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It overcomes the insufficiency and stimulates the debilitated organ ” in malaria “it is the only true specific when associated with quinine ” “filudine is the ideal medication for tuberculosis, conforming as it does with the most recent researches in the therapeusis of this affection ” “we will not go as far as to say that opotherapy completely restores unhealthy livers, for although the lesions of the hepatic parenchyma may be obliterated by regeneration, the lesions of the connective tissues are permanent, and may be observed at the postmortem examination the new cells, however, do not present the same unhealthy conditions as those of the former diseased gland which they have replaced, and the liver can therefore function normally, so that the patient lives on. And he is satisfied with that ” “therefore, while regenerating the liver with filudine, we cleanse it and combat its congested state with urodonal we cause it to produce urea from the excess of uric acid which it contains ” “by the judicious and harmonious combination of the beneficial effects of filudine and urodonal, physicians not only possess the means of treating by rational methods cirrhosis of the liver in its various forms which is one of the most terrible diseases which can afflict anyone but what is still better, they can cure it ” “the liver of a person suffering from obesity being incapable of fulfilling its functions in regard to the fatty tissues, the rational and up-to-date method of treatment is therefore to restore to the system, in the form of filudine, the liver extracts which are lacking ”filudine is a mixture of semisecret composition the therapeuticclaims are manifestly unwarranted the name is not indicative of thecomposition, whatever that may be, and no rational excuse is offeredfor the combination of liver and spleen extracts with or without bileextracts with “thiomethylarsinate” or “thiocinnamate” of caffein the council therefore held filudine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 18, 1915 lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrymixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therapeutically irrational;the two substances are not indicated in the same conditions, nor canthey act together under physiologic conditions, such mixtures arechemically impossible. In a liquid medium the ingredients destroy eachother lactopeptin is manufactured by the new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y it is sold under the claim that it contains, pepsin, diastase, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid this productwas among the first proprietary preparations examined by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the report of the investigation was publishedin the journal, march 16, 1907, p 959 the preparation was found to bepractically inert-- “essentially a weak saccharated pepsin, ” devoid oftryptic activity six years later it was still widely advertised with the same irrationalclaims a referee a therefore examined lactopeptine powdered forthe council in 1913, and confirmed the previous findings the refereereport was published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months after this publication, the manufacturer protestedagainst the report, maintaining, contrary to the findings of thecouncil, that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity and contains“loosely combined” hydrochloric acid referee a therefore repeatedhis examination, and a second referee b, independently, examinedspecimens of lactopeptine powder purchased on the open market for thepurpose shortly before a few specimens examined by these two referees showed a slight trypticactivity.

But itfully confirmed the original college admission essay writing service conclusion that pepsin and pancreatinmixtures as ordinarily administered are practically worthless j h long, jour amer pharmaco assoc , sept 19, 1917 as regards the editorial on intravenous therapy, a concession may bemade the new york intravenous laboratory. Intravenous injections are nolonger quite as “impressive” as in 1916, but that does not alter thefact that they should be used only when a distinct advantage is to begained -- from the journal a m a , aug 2, 1919 hormotone and hormotone without post-pituitary report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry “hormotone, ” of the g w carnrick company, is advertised as “apluriglandular tonic for asthenic conditions ” “hormotone withoutpost-pituitary” is recommended for use “in neurasthenic conditionsassociated with high blood pressure ” these preparations are sold inthe form of tablets for oral administration the council declares thesepreparations inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because. 1their composition is semisecret rule 1. 2 the therapeutic claimsare unwarranted rule 6. 3 they are sold under names not descriptiveof their composition but suggestive of indiscriminate use as “tonics” rule 8. 