyamus and 384grains of potassium bromid!. physicians who prescribe such products ashypno-bromic compound and druggists who indiscriminately sell suchstuff are disgracing two honorable professions -- from the journala m a , feb 7, 1920 intravenous compound loffler its composition and the peculiar methods by which it is exploitedfor essay time past inquiries have been received regarding charles lymanloffler, his post-graduate course in intravenous therapy and especiallyrelative to “intravenous compound loffler ” for instance, a physicianwrites.

”william h lucas was graduated by the medical college of ohio in 1895and was licensed in 1897 he is not a member of his local medicalsociety the products put out by the lucas laboratories are forintravenous use, and their method of exploitation indicates that theconcern is less interested in the science of therapeutics than it isin taking commercial advantage of the present fad for intravenousmedication the journal has protested editorially against theunnecessary use of the intravenous administration of drugs, and theabuse of this method of drug giving prompted the council on pharmacyand chemistry recently to emphasize the danger of indiscriminateintravenous medication the products of the lucas laboratories, inc , have not been examinedeither by the a m a chemical laboratory or by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the composition of these products isessentially secret, which in itself should be sufficient to deterphysicians from using them of course, in accordance with all thetenents of orthodox nostrum exploitation, “formulas” are furnished even the crude hieroglyphics that used to be palmed off on themedical profession by nostrum exploiters under the guise of “graphicformulas” are outdone by the lucas laboratories in publishing thealleged formulas of its preparations if we, as physicians, knewmore chemistry, the lucas laboratories would not find it profitableto publish such ineffable nonsense as that which characterizes their“literature ” for instance. “‘luvein’ arsans plain” is said to be. “di hypo sodio calcio phosphite hydroxy arseno mercuric iodid ” the first writing of this “formula” might stand for sodium and calcium hypophosphite the remainder is meaningless except that it suggests but does not insure the presence of arsenic and mercury iodide “‘luvein’ arsans, nos 1, 2 and 3 ”-- “meta hydroxy iodide sodio arsano mercuric dimethyl benzo sodio arsenate, ai oxy sodio tartaria sulpho disheuyl hydrazin ” who can venture even a conjecture as to the possible significance of this?. “‘luvein’ creosophite ”-- “ammonio hydroxy calcio sodio hypo-phosphite arsenous pentoxy iodide ” while the name suggests creosote, the “formula” gives no hint of this it might refer to hypophosphites of ammonium, calcium and sodium with iodide of arsenic whether arsenous trivalent arsenic or arsenic pentavalent arsenic iodide or both are intended, is a question “‘luvein’ hexacol ”-- “hexa methylenepyro catechin mono methyl amino ether glycerite ” by moving these syllables around like the old “fifteen puzzle” they can be arranged to represent hexamethylenamin and monomethyl-ether of pyrocatechin, or guaiacol, having the “glycerite” left over it is futile to discuss the therapeutic claims made for the variouspreparations put out by the lucas laboratories one might as profitablydiscuss the therapeutic claims made for “peruna” or “paine celerycompound” for the exploitation of the latter products is on just ashigh a scientific plane as the exploitation of the “luvein” nostrums the proposition offered to physicians by the lucas laboratories, inc , is an insult to the intelligence of the medical profession not thatthe products themselves are necessarily any worse or any better thanthesis offered for intravenous use. The selling methods are more crude, that is all the facts are, we have entered a new cycle of nostrum development theunscientific mixtures for oral administration that characterized solarge and disreputable a writing of the proprietary medicine business ofthe past two or three decades are giving way to equally unscientificmixtures for intravenous use the dangers of the older nostrumsare accentuated in the newer by the added element of risk that isinseparable from intravenous therapy add to this the temptation tothe physician in the way of more substantial fees which, legitimatelyenough, may be charged when intravenous administration is called for, and the menace of the new style nostrum becomes evident the journalcan only reiterate the warning that intravenous therapy should beemployed only when most positively indicated further, because of thedanger that is inseparable from this method of drug administration, physicians should be doubly careful to see that products employedfor intravenous use come from firms of unquestioned scientificstanding -- from the journal a m a , sept 20, 1919 “phylacogens”ll this matter was largely reprinted in the propaganda for reform, eighth and ninth editions a physician in florida writes. “i am enclosing a copy of a circular letter just received from parke, davis & company, and will call your attention to a marked paragraph in this letter on which i would like to have an expression of your opinion ”the circular letter which the doctor forwards is devoted