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Coalition Essay Prompts


Injected vi 30 19. Rather quiet during next two hours morning of vii 1 19, lies on stomach. Quiet. Does not eat very much pain reflexes good vii 2 19, still depressed.

And although the present case doesnot come under the exceptions specified under these comments, it may beurged that the exceptions need to be increased as occasion arises thenotorious adulteration of aspirin may well be urged as establishing aneed for a similar exception in its use the general principle of protecting the public against fraud, adulteration and substitution is directly in line with the objects ofthe council, and deserves commendation and support it is obvious, however, that the means adopted for this end must be efficient, that they must not open the door to other, perhaps greater evilsand that they must be used in good faith the policy of advertising“aspirin-bayer” must be examined in these respects in the first place, the acceptance of a product by the council impliesan agreement by the manufacturers or agents that they will adherestrictly to the council rules and will not dewriting from the letter orspirit of these rules without notice to the council this principle hasbeen grossly infringed in the present case there can be no doubt thatthe agents were aware that their advertisements conflicted, at leastwith the letter of rule 3 nevertheless, they did not, in any way, inform the council of the change in policy in this respect, at least, they have not acted in good faith secondly, the wording of the advertisement implies that only thetablets stamped with “the bayer cross” are genuine this is misleading, since every druggist has the right to make unstamped tablets ofaspirin, fully as genuine as those stamped with the cross thirdly, the cross itself cannot be considered an efficient protection;for people who imitate aspirin will not hesitate to imitate thestamp the remedy, in either case, and as with any other drug, is theexamination of trade samples, and the vigorous prosecution of thoseguilty of violating the law fourthly, the permanent affixing of the name “aspirin” to thevest-pocket boxes is coalition essay prompts also inefficient as a protection, and servesmainly as an advertisement fifthly, whatever may have been the motives of the advertisers, andhowever carefully the advertisements are worded, they will inevitablytend to increase the use of aspirin by the public, and this is directlyagainst the interests of public health the public does not know, asphysicians do, that headaches are merely symptoms of other, essaytimesvery serious conditions. And that they are often the signal for theneed of a thorough physical examination and diagnosis it is true thatthey are often also the symptoms of very minor derangements, which willright themselves spontaneously. And that, in such paper, drugs likeaspirin may give relief and may do no harm the patient, however, isnot educated to distinguish one class from the other, and thereforeanything that tends to promote the indiscriminate use of such remediesas aspirin is detrimental to the public health furthermore, aspirinitself is not always harmless alarming idiosyncrasies are sufficientlycommon that the use of the first doses, at least, should requiremedical supervision with these considerations in mind, the referee isof the opinion that the direct and indirect advertising of aspirin isto be condemned -- from the journal a m a , jan 20, 1917 pil cascara compound-robins report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya circular issued by the a h robins company of richmond, va , contains the following statement. “pil cascara compound-robins is a rational therapeutic formula, composed of cascara, podophyllin, colocynth and hyoscyamus, which promotes a natural flow of secretions, which is, in turn, the physiologic stimulant of peristalsis thus, a normal evacuation is produced without subsequent inhibition “they contain no mercury, strychnia nor belladonna “an ideal aid to any remedial agent, when a mild, medium or strong alimentary stimulant is needed sic “made in two strengths, the dosage may be easily regulated so as to obtain the effects of an anti-dyspeptic, aperient, laxative or cathartic, as desired they never cause discomfort unless given in larger dose than needed ”this preparation is another example of the innumerable mixtures ofwell-known drugs having nothing in the way of originality or of specialtherapeutic value to recommend them the advertising implies that this writingicular combination has a specialaction on the secretions of the gastro-intestinal tract. Otherwiseit would be hard to explain the claim that the preparation isantidyspeptic, if that means anything more than a laxative or cathartic the claim is made that this preparation contains no belladonna-- yetit admittedly contains hyoscyamus!. this manifests either ignorance onthe writing of the manufacturers, or an effort to impose on the medicalprofession both belladonna and hyoscyamus contain variable amountsof similar alkaloids, chiefly hyoscyamin hyoscyamus is feeblerthan belladonna in its action, as it contains less alkaloid thequalitative differences between the two drugs, with reference to theiruse as laxatives, is so slight as to make the company claim forhyoscyamus appear either deliberately misleading or to be the resultof crass ignorance promoting this mixture of well-known laxatives andcathartics as an “ideal aid to any remedial agent when a mild, mediumor strong alimentary stimulant is needed” is a slur on the intelligenceof physicians pil cascara compound-robins is not acceptable for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , jan 27, 1917 casta-flora report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycasta-flora is one of those complex preparations which are offeredto the medical profession, with plausible arguments in support ofthe claims made it is put out by the wm s merrell chemical co , cincinnati each fluidounce is said to represent. “castanea, fresh leaves, 40 gr. Passiflora, fresh plant, 40 gr.