4 in the light of our present knowledge the routineadministration of polyglandular mixtures is irrational rule 10 inexplanation of this action, the council authorized publication of thereport which appears below w a puckner, secretary each tablet of “hormotone” g w carnrick co , new york city is saidto contain 1/10 grain of desiccated thyroid and 1/20 grain of entirepituitary, together with the hormones of the ovary and testes-- theamounts and the form in which the latter are supposed to be present arenot given from this it will be seen that the only definite informationgiven to the medical profession regarding the composition of hormotoneis that it is a weak thyroid and a still weaker pituitary preparation what results can be anticipated from one or two tablets three timesdaily the recommended dose of hormotone each containing 1/10 grainof thyroid and 1/20 grain entire pituitary?. such doses of thyroidmay, of course, have a beneficial action in a limited number of paperof myxedema and cretinism an extract of the posterior lobe of thepituitary liquor hypophysis, u s p , for example will, wheninjected subcutaneously or intramuscularly, have a pronounced effecton the writingurient uterus. Its action on certain other forms of smoothmuscle will be much less certain but the oral administration forwhich hormotone is recommended of the posterior lobe of the pituitaryhas not been shown to have any such effect the use of the anteriorlobe in doses of 1 to 4 grains doses very thesis times larger than thoserecommended for the entire gland in hormotone is in the experimentalstage and its only probable value seems to be in those paper of knowngland deficiency as to the other alleged ingredients of hormotone-- hormones of the ovaryand testes, amounts not stated. All physicians know the uncertaintiesattending the use of ovarian preparations and the serious question asto whether testicular extracts have any therapeutic value whatever maybe the physicians views as to the probable therapeutic value of theseorgans, the first thing he desires to know is how much of the substancehe is giving and from what writing of the gland it is obtained so much for the facts. Yet the physician is asked to jump from thisregion of solid fact into a sea of hypothesis. To believe thatsmall amounts of the well-known drugs thyroid and pituitary, plusan unknown amount of unknown hormones of the testes and ovary areof great value in conditions that in themselves are often purelyhypothetical he is asked to believe that this combination hasvirtues in such conditions as “hypofunction of the adrenal system, ”neurasthenia, the “fatigue syndrome, ” amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, “natural and artificial menopause, ” sexual neuroses, cold extremities, cardiac asthenia, low blood pressure, infantilism, sterility, melancholic conditions, obesity, anorexia, anemia, slow metabolism, constipation, psychasthenia, lowered virility and the sexual neurosesof the unmarried, hysteria following functional exhaustion of thenerve centers, frigidity, etc , etc , especially if he guesses thatthe trouble is due to a “pluriglandular disturbance, ” “glandularhypofunction, ” an “adreno-pituitary deficiency, ” suboxidation, etc the physician is invited to use hormotone because, among other reasons, each alleged constituent is said to be “in physiologic sympathy andtherapeutic harmony with the others, ” and further, because. “pluriglandular therapy has the endorsement of high authorities, is both logical and effective and hormotone is a splendid example of it it will be seen at its best where the patient lacks snap and vim and vigor asthenic conditions necessarily indicate hypofunction of the adrenal system ” etc “the use of gland extracts in the treatment of aplasias of the pluriglandular system has become an established therapeutic measure of miraculous potency bayard holmes. The internal secretory glands, lancet-clinic, sept 19, 1914 ”the g w carnrick company also advertises a “hormotone withoutpost-pituitary, ” each tablet of which is said to contain 1/10 graindesiccated thyroid, and to “present” “hormone bearing extracts ofthyroid, anterior pituitary, ovary, and testes ” this product is justas irrational as “hormotone ”-- from the journal a m a , aug 16, 1919 formaldehyde lozenges report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has voted hex-iodin daggett and miller co , inc , providence, r i , formitol tablets e l patch co , boston, andcin-u-form lozenges mckesson and robbins, new york city inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies, and authorized publication of thereport which appears below w a puckner, secretary essay years ago, the council published the journal a m a , aug 28, 1915, p 816 a report on formamint, a proprietary medicinewidely exploited as a peculiar chemical compound of sugar of milk andformaldehyde the formaldehyde was said to be liberated slowly by theaction of the saliva, and because of this liberation of formaldehyde, formamint was claimed to be a powerful germicide extravagant claimswere made for its curative and prophylactic effects the council foundthat the therapeutic claims were grossly unwarranted and that itsexploitation to the public was a public danger during the recent epidemic of influenza, a variety of tablets orlozenges were advertised, and are still being advertised, havingformaldehyde, in essay form or other, as the nucleus around whichrevolve the therapeutic claims in essay paper, the advertising clearlyindicates the character of the formaldehyde compound that is claimedto be present. In others the statements are vague and indefinite ormisleading it is hardly necessary to remind physicians that the use of tabletscontaining hexamethylenamin or other formaldehyde compounds can neithercure respiratory infections, nor even confer protection against suchinfections to be effective, formaldehyde would need to be suppliedto the entire respiratory tract continuously for essay time or else inconcentrations that would be distinctly irritant and damaging to thetissues saliva-dissolved tablets, obviously cannot reach the nasalor tracheal mucosae directly. And the application of quickly actingconcentrations of formaldehyde is out of the question this altogetheraside from the fact that hexamethylenamin, the basis of essay of thesetablets, does not liberate formaldehyde in the mouth, and for thisreason alone would be quite useless for this purpose!.