to singingthe praises of “pneumonia phylacogen ” it opens with the statement:“influenza, we learn, has appeared in your section ” the paragraphmarked by our correspondent reads. “pneumonia phylacogen has been found to be a dependable means of preventing and treating pneumonic complications of influenza in one large city it became a routine measure to give all persons affected with influenza an injection of pneumonia phylacogen as a prophylactic of pneumonia the results were remarkable not only did the paper improve rapidly, but in a great majority of them the pneumonia did not occur ”the “phylacogens” were repeatedly discussed in the journal during 1913and 1914 when these products were being pushed with much vigor by themanufacturers we know of no evidence that calls for a revision ofthe statements then made regarding them the injection of phylacogensis simply the administration of a mixture of the filtered productsof several bacterial species the results which follow represent thereaction of the bacterial protein-- a reaction for good or evil thereis no scientific evidence to show that they possess any specificprophylactic virtue to recommend their use in paper of influenza, as a prophylactic against pneumonia, is unwarranted, and thephysician who acts on the advice of the manufacturer must assume theresponsibility for the results in case of mishap he cannot fall backon the manufacturer. He will find no scientific evidence to supporthim -- from the journal a m a , nov 15, 1919 pineoleum advertising methods capitalizing the name and position of the president of the american medical associationto the editor:-- enclosed is a postal card which a physician inoklahoma has sent me together with thirty-six cents in stamps theenvelop was addressed to me at the address of the pineoleum company the postoffice corrected the address and sent it to me it is evident, therefore, that the physician in oklahoma thought i was sending thesepostals as an employee of the pineoleum company, or, at least, wasendorsing their products illustration. Postal card capitalizing the name and position of the president of the american medical association kindly do me the favor to publish this letter in the journal as aprotest against the dishonesty of this method of advertising what isquoted from an article that i wrote appeared originally in the newyork state journal of medicine and was abstracted in the journalof the american medical association of august 2, 1919 the obviousinference to be drawn from this postal is that i referred to theproducts of the pineoleum company in that article i did not have theproducts of the pineoleum company in my mind i never have used theirproducts and never prescribed them this form of advertising is done with intent to deceive and did deceivethe doctor in oklahoma it was therefore a successful falsehood, itssuccess depending on the false use of the name of the president of theamerican medical association to bolster up the sale of the product i resent the use of my name in connection with the quack advertisingof nostrum venders the low, vulpine cunning of the method used ison the same level as the deceit and dishonesty which use this formof advertising to the injury of my name and reputation as presidentof the american medical association i must insist that you protectme by publishing this letter in the journal, giving it as widespreadpublicity as possible alexander lambert comment -- “pineoleum” is a “patent medicine” advertised in thecheapest and most effective way-- by the aid of the easy going andcomplacent physician in 1906 pineoleum was being marketed by thewinslow laboratory of new york city, which also put out three or fourother nostrums-- “morumalt, ” “egeriol, ” “digestylin, ” and “fordnucleo-peptone ” pineoleum was advertised to the public then as it isadvertised now, via the medical profession physicians are circularizedand are offered a petty graft in the form of a cheap nebulizer and asample bottle of pineoleum essay time ago the company seems to havedeveloped a scheme whereby physicians could make money “dispensingpineoleum nebulizer outfits at more than 140 per cent profit ” thepineoleum concern for years has also polluted the stream at its sourceby attempting to get the secretary of the senior class of every medicalschool to distribute its free nebulizer outfits to members of theclass and receive therefor 5 cents for each outfit distributed!. thelife history of pineoleum is that of the typical nostrum epidemics, of course, are utilized as opportunities for pushing the product in1911 a card was sent out featuring “a special lagrippe offer”. In 1916the profession was circularized recommending pineoleum as “the idealprophylactic” in infantile paralysis. During the past year influenzahas again been the selling point the case described by dr lambert is not the first example of themisuse of names and statements of physicians last december thepineoleum concern was sending out an advertising card in which dr mccoy of the united states public health service was quoted asrecommending pineoleum as the “bulwark of prevention” and “battery ofrelief” in influenza of course, dr mccoy never said anything of thesort a protest against this writingicular falsehood resulted in anothercard being sent out several months later