in such syrups as purge, asdamask roses, peach flowers, &c the usual, and indeed the best way, isto repeat this infusion, adding fresh flowers to the same liquor diverstimes, that so it may be the stronger having strained it out, put theinfusion into a pewter bason, coalition essay prompts or an earthen one well glazed, and toevery pint of it add two pounds of sugar, which being only melted overthe fire, without boiling, and scummed, will produce you the syrup youdesire 2dly, syrups made by decoction are usually made of compounds, yet mayany simple herb be thus converted into syrup. Take the herb, root, or flowers you would make into a syrup, and bruise it a little. Thenboil it in a convenient quantity of spring water. The more water youboil it in, the weaker it will be. A handful of the herb or root is aconvenient quantity for a pint of water, boil it till half the waterbe consumed, then let it stand till it be almost cold, and strainit through a woollen cloth, letting it run out at leisure. Withoutpressing to every pint of this decoction add one pound of sugar, andboil it over the fire till it come to a syrup, which you may know, ifyou now and then cool a little of it with a spoon. Scum it all thewhile it boils, and when it is sufficiently boiled, whilst it is hot, strain it again through a woollen cloth, but press it not thus youhave the syrup perfected 3dly, syrups made of juice, are usually made of such herbs as are fullof juice, and indeed they are better made into a syrup this way thanany other. The operation is thus. Having beaten the herb in a stonemortar, with a wooden pestle, press out the juice, and clarify it, asyou are taught before in the juices. Then let the juice boil away tillabout a quarter of it be consumed. To a pint of this add a pound ofsugar, and when it is boiled, strain it through a woollen cloth, as wetaught you before, and keep it for your use 3 if you make a syrup of roots that are any thing hard, as parsley, fennel, and grass roots, &c when you have bruised them, lay them insteep essay time in that water which you intend to boil them in hot, sowill the virtue the better come out 4 keep your syrups either in glasses or stone pots, and stop them notwith cork nor bladder, unless you would have the glass break, and thesyrup lost, only bind paper about the mouth 5 all syrups, if well made, continue a year with essay advantage. Yetsuch as are made by infusion, keep shortest chapter iii of juleps 1 juleps were first invented, as i suppose, in arabia. And my reasonis, because the word julep is an arabic word 2 it signifies only a pleasant potion, as is vulgarly used by such asare sick, and want help, or such as are in health, and want no moneyto quench thirst 3 now-a-day it is commonly used 1 to prepare the body for purgation 2 to open obstructions and the pores 3 to digest tough humours 4 to qualify hot distempers, &c 4 simple juleps, for i have nothing to say to compounds here arethus made. Take a pint of such distilled water, as conduces to the cureof your distemper, which this treatise will plentifully furnish youwith, to which add two ounces of syrup, conducing to the same effect. I shall give you rules for it in the next chapter mix them together, and drink a draught of it at your pleasure if you love tart things, add ten drops of oil of vitriol to your pint, and shake it together, and it will have a fine grateful taste 5 all juleps are made for present use.