It also provokes urine, is available for the dropsy, and helps to break the stone being usedas a bath, or made into college admission essay writing service an ointment, it cools the painful piles orhæmorrhoidal veins it is no less effectual to give ease to the painsof the gout, the sciatica, and helps the kernels or knots in the neckor throat, called the king evil. Healing kibes and chilblains ifthey be bathed with the juice, or anointed with ointment made thereof, and essay of the skin of the leaf upon them. It is also used in greenwounds to stay the blood, and to heal them quickly knapweed descript the common sort hereof has thesis long and essaywhat darkgreen leaves, rising from the root, dented about the edges, andessaytimes a little rent or torn on both sides in two or three places, and essaywhat hairy withal. Amongst which arises a long round stalk, four or five feet high, divided into thesis branches, at the tops whereofstand great scaly green heads, and from the middle of them thrust fortha number of dark purplish red thrumbs or threads, which after they arewithered and past, there are found divers black seeds, lying in a greatdeal of down, essaywhat like unto thistle seed, but smaller. The rootis white, hard and woody, and divers fibres annexed thereunto, whichperishes not, but abides with leaves thereon all the winter, shootingout fresh every spring place it grows in most fields and meadows, and about their bordersand hedges, and in thesis waste grounds also every where time it usually flowers in june and july, and the seed is ripeshortly after government and virtues saturn challenges the herb for his own thisknapweed helps to stay fluxes, both of blood at the mouth or nose, or other outward writings, and those veins that are inwardly broken, orinward wounds, as also the fluxes of the belly. It stays distillationof thin and sharp humours from the head upon the stomach and lungs. Itis good for those that are bruised by any fall, blows or otherwise, and is profitable for those that are bursten, and have ruptures, bydrinking the decoction of the herb and roots in wine, and applyingthe same outwardly to the place it is singularly good in all runningsores, cancerous and fistulous, drying up of the moisture, and healingthem up so gently, without sharpness. It doth the like to running soresor scabs of the head or other writings it is of special use for thesoreness of the throat, swelling of the uvula and jaws, and excellentlygood to stay bleeding, and heal up all green wounds knotgrass it is generally known so well that it needs no description place it grows in every county of this land by the highway sides, and by foot-paths in fields. As also by the sides of old walls time it springs up late in the spring, and abides until the winter, when all the branches perish government and virtues saturn seems to me to own the herb, and yetessay hold the sun. Out of doubt ’tis saturn the juice of the commonkind of knotgrass is most effectual to stay bleeding of the mouth, being drank in steeled or red wine. And the bleeding at the nose, tobe applied to the forehead or temples, or to be squirted up into thenostrils it is no less effectual to cool and temper the heat of theblood and stomach, and to stay any flux of the blood and humours, aslasks, bloody-flux, women courses, and running of the reins it issingularly good to provoke urine, help the stranguary, and allays theheat that comes thereby. And is powerful by urine to expel the gravelor stone in the kidneys and bladder, a dram of the powder of the herbbeing taken in wine for thesis days together being boiled in wine anddrank, it is profitable to those that are stung or bitten by venemouscreatures, and very effectual to stay all defluxions of rheumatichumours upon the stomach, and kills worms in the belly or stomach, quiets inward pains that arise from the heat, sharpness and corruptionof blood and choler the distilled water hereof taken by itself or withthe powder of the herb or seed, is very effectual to all the purposesaforesaid, and is accounted one of the most sovereign remedies to coolall manner of inflammations, breaking out through heat, hot swellingsand imposthumes, gangrene and fistulous cankers, or foul filthy ulcers, being applied or put into them. But especially for all sorts of ulcersand sores happening in the privy writings of men and women it helps allfresh and green wounds, and speedily heals them the juice dropped intothe ears, cleanses them being foul, and having running matter in them it is very prevalent for the premises. As also for broken joints andruptures ladies’ mantle descript it has thesis leaves rising from the root standing uponlong hairy foot-stalks, being almost round, and a little cut on theedges, into eight or ten writings, making it seem like a star, with sothesis corners and points, and dented round about, of a light greencolour, essaywhat hard in handling, and as it were folded or plaited atfirst, and then crumpled in divers places, and a little hairy, as thestalk is also, which rises up among them to the height of two or threefeet. And being weak, is not able to stand upright, but bended to theground, divided at the top into two or three small branches, with smallyellowish green heads, and flowers of a whitish colour breaking out ofthem. Which being past, there comes a small yellowish seed like a poppyseed.