by the pineoleum peoplepurporting to explain and apologize for the misquotations and puttingthe blame on the printer the “apology” ended with a postscript inlarger and bolder face type than the body of the card that urgedphysicians to “secure our liberal introductory advertising propositionon improved oil nebulizer outfits ” from the standpoint of publicityfor pineoleum, the “explanation and apology” was doubtless as good anadvertisement as the original card of misrepresentation -- ed -- fromthe journal a m a , nov 1, 1919 “proteal therapy” and henry smith williams to the editor:-- will you please advise as to the success and safeness in using the proteal treatment for tuberculosis by henry smith williams, m d , ll d , 104 east 40th street, new york?. c p burchard, alamogordo, n m to the editor:-- kindly send me any available information on “the proteal treatment for cancer ” an article by dr henry smith williams, 120 west 32 street, new york city, in april hearst has caused relatives to request its use in a case of carcinoma of the liver under my care m m reppard, middlebourne, w va to the editor:-- i am enclosing a leaflet, mailed to me on request, by dr henry smith williams of new york city, who published a series of articles during the last year in hearst magazine on “proteal therapy ” if you have investigated this man and his proteal treatment, i should like to know the result of your findings i am a consumptive and am, therefore, writingicularly interested in its alleged benefactions for the treatment of tuberculosis michael a long, glen lake sanitarium, hopkins, minn to the editor:-- what information can you give me regarding henry smith williams, m d , ll d , 104 east fortieth street, new york, and the therapeutic value of the “proteal therapy” that he has originated?. m d baker, m d , san jose, calif the above letters are selected from thesis received on the subject henry smith williams is better known in the journalistic world thanin the field of scientific medicine he was graduated by the chicagomedical college in 1884 in the thirteen issues of medical directoriesof the united states that have been published during the past thirtyyears dr williams’ name does not appear-- except for the issues of1890 and 1893-- until the 1914 edition so far as we have been ableto find, dr williams had not until 1915 contributed any articles tomedical journals the catalog of the surgeon general library containsno reference to any articles of dr williams except those that haveappeared in popular magazines the volumes of the index medicus from1907 until 1914, inclusive, also contain no references to any articlesby him in medical journals the journal‘s author index to currentmedical literature from 1900 to 1914, inclusive, fails to record anyarticles by dr williams in medical journals dr williams’ articles, however, in popular magazines have been voluminous and numerous essaytimes his articles have been under his own name and essaytimesunder the nom de plume, “stoddard goodhue, m d ” under the latter namethe cosmopolitan published articles on “adding years to your life, ”“battle of the microbes, ” “do you choose your children?.

2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine. Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement. ‘careful examination failed to showthe presence of either diastase or pancreatin ’ in this connectioni will cite to you the following experiment carried out by myself:a package containing a 1-ounce bottle of lactopeptine powder withseal unbroken was purchased in the open market and opened in thislaboratory the label bore the special number 6 2382 two hundredmilligrams of this product was dissolved in 50 c c of a 0 25 per cent solution of sodium carbonate in water this solution was divided intotwo portions of 25 c c each one of these portions was boiled at once, and after cooling was added to 1 gm of moist fibrin contained in aflask the other portion unboiled was also added to 1 gm of moistfibrin contained in a flask both flasks after addition of 5 c c of toluene to each were stoppered and placed in an incubator at 37degrees, and left there for twelve hours examination of the two flasksat the end of this period showed that the one to which the unboiledsolution of lactopeptine powder had been added contained much lesssolid protein than did the other although this fact was obvious tothe naked eye, the exact extent of digestion in the two flasks wasdetermined by heating both to boiling, acidifying with acetic acid, diluting to definite volume, filtering and determining the nitrogen inthe filtrate by kjeldahl method subtracting the trace of nitrogencontained in the filtrate of the control flask, the results showedthat 42 per cent of the original fibrin present had been dissolvedby the unboiled lactopeptine solution this can be ascribed only totryptic activity under the conditions of this experiment furthermore, this is not simply a ‘trace’ of activity, but is at least sufficientlymarked to warrant a statement that this sample showed a distincttryptic activity inasmuch as i have obtained exactly similar resultswith two other samples of lactopeptine powder these being the onlyones i have examined, i am inclined to question the correctness ofthe council statement regarding the absence of trypsin from