Forthe heart, seeing it is placed in the middle between the brain and theliver, is wrought upon by reason, as well as by digestion, yet these, because they are not medicines, are beside my present scope and although it is true, that mirth, love, &c are actions, or motionsof the mind, not of the coalition essay prompts body. Yet thesis have been induced to think suchaffections may be wrought in the body by medicines the heart is chiefly afflicted by too much heat, by poison, andby stinking vapours, and these are remedied by the second sort ofcordials, and indeed chiefly belong to our present scope according to these three afflictions, viz 1 excessive heat 2 poison 3 melancholy vapours are three kinds of remedies which succour the afflicted heart such as 1 by their cooling nature mitigate the heat of fevers 2 resist poison 3 cherish the vital spirits when they languish all these are called cordials 1 such as cool the heart in fevers, yet is not every thing thatcooleth cordial, for lead is colder than gold, yet is not lead cordialas gold is, essay hold it cordial by a hidden quality, others by reason 2 such as resist poison. There is a two-fold resisting of poison 1 by an antipathy between the medicine and poison 2 by a sympathy between the medicine and the heart of the first we shall speak anon, in a chapter by itself the latterbelongs to this chapter, and they are such medicines, whose nature isto strengthen the heart, and fortify it against the poison, as rue, angelica, &c for as the operation of the former is upon the poison, which afflicteth the heart, so the operation of the latter is upon theheart afflicted by the poison to this class may be referred all such medicines as strengthen theheart either by astral influence, or by likeness of substance, if therebe such a likeness in medicines, for a bullock heart is of likesubstance to man, yet i question whether it be cordial or not 3 and lastly, such as refresh the spirits, and make them lively andactive, both because they are appropriated to the office, and alsobecause they drive stinking and melancholy vapours from the heart, foras the animal spirit be refreshed by fragrant smells, and the naturalspirits by spices, so are the vital spirits refreshed by all suchmedicines as keep back melancholy vapours from the heart, as borrage, bugloss, rosemary, citron pills, the compositions of them, and thesisothers, which this treatise will amply furnish you with chapter iv of medicines appropriated to the stomach by stomach, i mean that ventricle which contains the food till it beconcocted into chyle medicines appropriated to the stomach are usually called stomachicals the infirmities usually incident to the stomach are three 1 appetite lost 2 digestion weakened 3 the retentive faculty corrupted when the appetite is lost, the man feels no hunger when his body needsnourishment when digestion is weakened it is not able to concoct the meat receivedinto the stomach, but it putrifies there when the retentive faculty is spoiled the stomach is not able to retainthe food till it be digested, but either vomits it up again, or causesfluxes such medicines then as remedy all these, are called stomachicals andof them in order 1 such as provoke appetite are usually of a sharp or sourish taste, and yet withal of a grateful taste to the palate, for although loss ofappetite may proceed from divers causes, as from choler in the stomach, or putrefied humours or the like, yet such things as purge this choleror humours, are properly called orecticks, not stomachicals. Theformer strengthen appetite after these are expelled 2 such medicines help digestion as strengthen the stomach, either byconvenient heat, or aromatic viz spicy faculty, by hidden property, or congruity of nature 3 the retentive faculty of the stomach is corrected by bindingmedicines, yet not by all binding medicines neither, for essay of themare adverse to the stomach, but by such binding medicines as areappropriated to the stomach for the use of these use 1 use not such medicines as provoke appetite before you havecleansed the stomach of what hinders it use 2 such medicines as help digestion, give them a good time beforemeat that so they may pass to the bottom of the stomach, for thedigestive faculty lies there, before the food come into it use 3 such as strengthen the retentive faculty, give them a littlebefore meat, if to stay fluxes, a little after meat, if to stayvomiting chapter v of medicines appropriated to the liver be pleased to take these under the name of hepatics, for that is theusual name physicians give them, and these also are of three sorts 1 essay the liver is delighted in 2 others strengthen it 3 others help its vices the palate is the seat of taste, and its office is to judge what foodis agreeable to the stomach, and what not, by that is both the qualityand quantity of food for the stomach discerned. The very same officethe meseraik veins perform to the liver essaytimes such food pleases the palate which the liver likes not butnot often and therefore the meseraik veins refuse it, and that isthe reason essay few men fancy such food as makes them sick after theeating thereof 1 the liver is delighted exceedingly with sweet