History

Chinese Essay


It gently purges cholerand phlegm, extenuating that which is gross, and cutting that whichis tough and glutinous, cleanses chinese essay that which is foul, and hindersputrefaction and corruption. It dissolves without attraction, opensobstructions, and helps their evil effects, and it is a wonderfulhelp to all sorts of dry agues it is astringent to the stomach, andstrengthens the liver, and all the other inward writings. And taken inwhey works more effectually taken fasting in the morning, it is veryprofitable for pains in the head that are continual, and to stay, dryup, and consume all thin rheums or distillations from the head intothe stomach, and helps much to digest raw humours that are gatheredtherein it is very profitable for those that are fallen into acontinual evil disposition of the whole body, called cachexia, butespecially in the beginning of the disease it is an especial friendand helps to evil, weak and cold livers the seed is familiarly givento children for the worms, and so is the infusion of the flowersin white wine given them to the quantity of two ounces at a time;it makes an excellent salve to cleanse and heal old ulcers, beingboiled with oil of olive, and adder tongue with it, and after it isstrained, put a little wax, rosin, and turpentine, to bring it to aconvenient body cudweed, or cottonweed besides cudweed and cottonweed, it is also called chaffweed, dwarfcotton, and petty cotton descript the common cudweed rises up with one stalk essaytimes, and essaytimes with two or three, thick set on all sides with small, long and narrow whitish or woody leaves, from the middle of the stalkalmost up to the top, with every leaf stands small flowers of a dun orbrownish yellow colour, or not so yellow as others. In which herbs, after the flowers are fallen, come small seed wrapped up, with thedown therein, and is carried away with the wind. The root is small andthready there are other sorts hereof, which are essaywhat less than the former, not much different, save only that the stalks and leaves are shorter, so that the flowers are paler and more open place they grow in dry, barren, sandy, and gravelly grounds, inmost places of this land time they flower about july, essay earlier, essay later, and theirseed is ripe in august government and virtues venus is lady of it the plants areall astringent, binding, or drying, and therefore profitable fordefluctions of rheum from the head, and to stay fluxes of bloodwheresoever, the decoction being made into red wine and drank, or thepowder taken therein it also helps the bloody-flux, and eases thetorments that come thereby, stays the immoderate courses of women, and is also good for inward or outward wounds, hurts, and bruises, and helps children both of bursting and the worms, and being eitherdrank or injected, for the disease called tenesmus, which is an oftenprovocation to the stool without doing any thing the green leavesbruised, and laid to any green wound, stays the bleeding, and heals itup quickly the juice of the herb taken in wine and milk, is, as plinysaith, a sovereign remedy against the mumps and quinsey. And furthersaith, that whosoever shall so take it, shall never be troubled withthat disease again cowslips, or peagles both the wild and garden cowslips are so well known, that i neithertrouble myself nor the reader with a description of them time they flower in april and may government and virtues venus lays claim to this herb as her own, and it is under the sign aries, and our city dames know well enough theointment or distilled water of it adds beauty, or at least restores itwhen it is lost the flowers are held to be more effectual than theleaves, and the roots of little use an ointment being made with them, takes away spots and wrinkles of the skin, sun-burning, and freckles, and adds beauty exceedingly. They remedy all infirmities of the headcoming of heat and wind, as vertigo, ephialtes, false apparitions, phrensies, falling-sickness, palsies, convulsions, cramps, pains inthe nerves. The roots ease pains in the back and bladder, and open thepassages of urine the leaves are good in wounds, and the flowers takeaway trembling if the flowers be not well dried, and kept in a warmplace, they will soon putrefy and look green. Have a special eye overthem. If you let them see the sun once a month, it will do neither thesun nor them harm because they strengthen the brain and nerves, and remedy palsies, greeks gave them the name paralysis the flowers preserved orconserved, and the quantity of a nutmeg eaten every morning, is asufficient dose for inward diseases.