thispreparation as noted above, a fresh preparation was used -- ed “may i again add that i am making no statement regarding therapeuticvalue of preparation, and that i have no opinion upon that matter oneway or the other?. my work was undertaken solely out of interest tosee whether trypsin could exist in the powder which gives a markedlyacid solution when dissolved in water the elixir lactopeptine couldtheoretically show no tryptic activity, nor have i found any trace ofsuch activity in one sample of the elixir examined “in making use of any of the contents of my letters kindly include thestatement that my work upon lactopeptine was done without remunerationof any kind, and was done only for the scientific interest attached tothe question ” conclusionsthe new york pharmacal association demanded that the referee reexaminelactopeptine, making use of fresh specimens the council held that thiswas unnecessary, for the following reasons:1 the previous finding of the council, that specimens of lactopeptinefound on the open market are essentially weak saccharated pepsins, isnot to be refuted by examination of fresh specimens even if it beassumed that all old specimens of lactopeptine have been withdrawnfrom the market since the last purchase of specimens for the use ofthe council referee, there can be no assurance that the stock willbe constantly kept fresh unless the manufacturers date their product, physicians cannot know that their prescriptions are filled with freshmaterial nor is it reasonable to ask that the council examine themarket supply of any given proprietary at a time selected by themanufacturers 2 without entering into all questions of detail in the analyses, the council is willing to accept the reports of drs benedict andhawk as representative of fresh lactopeptine powder it is thereforeunnecessary for the council to make further experiments along thisline the results of these two chemists in no wise contradict theconclusions of the council referees, being comparable with thoseobtained by the referee on the fresher specimens used by them theexperiments of drs hawk and benedict show a degree of trypticactivity which, though chemically not negligible, is quite withoutsignificance practically, even if it could be assumed that the trypsinin the fresh lactopeptine escaped destruction in the stomach thefigures for tryptic activity given by dr benedict do not differmaterially from those of the first referee those of professorhawk show a tryptic activity of from 18 to 20 per cent of that ofcommercial pancreatin-- and commercial pancreatins ordinarily are oflow tryptic activity, if not inert see long and muhleman. Arch int med , february, 1914, p 314 the reports of these chemistspresent no reason for changing the conclusion that “it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity ”the results which dr balch obtained in a test for tryptic activityshow a marked discrepancy with those obtained by drs hawk andbenedict, not to mention the council referees, and also with thefact that only about 11 per cent of “pancreatin” is claimed in thepublished formula of lactopeptine the council is unable to accept dr balch result for trypsin or rennin as reliable his other results arewithout significance and call for no special comment 3 even if tryptic activity were conceded to lactopeptine, thepreparation, like all preparations containing pepsin and pancreatin, would still be, as previously stated, therapeutically irrational the council approved the report report of referee ain view of the manufacturer reiteration of the claims forlactopeptine powder, i have carried out further experiments todetermine its proteolytic and amylolytic power for the proteolytic test i used fresh, well washed fibrin and examinedsamples of lactopeptine powder numbered as follows:no 1 a writing of the english product examined and reported on lastspring no 2 -- a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail drug store indecember, 1913 no 3 a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail store in december, 1913 portions of 1 gm each of these samples were mixed with 5 gm fibrin, 100 mg of sodium carbonate and 50 c c of water in flasks a littletoluene was added to each flask, which was then closed with a tuftof cotton and the mixtures were incubated at 40 degrees throughtwenty-four hours at the end of that time there was no marked changein the quantity of the fibrin remaining in each flask, the larger writingby far being undigested as a control i used the sample of an active commercial trypsin, ofwhich i added 500 mg to the same quantity of water, fibrin and sodiumcarbonate this was digested in the same bath at the same time thedigestion was practically completed in less than ten minutes, onlyminute flakes of the fibrin remaining it is evident that the digestive power of the lactopeptine must beextremely low, and only a small fraction of that exhibited by acommercially good trypsin in an experiment with the english sample carried out through nineteenhours as above, using 2 gm of fibrin and 100 mg of ferment, it wasfound by nitrogen tests on the filtrate that about 12 2 per cent of the protein had been brought into solution, an amount which ispractically without importance in a digestion of such duration to test the starch digestive power i