“as a stimulant capsicum has the power of neutralizing depressant remedies like lobelia and tobacco ” “our association of its desirable constituents with those of lobelia, in connection with the modifying influence of capsicum, melaleuca, and laurus camphora, permits a more free use in libradol than would be possible were it to be employed alone ” “capsicum, melaleuca, and laurus camphora in libradol tend to counteract the excessive relaxative and depressant effects of lobelia ” “the great value of melaleuca in libradol is its quality of modifying and controlling the action of the associated energetic constituents of the drugs tobacco and lobelia, which reduce congestion and inflammation, but which would, unsupported, be too depressant ”libradol is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because itscomposition is complex, irrational and semi-secret, and because itsname and the unwarranted therapeutic recommendations made for it willlead to its ill-advised use -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 65 helmitol omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhelmitol is hexamethylenamin methylencitrate it was introduced withthe claim that it was superior to hexamethylenamin-- which acts in acidfluids only-- in that it is equally efficient whether the urine isalkaline or acid in 1918 the bayer company, which then marketed the product in theunited states, was notified that the council questioned the claims madefor helmitol and desired evidence to substantiate them in 1919 thesame notification was sent the winthrop chemical company, which in themeantime had secured control of the product pending the submissionof the evidence, the council continued the acceptance of helmitolfor new and nonofficial remedies with the statement that the actionsand uses of hexamethylenamin anhydromethylencitrate were those ofhexamethylenamin w a puckner, secretary the following report on helmitol was made by the referee in charge ofhexamethylenamin compounds and preparations, adopted by the council andsent the winthrop chemical company:“helmitol is a compound of anhydromethylencitric acid andhexamethylenamin it was introduced with the claim that it would beantiseptic even in alkaline urine the council did not entirely trustthe evidence, but continued to list helmitol in n n r , merely asa salt of hexamethylenamin, until satisfactory data should becomeavailable these have now been furnished by hanzlik journal ofurology 4:145 who has shown that:“1 the alkalinity required to split off formaldehyd fromanhydromethylencitric acid is greater than exists in the urine, even inadvanced ammoniacal fermentation “2 even if any formaldehyd were liberated in ammoniacal fermentation, it would at once become inactive by combining with ammonia “3 urine after the administration of anhydromethylencitric acidactually putrefies readily “4 less than 5 per cent of the anhydromethylencitric radical reachesthe urine, the remainder being destroyed in the body “the only reason for the existence of helmitol was this claim ofantiseptic action in alkaline and putrefying urines since this hasbeen disproved, there remains no reason for retaining helmitol inn n r. On the contrary, its retention would only tend to continuethe fallacy on which it is based “it is, therefore, recommended that helmitol be no longer listed withnew and nonofficial remedies, and that this report be published, afterthe usual submission to the manufacturers ”in accordance with the recommendation of the report, the council hasdirected the omission of helmitol from new and nonofficial remediesand has authorized the publication of this report -- from the journala m a , jan 22, 1921 spirocide not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary “spirocide” the spirocide corporation of new york is advertised as anew and successful treatment of syphilis by fumigation and inhalation according to the information presented to the council, spirocide is amechanical mixture of metallic mercury 25 per cent , copper sulphate 25per cent , cypress cones 20 per cent , henna 20 per cent , nut gall 5per cent , and dried pomegranate 5 per cent it is supplied in the formof greenish-gray tablets weighing about 10 gm each, and containing, therefore, about 2 5 gm about 38 grains of mercury it is sold inpackages of six tablets the following directions for its use are contained in a pamphletrecently distributed. “spirocide is administered by means of fumigation and inhalation the patient is disrobed to the waist and placed in a light chair, preferably with arms a pastil or tablet of spirocide is placed on a small plate, or open receptacle, after being ignited by holding in a gas or alcohol flame for a minute or so until it begins to smoulder the plate with the burning spirocide is then placed on the floor between the patient feet or just under the chair a small shelf or platform between the lower rounds of the chair is an excellent location for the plate containing the burning mass when all is in position a sheet should be thrown over the patient and arranged to enclose the whole the patient should breathe naturally and inhale the vapor, which will rise and fill the canopy surrounding him the treatment will require 15 to 30 minutes, or until the spirocide is burned up the patient may complain at first of a slight choking sensation, and there may be essay tendency to