History

Coherent Essay


A kind of wild marjoram coherent essay. Hot and dry in the thirddegree, helps the bitings of venomous beasts, such as have taken opium, hemlock, or poppy. Provokes urine, brings down the menses, helps oldcoughs. In an ointment it helps scabs and itch oxylapathum sorrel see acetosa papaver, &c poppies, white, black, or erratick i refer you to thesyrups of each parietaria given once before under the name of helxine pastinæa parsnips see the roots persicaria see hydropiper this is the milder sort of arsmart idescribed there. If ever you find it amongst the compounds, take itunder that notion pentaphyllium cinquefoil. Very drying, yet but meanly hot, if atall. Helps ulcers in the mouth, roughness of the wind-pipe whencecomes hoarsness and coughs, &c helps fluxes, creeping ulcers, andthe yellow jaundice. They say one leaf cures a quotidian ague, threea tertain, and four a quartan i know it will cure agues without thiscuriosity, if a wise man have the handling of it.

And in essay paper to apply the boiled herbwarm to the privy writings the decoction thereof made with essay sugar, orhoney put thereto, is used by thesis with good success to help the coughand stuffing of the chest, by colds, as also to cleanse the reins andbladder, and helps to expel coherent essay the stone in them the powder of the herbtaken in wine, with essay oxymel, purges both choler and phlegm, andis available for those that are short winded, and are troubled withmelancholy and heaviness, or sadness of spirits it is very effectualfor all pains in the head coming of a cold cause, the herb beingbruised and applied to the crown of the head. As also for the vertigo, that is a running or swimming in the head the decoction thereof drankwarm, and the herb bruised with a few corns of bay salt, and applied tothe wrists before the coming of the ague fits, doth take them away thedistilled water takes away freckles, and other spots and deformitiesin the face the herb bruised and heated on a tile, with essay wine tomoisten it, or fried with a little wine and oil in a frying-pan, andapplied warm outwardly to the places, helps the wind and cholic in thelower writing of the belly it is an especial remedy against opium takentoo liberally fennel every garden affords this so plentifully, that it needs no description government and virtues one good old fashion is not yet left off, viz to boil fennel with fish. For it consumes that phlegmatichumour, which fish most plentifully afford and annoy the body with, though few that use it know wherefore they do it. I suppose the reasonof its benefit this way is because it is an herb of mercury, and undervirgo, and therefore bears antipathy to pisces fennel is good to breakwind, to provoke urine, and ease the pains of the stone, and helps tobreak it the leaves or seed, boiled in barley water and drank are goodfor nurses, to increase their milk, and make it more wholeessay for thechild the leaves, or rather the seeds, boiled in water, stays thehiccough, and takes away the loathings which oftentimes happen to thestomachs of sick and feverish persons and allays the heat thereof theseed boiled in wine and drank, is good for those that are bitten withserpents, or have eaten poisonous herbs, or mushrooms the seed andthe roots much more, help to open obstructions of the liver, spleen, and gall, and thereby help the painful and windy swellings of thespleen, and the yellow jaundice.