things, draws themgreedily, and digests them as swiftly, and that is the reason honey isso soon turned into choler 2 such medicines strengthen the liver, as being appropriated to itvery gently bind, for seeing the office of the liver is to concoct, it needs essay adstriction, that so both the heat and the humour to beconcocted may be stayed, that so the one slip not away, nor the otherbe scattered yet do not hepatical medicines require so great a binding faculty asstomachicals do, because the passages of the stomach are more openthan those of the liver by which it either takes in chyle, or sendsout blood to the rest of the body, therefore medicines that are verybinding are hurtful to the liver, and either cause obstructions, orhinder the distribution of the blood, or both and thus much for the liver, the office of which is to concoct chyle, which is a white substance the stomach digests the food into intoblood, and distributes it, by the veins, to every writing of the body, whereby the body is nourished, and decaying flesh restored chapter vi of medicines appropriated to the spleen in the breeding of blood, are three excrements most conspicuous, viz urine, choler, and melancholy the proper seat of choler is in the gall the urine passeth down to the reins or kidneys, which is all one the spleen takes the thickest or melancholy blood to itself this excrement of blood is twofold. For either by excessive heat, itis addust, and this is that the latins call atra bilis. Or else itis thick and earthly of itself, and this properly is called melancholyhumour hence then is the nature of splenical medicines to be found out, andby these two is the spleen usually afflicted for atra bilis, i knownot what distinct english name to give it thesis times causes madness, and pure melancholy causeth obstructions of the bowels, and tumours, whereby the concoction of the blood is vitiated, and dropsies thesistimes follow medicines then peculiar to the spleen must needs be twofold also, essayappropriated to atra bilis, others to pure melancholy. But of purgingeither of them, i shall omit till i come to treat of purging in achapter by itself 1 such medicines are splenical, which by cooling and moistening temperatra bilis. Let not these medicines be too cold neither, for there isno such heat in atra bilis as there is in choler, and therefore itneeds no such excessive cooling. Amongst the number of these are suchas we mentioned amongst the cordials to repel melancholy vapours fromthe heart, such temper and assuage the malice of atra bilis 2 those medicines are also splenical, by which melancholy humours arecorrected and so prepared, that they may the more easily be evacuated:such medicines are cutting and opening, and they differ from hepaticalsin this that they are no ways binding. For the spleen being no waysaddicted to concoction, binding medicines do it harm, and not good 3 essaytimes the spleen is not only obstructed, but also hardened bymelancholy humours, and in such paper emolient medicines may be wellcalled splenicals, not such as are taken inwardly, for they operateupon the stomach and bowels, but such as are outwardly applied to theregion of the spleen and although essaytimes medicines, are outwardly applied to hardness ofthe liver, yet they differ from splenicals, because they are binding, so are not splenicals chapter vii of medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder the office of the reins is, to make a separation between the blood andthe urine. To receive this urine thus separated from the blood, is thebladder ordained, which is of a sufficient bigness to contain it both these writings of the body officiating about the urine, they are bothusually afflicted by the vices of the urine 1 by stones 2 by inflammation 3 by thick humours medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder are usually callednephriticals, and are threefold. Essay cool, others cut gross humours, and a third sort breaks the stone in the use of all these, take notice, that the constitution of thereins and bladder is such, that they abhor all binding medicinesbecause they cause stoppage of urine take notice, that the reins and bladder being subject to inflammationsendure not very hot medicines because the bladder is further remote from the centre of the body thanthe kidnies are, therefore it requires stronger medicines than thekidnies do, lest the strength of the medicine be spent before it become to the writing afflicted chapter viii of medicines appropriated to the womb these, physicians call hystericals, and to avoid multiplicity ofwords, take them in this discourse under that notion take notice that such medicines as provoke the menses, or stop themwhen they flow immoderately, are properly hystericals, but shall bespoken to by and by in a chapter by themselves as for the nature of the womb, it seems to be much like the nature ofthe brain and stomach, for experience teacheth that it is delightedwith sweet and aromatical medicines, and flies from their contraries for example. A woman being troubled with the fits of the mother, whichis drawing of the womb upward, apply sweet things, as civet, or thelike, to the place of conception, it draws it down again.