cough this can be removed by raising the sheet long enough to let in a little clear air the eyes should be closed or lightly bandaged to avoid smarting ”experiments conducted in the a m a chemical laboratory show thatspirocide, when ignited, burns slowly with consequent volatilizationof mercury the several organic constituents serve as fuel and thecopper sulphate possibly acts as a regulator of the combustion duringthe burning process the cypress cones, henna, etc , are consumed butmost, if not all, the copper remains behind, the mercury only beingvaporized it is asserted in the advertising pamphlet that spirocide isindicated in all stages of syphilis, primary, secondary and tertiary, and in all its complications or sequelae in these varying conditionsone tablet daily or every other day is recommended until six treatmentshave been taken, though it is stated that “occasionally, depending onthe severity or the duration of the disease, it may be wise to givenine treatments, the last three at intervals of two, three or moredays ”essay of the results which it is claimed are obtained with spirocide are. “at the completion of this course of treatment with spirocide, all signs or evidences of syphilis are removed, and in ten days to three months all wassermann tests prove negative any further treatments than the original course of fumigations are rarely needed wassermann will be found uniformly negative after a period which, according to the patient, may vary from ten days to three months these results have been obtained in paper in which salvarsan and kindred preparations have been employed without the slightest benefit ”in a letter to the council the “scientific observer” of the spirocidecorporation declared. “we do not claim that the vaporization method is new we do claim, however, that this combination of mercury produces more rapid volatilization, certain absorption and undoubted effect than any form of mercury administered by any method known to science without the usual danger that this is so we are willing to prove by comparison with other methods both by ourselves and thesis observers scattered over the united states ”to determine the validity of the claims made for spirocide, thecorporation was asked to present the evidence which it offered inreply, the corporation “scientific observer, ” dr j lewengood, submitted 83 case reports from a number of different observers, including those from military hospitals and a state institution, andalso a reprint of an article published by him in the new york medicaljournal, feb 21, 1920, wherein were reported eight paper whichreceived “spirocide treatment ” in no case were controls with othermethods of mercury administration carried out this material the council sent to two recognized syphilographers foran opinion one of the consultants reported that of the 83 paper, 20 dealt with patients who had also received arsphenamin medicationand, therefore, these 20 paper could not be considered as evidenceconcerning the value of spirocide as to the remaining paper, hefound on the whole that the history and data furnished were far fromsufficient to warrant the claims made in thesis of the paper emphasiswas laid on the wassermann test, as though this test were the onlything to be considered in a case of syphilis he pointed out that inone case the reaction changed from negative to strongly positive aftersix treatments and that in several paper the phenomena reported cannotbe explained by anything else than a desire to get a negative bloodtest for example, one case had spirocide treatment and a wassermann, 1 plus, 55 days after. The author then reports that 19 days later thereaction had become negative and, therefore, the change must be due tospirocide in several of the paper reported it is even questionableif the patients were syphilitic the consultant concluded that theevidence submitted by the spirocide corporation failed to prove theclaims made for spirocide he pointed out on the other hand thatpatients readily become salivated from the use of spirocide, oftenafter 8 or 10 treatments the second consultant replied that in his opinion the claim thatspirocide produces more “undoubted effect than any form of mercuryadministered by any method known to science without the usual danger, ”was not substantiated he believed that it was not as effective as essayother methods, that the dosage is not as exact, and, therefore, it isnot as free from danger when the drug is pushed the council two consultants were also asked whether or not, in theiropinion, the administration of mercury by inhalation is a method whichthe council should endorse to the extent of recognizing a preparationbased on this principle this inquiry was also sent to the members ofthe editorial board of the archives of dermatology and syphilology five replies were received one advised a thorough study of thedifferent methods of administering mercury by inhalation the otherfour were opposed to such recognition on the ground that as the dosageis not exact the effects, therefore, are not certain in consideration of the opinions expressed by its consultants, thecouncil declared spirocide inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause 1 the claims made for it are unproved and unwarranted, 2the routine use of an inexact method for the administration of mercuryis detrimental to sound therapy and 3 the name