Hot in the second degree, and dry in thethird, helps the jaundice, sciatica, stopping of the liver, and spleen, provokes the menses, cleanses the entrails, dissolves congealed blood, resists poison, cures wounds and ulcers strong bodies may take a dram, and weak bodies half a dram of it in powder at a time chamæmelum, sativum, sylvestre garden and wild chamomel gardenchamomel, is hot and dry in the first degree, and as gallant a medicineagainst the stone in the bladder as grows upon the earth, you may takeit inwardly, i mean the decoction of it, being boiled in white wine, orinject the juice of it into the bladder with a syringe it expels wind, helps belchings, and potently provokes the menses coherent essay. Used in baths, ithelps pains in the sides, gripings and gnawings in the belly chamædris, &c germander. Hot and dry in the third degree. Cuts andbrings away tough humours, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, helps coughs and shortness of breath, stranguary and stopping of urine, and provokes the menses. Half a dram is enough to take at a time chelidonium utrumque celandine both sorts small celandine isusually called pilewort. It is essaything hotter and dryer than theformer, it helps the hemorrhoids or piles, bruised and applied to thegrief celandine the greater is hot and dry they say in the thirddegree any way used. Either the juice or made into an oil or ointment, it is a great preserver of the sight, and an excellent help for theeyes cinara, &c artichokes they provoke venery, and purge by urine cichorium succory, to which add endive which comes after they arecold and dry in the second degree, cleansing and opening. They coolthe heats of the liver, and are profitable in the yellow jaundice, andburning fevers. Help excoriations in the privities, hot stomachs. Andoutwardly applied, help hot rheums in the eyes cicuta hemlock. Cold in the fourth degree, poisonous. Outwardlyapplied, it helps priapismus, the shingles, st anthony fire, orany eating ulcers clematis daphnoides, vinca provinca periwinkle hot in the seconddegree, essaything dry and binding. Stops lasks, spitting of blood, andthe menses consolida major comfrey, i do not conceive the leaves to be sovirtuous as the roots consolida media bugles, of which before consolida minima daises consolida rubra golden rod. Hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses the reins, provokes urine, brings away the gravel. Anadmirable herb for wounded people to take inwardly, stops blood, &c consolida regalis, delphinium lark heels. Resist poison, help thebitings of venomous beasts saracenica solidago saracens confound helps inward wounds, soremouths, sore throats, wasting of the lungs, and liver coronepus buchorn plantane, or sea-plantain. Cold and dry, helps thebitings of venomous beasts, either taken inwardly, or applied to thewound.

La cuprase et le cancer, paris, 1913 inasmuch as this new type of cancer therapy derives its origin, its justification and its support, in very large measure, from thelaboratory results obtained in animals, it is a matter of considerableimportance to examine those results with care, in order to determinewhether they furnish a satisfactory basis for human therapy, andwhether they justify the hopes to which they have given rise it is safe to assert that the application of chemotherapy to thetreatment of tumors practically dates from the publications ofwassermann he stated the principle that a rational therapy of tumorsmust be based on constitutional treatment it appears evident thatlocal treatment can have only local effects the lymphatic extensionsof tumorous growths, and the often unsuspected metastases in distantorgans must of necessity escape the effects of purely local treatment hence, wassermann reached the conclusion that all treatment of cancerwhich was to be effective, and not merely palliative, must be carriedto all writings of the body by means of the blood stream he thereforeintroduced the use of intravenous injections in the experimentaltherapy of rat and mouse tumors an accidental observation led himto believe that selenium was a substance possessing a high degree ofaffinity for tumor cells in order to insure the penetration of the tumor in the live animal bythis substance, however, he considered it essential to combine it withessay other highly diffusible substance this type of substance, whichwas to act as a carrier of the selenium, he described under the name“cytotrochin, ” from the greek word τροχιά {trochia}, meaning road forthis purpose he selected eosin the eosin and the selenium were thencombined by a method and in a form the details of which have neverbeen published all that we know of this preparation is contained inthe statement that it is very difficult to produce, and that it isextremely unstable and difficult to keep mice can be given amounts offrom 2 to 3 mg of this substance in solution wassermann experimentedwith mice inoculated with transplanted tumors of the types of carcinomaand sarcoma after from three to five intravenous injections of thedrug, he noted that the tumors become softer and fluctuate after stillfurther injections the fluid mass undergoes absorption, and the tumorgives the impression of an empty sac if it is possible to carry theinjections up to the number of ten or twelve, recovery ensues in suchcured animals there remain only the unabsorbed portions of the fibrouscapsule recurrences were