have made a large number ofexperiments in a series just completed i mixed 1 gm portions ofsamples 1 and 2 with water to make 100 c c volumes before makingup to the final volumes 0 5 c c of normal sodium hydroxid wasadded to neutralize the slight acidity of the ferment as shown byphenolphthalein of these mixtures 4, 6, 8 and 10 c c portions were mixed with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste and incubated at 40 degrees to find thecolorless end-point in the starch digestion, by the iodin test at the end of twenty-two hours the iodin reaction was as strong as atthe beginning, indicating no appreciable starch digestion to the flasks in which no digestion had taken place under theseconditions, 5 mg of a pancreas ferment was added this gave an almostimmediate conversion to the colorless end-point this ferment was asample of holadin which had been in the laboratory about a year the5 mg completed the reaction to the colorless end-point in less thanten minutes in a similar test i used 2 gm of lactopeptine no 3, made up to100 c c with 1 2 c c of normal alkali ten and 15 c c portions wereincubated with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste through twenty hoursat 40 degrees with no apparent result the holadin then added, 5 mg being used, completed the conversion in less than ten minutes this shows that the medium was a proper one for the test and that thelactopeptine must be extremely weak no sugar tests were made becausethe lactopeptine contains milk sugar to the extent of about 60 per cent similar results for both protein and starch digestives have beenobtained in a large number of experiments these here quoted showthat the ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition practically the digestion of a few milligrams of fibrin orstarch after thesis hours of contact, while being perhaps scientificallypossible, is of no value when we come to a consideration of the use ofsuch bodies as digestive ferments in medicine the amount of lactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” present inlactopeptine is very small, since the total acid which may be titratedby sodium hydroxid and phenolphthalein is measured by 0 5 c c ofthe normal hydroxid for 1 gm of the lactopeptine powder, in themean in different samples examined the range was found to be from0 41 c c to 0 6 c c tests with methyl orange, methyl red and otherindicators showed that the free acidity is but trifling. If the wholeof this acid, as measured by phenolphthalein, were calculated to hcl, the amount would be too small to have any appreciable physiologicactivity, in view of the daily dose recommended, 10 to 20 grains of thepowder report of referee bthe following table gives a summary of the results of my investigationson lactopeptine the numbers in the extreme left-hand column are themanufacturer identifying marks these, it is assumed, run serially, the higher numbers indicating fresher specimens table showing enzymic power of lactopeptine preparations amylase pepsin rennin trypsin lipase 2275 - - - 2301 - - - 2312 - - - 2348 - - - 2352 - - - 2364 - ?.

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Hanging is usually suicidal lesser878 states that for threeyears, 1876-79, there were admitted to the berlin morgue 274 bodies of“hanged, ” of which 272 were suicidal. 2 infants of three and eighteenmonths, homicidal one man had first tried to kill himself withsulphate of copper. Another by cutting his throat. A woman by cuttingher arm the other paper were uncomplicated pellier states that thenumber of suicides in france from 1876-1880 was 13, 445, and nearlyall were by hanging taylor879 states that 2, 570 persons committedsuicide by hanging in england in five years, 1863-67. Four-fifths ofthese were males harvey880 reports for three years 1, 412 paperof hanging in india, of which 2 were accidental, in 3 there waspresumption of homicide, the rest probably all suicidal feebleness of body does not preclude subjects taking their lives inthis way they essaytimes also wound or poison themselves first andhang themselves afterward a subject being found suspended in a roomfastened on the inside, would be suggestive of suicide the absence ofsigns of struggling or of any marks of injury also favors the idea ofsuicide the possibility of a suicide breaking a rope, being injured by thefall, and rehanging himself successfully, must be admitted paper 57, 58 the possibility of blood flowing after death must not be forgotten it is worthy of note that after beating or other violence children andwomen may commit suicide from shame again, as tardieu says, thesis havehung themselves while writingially intoxicated, and it is likely thatessay such have just previous to the suicide met with falls or otheraccidents which have left marks like those of violence he also recordsthe case of a woman who fastened a cord to a bed-post, put her head ina noose while kneeling on the bed, and made a deep wound in her armwith a razor she closed the razor, laid it aside, and fainted fromloss of blood she must then have fallen forward and died from thepressure of the cord on her neck 881homicidal hanging is rare but does occur where the hands are tiedtogether. Where the injuries produced by the cord are severe. Wherethere are contusions and well-marked ecchymoses.