is not descriptive ofits composition, thus failing to remind the physician who uses thesepastils that he is administering metallic mercury -- from the journala m a , jan 22, 1921 digifolin-ciba not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following report, declaring digifolin-ciba inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary digifolin-ciba is a product of the society of chemical industryof basle, switzerland it is marketed in the united states by theciba company, 91 barclay street, new york city it is claimed thatdigifolin-ciba is “a preparation of digitalis leaves that has beenfreed from the useless and harmful principles such as digitonin saponin, coloring and inert matter, etc , but does contain all thereally valuable, therapeutically active constituents of the leaves, namely. Digitoxin and digitalein in their natural proportions ” thereis no evidence that digifolin contains all of the glucosides ofdigitalis as they exist in the leaf, and it is extremely improbablethat this is the case because one cannot remove saponin withoutaltering the other active principles of digitalis the ciba company sends out the following pamphlets relating todigifolin. “‘concerning digifolin-ciba, a new preparation of digitalis, ’ by c hartung, m d , ph d extracts from the work ‘ueber digifolin, ein neues digitalis-praeparat’ in the munich medical weekly, no 36, page 1944, 1912 ” “‘digitoxin contents of digifolin-ciba, ’ by c hartung, m d , ph d , basle, switzerland reprints from the pharmaceutical post, 1913 no 34, page 357 no 40, page 431 ” “‘pharmacological tests of digitalis, ’ by m j chevalier, chef des travaux pratiques de pharmacologie et matiere medicale, faculte de medecine de paris report presented to the societe de therapeutique at their meeting, may 28, 1913 ”in the reprint “concerning digifolin, ‘ciba ’” hartung lays stresson the presence of harmful and inert substances present in the leafand galenical preparations with the direct or implied statement thatdigifolin has an advantage in that these are absent from it this ismisleading it is true that boehm whom hartung cites, found saponin tobe irritating, but boehm states that it required 100 mg per kilogramof body weight to induce vomiting after its oral administration furthermore, saponin is present in traces only in infusion ofdigitalis, so that the therapeutic dose contains a wholly negligibleamount of it the following occurs in “pharmacological tests of digitalis, ” by m j chevalier. “hartung digifolin merits our attention, especially because it seems to possess all the pharmacodynamic properties of galenic preparations of digitalis without showing any of their disadvantages ”this claim scarcely needs comment, since it is well established thatthe chief “disadvantages” of digitalis are inherent in the principleswhich produce the desired effects of digitalis and may be avoidedto a large extent by a carefully regulated dosage of any digitalispreparation in short, the advertising for digifolin asserts that thisdigitalis preparation has all the advantages of digitalis itself, butnone of its disadvantages this claim has been refuted so frequentlythat manufacturers must be aware that it is untenable further theclaims now made for digifolin are essentially those made nearly fouryears ago at which time the attention of the american agent was calledto their unwarranted character the council declared digifolin-ciba inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies because the therapeutic claims advanced for it are misleadingand unwarranted -- from the journal a m a , april 2, 1921 essay of loeser intravenous solutions report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following reporton “loeser intravenous solution of hexamethylenamin, ” “loeserintravenous solution of hexamethylenamin and sodium iodid, ” “loeserintravenous solution of sodium salicylate, ” “loeser intravenoussolution of salicylate and iodid, ” “loeser intravenous solution ofsodium iodid” and “loeser intravenous solution of mercury bichlorid, ”put out by the new york intravenous laboratory, inc w a puckner, secretary the intravenous solutions of “hexamethylenamin, ” “hexamethylenaminand sodium iodid, ” “sodium salicylate, ” “sodium salicylate and sodiumiodid, ” “sodium iodid” and “mercuric chlorid” marketed by the new yorkintravenous laboratory, inc , are solutions of official substances soldunder their official names they would, therefore, be outside the scopeof the council, were it not that special and general therapeutic claimsare made for them such special claims, for instance, are contained inan advertisement in the illinois medical journal for oct 20, 1920, which gives, under the various drugs, a list of diseases in which thedrugs are said to be “indicated ” the council is unable to agree withessay of these recommendations the fundamental objection, however, isthe general claim of superiority and safety of the intravenous method the intravenous solutions named above would naturally have little saleif such special claims were not made for them while the claims may notbe made directly, they are carried by such display phrases as “for theprogressive physician seeking improved clinical results” and “a safepractical office technique ”the council continues to hold that intravenous medication, generally, is not as safe as oral medication even with relatively