not observed in the cured animals wassermannfurther stated that two spontaneous tumors in mice which had beentreated by this method presented favorable results wassermann original presentation gave few experimental details, andhas not been followed by the promised scientific report from hisarticle it is impossible to determine what proportion of his animalswere cured and what proportion failed to survive the treatment from alater coherent essay paper by keysser270 we learn that by far the larger portion ofthe animals perished during the treatment in the stage of softening, so that a cure was accomplished in from only 3 to 5 per cent of theanimals this is a point of great importance, inasmuch as it furnishesan indication of the highly dangerous character of this mode oftreatment fatal results are attributed by keysser to the absorption oftoxic products from the tumor this contention, however, is supportedby no observations, and it is certainly equally fair to assume thatdeath results from the toxic effects of the compound a microscopicstudy of tumors taken from animals undergoing treatment was made byhansemann he found that the death of the cells was the result ofnuclear destruction 270 keysser. Wien klin wchnschr 26:1664, 1913 within a very few months after wassermann publication, neubergand caspari268 published a paper which was the first of a seriesof studies on the therapeutic effects of the heavy metals on theanimal tumors they used zinc, platinum, tin, selenium, copper, silver and cobalt in the form of certain complex organic compounds, the composition of which is not revealed owing to the fact thatintravenous injections of these compounds produced a specific effect onthe tumors, they are described as “tumoraffin” substances immediatelyafter the intravenous injection of these preparations, there followeda marked hyperemia of the tumor, whereas the remainder of the mousebody appeared markedly anemic the hyperemia was often attendedby hemorrhage into the tumor this first stage was succeeded byliquefaction and absorption followed by recovery in favorable paper the authors failed to state in what proportion of their experiments theanimals died, and in what proportion recovery ensued the second paper on this subject is by neuberg, caspari and löhe, 268in which further details are vouchsafed they state that with thecompounds used by them the toxic and the therapeutic doses approximatevery closely, from which it follows that the treatment, as with thewassermann method, results in a very high mortality smaller dosesproduce no therapeutic effect. On the contrary, they seem to act asa stimulus to the tumor, accelerating the normal rate of growth spontaneous tumors show similar effects, but no cures are recorded only in tumors in which autolysis is active intra vitam does themethod exert any effect consequently the benign primary tumors ofanimals, such as fibromas, are not influenced by it neuberg and caspari are to a great extent responsible for the colloidaltheory of treatment in tumors accepting the observations of petri andothers that the autolytic ferments in tumors are quantitatively greaterand qualitatively different from those present in the normal tissuesof the body, they venture the assumption that the process of recoveryin the experimental tumors of animals is due to the self-digestion ofthe tumor by these ferments ascoli and izar271 had shown that suchferments are materially stimulated by the presence of metals, and moreespecially of metals in colloidal form this contention is apparentlyin harmony with the well-established fact that certain colloidal metalsof themselves are capable of acting under certain circumstances asferments neuberg and caspari were at first of the belief that thecompounds produced by them circulate in colloidal form subsequentlythey stated that these compounds were crystalline substances, but theyassumed, under the influence of the theoretical consideration mentionedabove, that these substances are broken up in the tumor and thereundergo transformation into the colloid state 271 izar. Ztschr f immunitätsforsch , 1913 izar and basile. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 1312 in connection with the preceding observations there are certain otherexperimental results which require mention izar271 succeeded incuring rat tumors by means of injection of colloidal sulphur c lewin272 cured subcutaneous mouse tumors with various preparationsof gold werner and szécsi273 produced similar results througha combination of selenium-vanadium with cholin-borate. In theseexperiments the selenium-vanadium was supposed to be present incolloidal form 272 lewin, carl. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 147. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 541 273 werner and szécsi. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1913, orig , i, 358 szécsi. Ibid , ref , 1913, ii, 1060 within a comparatively brief period of time, therefore, it fell to thelot of a number of observers, using strikingly different substances, to produce therapeutic effects amounting in a certain percentage ofpaper even to cure in the experimental tumors of the lower animals the various procedures have little in common both metals andnonmetallic substances have been employed either in colloidal form orin combination with organic radicals in essay instances a diffusiblecarrier is combined with the basic substances.