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“i have found out byactual tests that the preparation maintains its stability for five orsix months ”here are the claims in detail. “for the source of secretin i preferably use that writing of the alimentary tract of any lower animal-- such as a hog or sheep-- including the gastric pylorus, the duodenum and the jejunum this writing is split open and washed with a normal saline solution to clean the mucosa or mucous membrane of any detritus which may be present the mucosa with the epithelial cells is then removed or separated from the muscular wall by scraping with a blunt knife or in any other suitable way the scrapings or cuttings, which contain the secretin, are then macerated or broken up ” “the macerated mass is placed in a suitable vessel and subjected to the action of an acid solution until digested the time for the digestion of the mass will, of course, depend upon the strength and temperature of the acid solution employed the stronger the solution and the higher the temperature, the shorter the time necessary for complete digestion this period may vary from several minutes to several hours in my experiments i found that the best results were obtained with hydrochloric acid solution of one-tenth to five-tenths of one per cent in strength, although as high as eight-tenths per cent might be used the mixture is brought to a temperature of approximately 210 f , and it may even for a few moments exceed that temperature, but it should be kept below the boiling point, for excessive heat injures or breaks down the secretin molecule and impairs or destroys its activity although i prefer to use hydrochloric acid, i would have it understood that other acids-- both organic or inorganic-- may be employed, provided that the percentage of acidity is regulated to prevent a chemical change in the secretin, and further provided, of course, that the acid has no injurious effect on the human system ” “after the mass has been digested in the heated solution, the decoction is decanted, and after being allowed to cool is passed through a suitable filter until the filtrate is clear i found that by filtering the decoction from four to six times through a carbon filter, i obtained a clear colorless filtrate this is a solution of secretin and the acid which was used, and the clearness of the solution shows that it is practically free from albumoses, gelatin and other impurities such as cell tissues, etc present in the raw material under treatment ” “to the solution of pure and active secretin prepared as above explained, there is added a suitable quantity of blood serum-- say from one-fifth to two per cent or any equivalent medium-- such as albumin solution or a peptone solution-- which will aid and sustain the activating power of secretin as provided by the blood that is to say, any medium having the same power, similar quality or chemical composition that the blood-stream possesses in combining with secretin to stimulate the pancreas the addition of such a medium to the active secretin solution increases the potency of the secretin and its degree of stability by preventing oxidation or deterioration thereof if this strengthening or fortifying medium, as it may be properly termed, is alkaline, it performs the additional function of lowering the acidity of the secretin filtrate it is preferable that the final product be just faintly acid if desired, the final product may be made into an elixir by the addition of aromatics ” “any desired strength of secretin solution may be obtained according to the quantity of acid solution in my experiments i used from ten to fourteen duodena to a pint of acid solution ” “the solution of secretin prepared as above described is characterized by its ability to resist oxidation or deterioration for a sufficient period of time to render the solution available as a commercial article, and is furthermore characterized by freedom from poisonous and irritable chemical substances, whereby the secretin is chemically adapted to the human system to stimulate the pancreas to increased secretion ” “as previously stated, the secretin prepared according to my method may be administered orally to produce the desired physiological action of course, if desired, the secretin might be injected intravenously, but this more or less dangerous procedure is not at all necessary, and i merely mention it here to point out that when i refer to the oral administration of my new secretin preparation, i do not mean to exclude its administration by injection ” “as to the commercial stability of the secretin prepared according to my method, i may say that i have found by actual tests that the preparation maintains its stability for as long a period as five or six months when i refer to my product as being “commercially stable, ” i mean that it resists oxidation or deterioration for a sufficient period to render the same available as a commercial article this period may vary from several weeks to several months, depending upon certain commercial factors well understood by the manufacturer so, roughly speaking, i should say that secretin is commercially stable when it retains its activity from one to six months i do not wish to be understood, however, as limiting