harmlesssubstances a fact again illustrated by the results of hanzlik andkarsner, 1920, journal pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 14, 379, and that it does not give “improved clinical results” exceptunder rather narrowly confined circumstances-- namely, if the drugundergoes decomposition in the alimentary tract, if it is not absorbed, if it causes serious direct local reaction or if time is an urgentelement each intravenous preparation for which advantage over oraladministration is claimed, directly or by implication, must be examinedfrom these points of view the council has recognized intravenous preparations which satisfiedthese requirements it is evident, however, that hexamethylenamin, sodium iodid and sodium salicylate do not when given orally they donot undergo material decomposition in the digestive tract, they arerapidly absorbed, they cause no direct local reaction, and in theconditions in which they are used the hour or so which is required forabsorption is immaterial, especially as they are used continuously foressay time mercuric chlorid does indeed produce essay local irritation, but there is as yet no convincing evidence that its intravenousinjection causes less injury than oral administration more experienceunder controlled conditions is needed before the intravenous use ofmercuric chlorid can be approved especially objectionable are thefixed proportion mixtures of sodium iodid with sodium salicylate andwith hexamethylenamin the dosage of all three drugs has to be adaptedto individual conditions this is impossible when giving them in fixedproportions the council voted not to accept “loeser intravenous solution ofhexamethylenamin, ” “loeser intravenous solution of hexamethylenaminand sodium iodid, ” “loeser intravenous solution of sodiumsalicylate, ” “loeser intravenous solution of salicylate and iodid, ”“loeser intravenous solution sodium iodid” and “loeser intravenoussolution of mercury bichlorid” for new and nonofficial remedies becausethey are sold under misleading claims regarding their alleged safetyand efficiency in view of this fundamental objection the individualclaims for each preparation were not passed on -- from the journala m a , april 16, 1921 “national iodine solution” not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary “national iodine solution” is a proprietary sold by the national drugco , philadelphia, pa from inquiries received by the council onpharmacy and chemistry it is evident that the product is extensivelybrought to the attention of physicians by means of circulars the nameimplies that it is a solution of iodin and the inference is given thatit has the advantages of iodin without the disadvantages compositionin view of the foregoing, the council took up the investigation of“national iodine solution, ” and in turn asked the a m a chemicallaboratory to analyze it the chemist report follows:according to the label of national iodine solution, “each fluidouncerepresents three grains proteo-albuminoid compound of iodin national”. Also an alcohol declaration of 7 per cent is made otherwise no information is given as to the composition either of the“solution” or of “proteo-albuminoid compound of iodine ”each bottle contained about 115 c c nearly 4 ounces of a yellowishsolution, acid in reaction, having an odor resembling witch hazel. Itsspecific gravity at 25 c was 0 9860 qualitative tests indicated thepresence of zinc, alcohol, sulphate, an iodin compound the solutiongave tests which indicated a very small amount of free iodin. Mostof the iodin was in the form of ordinary iodid, a small amount ofvegetable extractives, and traces of aluminum and potassium if anyprotein was present, it was in amounts too small to be identified, though a small amount of a nitrogenous compound was present the amountof solids in “national iodine solution” was equivalent to 0 72 percent, and the amount of ash, to 0 2 per cent quantitative estimationsyielded the following. Alcohol by volume 7 0 per cent zinc zn 0 096 per cent iodin free and combined 0 029 per cent sulphate so₄--    0 146 per cent protein n × 6 36 0 012 per cent the above findings indicate that each 100 c c contains about 7 c c ofalcohol, 0 5 gram of zinc sulphate u s p znso₄7h₂o , 0 03 gramof iodin, 0 01 gram of protein calculated as such from nitrogen timesthe factor 6 36 and essay hamamelis water expressed in equivalentapothecary terms, each fluidounce contains essentially. Zinc sulphate 2-1/3 grains iodin free and combined 1/8 grain protein 1/25 grain alcohol 34 minimsthis amount of alcohol is equivalent to about 3-1/2 fluidrams of witchhazel water although the label states that each fluidounce containsthree grains of “proteo-albuminoid compound of iodine, ” yet the sum ofthe protein calculated from nitrogen content and iodin components isequivalent to less than 1/5 grain “national iodine solution” appears to be very similar to “gonocol” thenational drug co , philadelphia, pa , which was analyzed by the bureauof chemistry of the u s dewritingment of agriculture the bureau statedthat “it gonocol consisted essentially of an aqueous solution of zincsulphate, hamamelis water, a small amount of alcohol, 0 38 grain ofiodin, and 0 36 grain of protein per fluidounce ”it is evident that “national iodine solution” is not a solution offree elementary iodin as the name suggests. Instead it appears to