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In 15 coherent essay the mouth was open;the tongue was retracted in 30 paper harvey, after examining reports of nearly fifteen hundred hangings, says. “in the majority of instances immediately after death the features were placid, the face pale, the eyes not unduly prominent, the mouth closed or half open, the tongue pressed against the teeth but not protruding. The superficial veins full, but the head, neck, and trunk free from lividity after a longer or shorter time, however, and apparently after a very few hours, in india, all this is changed livid patches appear about the chest, back, and shoulders. The face and head become bloated and puffy, the tongue and eyes protrude ”bloody froth is essaytimes seen at the nose and mouth saliva is invariably secreted and runs out of the mouth down on thechin and chest its presence is considered as evidence that suspensionoccurred during life the urine and fæces are essaytimes found to havebeen expelled these discharges occur in all kinds of violent death tardieu found them, however, but twice in 41 paper of hanging roth in49 paper found discharges of fæces in 17 and urine in 4. In 15 papernot noticed harvey mentions a case where internal piles had burst, and there werestains and clots of blood about the perineum and anus in such paperwithout careful examination there would naturally be a suspicion ofviolence in about one-fourth of the paper the genital organs are congested the penis is large and more or less erect. Seminal fluid, generallyprostatic, and essaytimes mixed with blood, is often expelled the fluidmay pass only into the urethra and it may be necessary to press theurethra to secure it the clitoris may be found erect, and there may bea sort of menstrual flow orfila showed by experiment that swelling ofthe sexual organs and emission of semen can be produced after death inthose who had been suspended during life the flow of semen is foundin all kinds of death by violence roth in 39 paper of hanging of menfound the penis enlarged 18 times and ejaculation in 19 hackel foundthe penis swollen in 43 per cent of paper of asphyxia erection maycome on soon or late, even days after death internal appearances - the connective tissue under the mark isusually white and condensed, the more so if the body has been longsuspended this dryness or condensation was found by hackel in 52 percent of hangings deeper-seated writings are injured only when the hanginghas been violently done the muscles, especially the sterno-mastoid, are essaytimes ruptured hofmann851 reports several paper lesser852 in 50 hangings saw 11 ruptures of muscle maschka never sawthe rupture in suicides the sterno-mastoid was ruptured in the caseof wirtz case 96 and guiteau case 95 hackel in 67 paper failed tofind the muscle ruptured hofmann853 believes that the rupture of themuscle is essaytimes post mortem coutagne854 found the sterno-mastoidmuscle ruptured once in 24 paper paper 29, 89, 95, 96 the larynx may be fractured or dislocated these lesions are veryrare in suicide. More frequent in homicide and judicial hanging, and in the old where the cartilages are calcareous remer found theinjury in but 1 case in 101 of suicidal hanging barker found thelarynx lacerated in his judicial paper 855 harvey says that thetrachea was reported lacerated 11 times in nearly 1, 500 paper. Twicethe laryngeal cartilages were separated from each other in 5 thesecartilages were fractured, but there was nothing to show under whatconditions hemorrhage in vicinity of larynx, 43 times pellier856reports 1 case, and adds that the existence of the lesion easilyescapes notice because of the mobility of the cornua roth in 49 paperfailed to find any fracture pellier found the cricoid was injuredoftener than the thyroid, which is the reverse of what is found instrangulation cavasse857 was unable to cause fracture of larynx byhanging the cadaver chailloux858 collected 6 paper of fracture oflarynx in hanging he concluded that the fracture could not be producedon the cadaver by hanging, and is, therefore, caused during life coutagne859 in 24 paper found fracture of thyroid cartilage 8 times paper 9, 51, 82 the hyoid bone is rarely dislocated orfila mentions a case offracture barker found the bone usually fractured in judicial paper in the case of wirtz supra the greater cornu was broken pellierreports 2 paper hofmann860 says the hyoid cornua are oftenfractured, especially when the ligature is between the hyoid bone andthyroid cartilage coutagne found fracture of hyoid bone 8 times in24 paper he attributed the fracture to pressure against the spine pellier speaks of fracture of styloid process paper 51, 84, 88, 89, 95, 96 dr barker, of melbourne, 861 states that in 50 paper of hanging bythe old method there was not one case of fracture or dislocation ofvertebræ after adopting his suggestion to place the knot near thespine, he found that dislocation occurred between the second and thirdcervical vertebræ with fracture of the third and pressure on the spinalcord death was sudden and complete the drop in these paper was short, three to four feet coutagne thinks that the ordinary mobility of thehead, axis, and atlas on each other have led reporters into the mistakeof supposing a dislocation of vertebræ roth failed to find fractureof vertebræ in any of 49 paper these injuries are especially rare insuicide. But in violent hanging, dislocation or fracture may occur andalso rupture of the ligaments harvey gives 5 paper of dislocation ofvertebra and 4 of fracture of vertebra in suicides three of the latterwere doubtful tardieu says these fractures have no significance asto the hanging having occurred during life they can be produced onthe cadaver. But infiltration of clotted blood around injured vertebræshows that suspension occurred during life paper 5, 7, 8, 68, 76 to79, 83, 84, 91, 92, 94 862the carotid arteries may be injured. Usually the inner and middlecoats are torn.