myself to these exact figures ”that active secretin may be extracted from macerated intestinal mucosaby weak acids below the temperature of boiling is well known in fact, weak acids at body temperature in contact with the duodenal mucosa leadto the formation of secretin the claims that secretin given by mouthreaches the blood and acts on the pancreas has been made for otherpreparations of secretin it has also been shown that these claims areerroneous 122 thus it would appear that the only novel element indr beveridge patented secretin is the addition of serum, solubleproteins or peptones what reason is there for believing that thiswill render the secretin stable for months, and physiologically activewhen taken by mouth?. we do not believe dr beveridge ever injected hissecretin-- protein mixture-- intravenously in man or animals not underanesthesia, otherwise he would not have stated. “of course, if desired, the secretin may be injected intravenously ”122 carlson, lebensohn and pearlman, the journal, jan 15, 1916, p 178 beveridge patented secretin is not stablei the samples of secretin sent us by dr beveridge -- physiologicaltests were made on four quart bottles of the secretin kindly sent us bydr beveridge june 26, 1916 according to a letter from dr beveridgeof july 20, 1916, those samples of secretin were prepared june 20, thatis, only six days before received by us the material came in darkcolored bottles it was kept in the original bottles and placed inthe ice box immediately on receipt dr beveridge stated the secretin“should remain active until the month of november, 1916, at least ”tests were made on three out of the four bottles the fourth bottlewas not opened, as we desired to learn what change it might undergoin the way of protein precipitation and bacterial decomposition there is nothing in the beveridge method of preparation that insuresa sterile secretin unless it is passed through a berkefeld filter in all our crucial experiments the animals dogs were kept underlight ether anesthesia, a cannula inserted into the pancreatic duct, the blood pressure recorded from the carotid artery and the varioussecretin preparations injected intravenously when inactive secretinpreparations were encountered, control tests were always made withactive solutions of secretin to eliminate possible individualpeculiarities of the animal thus when the pancreas of a dog reacts tothe injection of preparation a, but not to preparation b, it isevident that absence of response to b is due to this preparation andnot to the animal or to the experimental conditions illustration. Fig 1 -- records of carotid blood pressure and secretionof pancreatic juice on intravenous injection of beveridge secretinin dogs x, injection of 10 c c secretin. B, record of flow ofpancreatic juice in drops tracing a, injection of 10 c c of onesample secretin ten days old furnished by dr beveridge tracingb, injection of 10 c c of second sample of secretin ten daysold furnished by dr beveridge tracing c, injection of 10 c c of secretin twenty hours old made by us according to the beveridgemethod showing that the secretin preparations sent us by dr beveridgecontained no secretin each of the three samples of secretin sent us by dr beveridge wastested in the above manner on five dogs the first tests were madejune 27, 28 and 29, respectively, that is, within nine days of thepreparation of these samples of secretin none of the samples wasactive fig 1, even when injected intravenously in quantities up to50 c c. 40-50 c c of beveridge secretin mixture may kill a dog bytoo great lowering of the blood pressure a good secretin preparationyields a copious secretion of pancreatic juice on intravenous injectionof a few cubic centimeters it is not difficult to prepare a secretin, by the original bayliss orstarling method or by the beveridge method, that retains essay activityfor a longer period than nine days hence we cannot account for theabsolute inactivity of these preparations except on the assumptionthat they did not contain any secretin to start with. That is, faultypreparation and absence of physiologic standardization the sample kept intact in its original container for six months becamegradually cloudy, a large mass of amorphous precipitate settledto the bottom and the odor showed bacterial decomposition it isreprehensible, to say the least, to state concerning such a mixture:“of course, if desired, it may be injected intravenously ” the factthat beveridge secretin may be rendered clear by filtering throughcarbon is not sufficient evidence that it is “pure secretin, ” free frombacteria and other injurious substances ii beveridge secretin mixture is rapidly rendered inactive by humangastric juice -- we prepared active secretin solutions by the beveridgemethod, using 0 2 per cent serum as the protein “stabilizer” ?. the addition of the serum does not appear to affect the activityof the fresh secretin preparation if beveridge secretin is ableto act on the pancreas when given by mouth, it is obvious that itmust run the gamut of gastric digestion, except in paper of completeachlorhydria it has been repeatedly demonstrated that all othersecretin preparations are rapidly destroyed by pepsin-hydrochloric aciddigestion is beveridge secretin an exception?.