bea solution of zinc sulphate in witch hazel water containing less than0 03 per cent of combined iodin and not more than a trace of freeiodin “national iodine solution” is one more to be added to thatalready long list of proprietaries which makes capital of the highesteem in which physicians hold iodin the claimsan advertising circular sent to physicians begins. “dear doctor. We beg to suggest a line of treatment while using national iodine solution which our thesis years of experience has proven to us to give the best and quickest results in the treatment of inflammation of the urethral tract ”in it are given directions for the treatment of “acute gonorrhea, male, ” “anterior urethritis, ” “anterior-posterior urethritis, ” “ardorurinæ and chordee, ” etc , by means of national iodine solution andother proprietaries of the national drug company make in fact thesolution is claimed to be “indicated in all conditions of urethraaccompanied by a discharge ” comment and conclusionsthe therapeutic claims made for “national iodine solution” areunwarranted such a solution is not indicated in all conditions of theurethra accompanied by discharge the advice contained in the circularis equivalent to mail-order treatment of gonorrhea it is of interest to note that the claims for an identical or asimilar solution prepared by the national drug company as a treatmentfor gonorrhea and intended for use by the laity, has been adjudgedmisbranded by the federal authorities notice of judgment no 8150, issued jan 25, 1921 in that it misled and deceived the purchaseror purchasers thereof in the statements regarding the therapeuticor curative effects of the article, which falsely and fraudulentlyrepresent it to be indicated in all conditions of the urethraaccompanied with a discharge, “whereas in truth and in fact it was not ”the council would emphasize that if physicians give heed to advertisingsuch as that sent out by the national drug company for this preparationthe medical profession cannot with good grace protest against theroutine treatment of venereal diseases by quacks and “patent medicine”venders -- from the journal a m a , june 4, 1921 mon-arsone not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary mon-arsone is offered by the harmer laboratories company as “a newand non-toxic arsenical for the treatment of syphilis ” in theadvertisements for mon-arsone it has been claimed that with thisdrug “the toxic, corrosive and uncertain reactions attending the useof arsphenamine have been entirely eliminated” and that “it has atherapeutic value equal to arsphenamine, but extensive case reportsfail to record the slightest toxic reaction following its use ”according to the manufacturers, mons-arsone is disodiumethylarsonate, the sodium salt of ethylarsonic acid, derived from arsenic acid byreplacement of one hydroxyl group by the ethyl group-- aso ch₂ch₃ oh₂ mons-arsone is related to sodium cacodylate, which is the sodium saltof dimethyl-arsenic acid-- aso ch₃₂oh-- derived from arsenic acid byreplacement of two hydroxyl groups by two methyl groups ethylarsonicacid and its potassium salt were described by la coste139 more thanthirty-five years ago, and the use of the sodium salt of methylarsonicacid was proposed in france essay years ago the harmer laboratoriescompany claims originality for mons-arsone in that it was the firstto prepare the sodium salt of ethylarsonic acid and to propose itstherapeutic use 139 la coste.

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Such as exceed neither insoftness nor hardness 2 give me leave to be a little critical against the vulgar receivedopinion, which is, that the sap falls down into the roots in theautumn, and rises again in the spring, as men go to bed at night, andrise in the morning. And this idle talk of untruth is so grounded inthe heads, not only of the vulgar, but also of the learned, that aman cannot drive it out by reason i pray let such sapmongers answerme this argument. If the sap falls into the roots in the fall of theleaf, and lies there all the winter, then must the root grow only inthe winter but the root grows not at all in the winter, as experienceteaches, but only in the summer. Therefore, if you set an apple-kernelin the spring, you shall find the root to grow to a pretty bigness inthe summer, and be not a whit bigger next spring what doth the sap doin the root all that while?. pick straws?. ’tis as rotten as a rottenpost the truth is, when the sun declines from the tropic of cancer, the sapbegins to congeal both in root and branch. When he touches the tropicof capricorn, and ascends to us-ward, it begins to wax thin again, andby degrees, as it congealed but to proceed 3 the drier time you gather the roots in, the better they are. Forthey have the less excrementitious moisture in them 4 such roots as are soft, your best way is to dry in the sun, or elsehang them in the chimney corner upon a string. As for such as are hard, you may dry them any where 5 such roots as are great, will keep longer than such as are small;yet most of them will keep a year 6 such roots as are soft, it is your best way to keep them always nearthe fire, and to take this general rule for it. If in winter-time youfind any of your roots, herbs or flowers begin to be moist, as thesistimes you shall for it is your best way to look to them once a monthdry them by a very gentle fire.