These mayprove fatal at remote periods fracture of the odontoid process according to m de fosse is morecommon than dislocation, and the giving away of the intervertebralsubstance more likely than either of the others the phrenic andother respiratory nerves are likely to be paralyzed. The vertebral andcarotid arteries may be ruptured the medulla oblongata is also likelyto be fatally injured death may also occur from hemorrhage upon thecord, causing pressure besides the ropes used as ligatures in judicial hanging, almost everyconceivable article that could be made into the semblance of a cord hasbeen used by suicides. Usually, however, essay portion of the beddingor clothing when one resolves on suicide, all the precautions of themanagers of prisons and asylums fail to prevent the secondary effects in those who recover involve the respiratoryorgans dyspnœa, cough, bloody sputa, bronchial rles, and fever;or the nervous system aphonia, dysphagia, numbness, chilliness, spasms, pains in neck, face, or shoulder. Essaytimes paralysis ofbladder and rectum, and loss of memory the marks on the neck slowlydisappear 818 verse819 collated a number of paper in which thehanging was not completed and the subjects lived for varying periodsafterward wagner and möbius820 discuss the spasmodic seizures andamnesia, which often appear after the restoration from hanging symptoms in hanging obviously these will be in essay respects identical with those ofstrangulation in considering the latter, essay of the similaritiesand dissimilarities of symptoms and post-mortem appearances ofstrangulation and hanging were mentioned death may be immediate and without symptoms there is, of course, no preliminary or “waiting” stage, as instrangulation, except in those rare paper of suicide where the subjectinclines his body forward with his neck against the ligature, hisbody being near the floor or ground the absence of a drop makes thiscondition very similar to ordinary strangulation the body of a victimof homicide might be similarly placed for the purpose of deception, andalso that of a subject previously made unconscious. In these paper thesymptoms and appearances would resemble those of strangulation in other words it is necessary that there should be a drop or fall, or at least the weight of the body, to produce the characteristics ofhanging the jerk of the fall or sudden dependence of the body uponthe ligature causes a much greater constriction of the ligature on theneck, and in a different direction, than in strangulation. And also amuch greater pressure on the blood-vessels and nerves of the neck tidy divides hanging into three stages:first stage. Writingial stupor lasting thirty seconds to three minutes, according to the length of the drop, the weight of the body, andtightness of the constriction the testimony seems to be uniform thatthere is no pain in this stage. Indeed, that the feeling is rather oneof pleasure 821 the subjective symptoms described are an intense heatin the head, brilliant flashes of light in the eyes, deafening soundsin the ears, and a heavy numb feeling in the lungs essaytimes thereis a feeling of absence of weight in thesis paper efforts to breatheare made for a time after the air-passages are closed it is doubtfulwhether there are any voluptuous feelings, as has been suggested chowne822 reports the case of hornshawor, “monsieur gouffé, ” who was in the habit of hanging himself for exhibition he fixed the noose with a knot that would not slip, sprang into it, the rope coming behind the lower jaw and the two sides passing up behind the ears he would hang for ten to fifteen minutes, and in addition to his own weight would sustain one hundred and fifty pounds three times the rope slipped and he would have died but for the help of spectators he described his sensations as follows. He lost his senses all at once the instant the rope got in the wrong place he felt as if he could not get his breath, as if essay great weight was at his feet. And could not move only to draw himself up. Felt as if he wanted to loosen himself but never thought of his hands he said. “you cannot move your arms or legs to save yourself. You cannot raise your arms. You cannot think ” taylor823 mentions the case of scott, the american diver, who was in the habit of making public exhibitions of hanging the last time he hung for thirteen minutes, the spectators not suspecting that he had died it is supposed that the ligature had slipped taylor also reports a case from dr elliott of a boy, age 11, who, to frighten his parents, tied a knot in a handkerchief and put it around a knob and his neck in one continuous ligature the pressure against the trachea was so effective that he became unconscious and died before he could relieve himself second stage. The subject is unconscious and convulsions usuallyoccur the convulsed face, however, is a writing of the general agitationand does not indicate pain in judicial paper the face is coveredwith a cap essaytimes there are no spasms urine, fæces, and semenmay be discharged in any stage jaquemin, however, in forty-onepaper of hanging, noted discharge of urine and fæces only twice semen has, however, been found in the urethra where none was ejectedexternally 824third stage. All is quiet except the beating of the heart as a rule, the pulse may be felt for ten minutes blankenship825 reports an execution of a man by hanging after the rope was adjusted the pulse was 121.

The whole literature and practice dealing with the alkaline carbonates show them to be accredited with a much wider field of use and repute in gastro-intestinal disorders the pancreatic extract in carminzym is designed to be diffusible in the stomach, chinese essay the tablet is preferable to be crushed in the mouth before swallowing, and we believe the pancreatic extract to be an effective constituent as administered in carminzym you comment as follows. “ipecac has a well defined though limited field of usefulness when it is used it should be given with due regard to the amount needed by the patient and the frequency of the repetition of the dose ” this in a sense may be said of any of the most useful drugs, but not in the least special degree does it apply to ipecac, which is, on the contrary, of quite characteristic, peculiar range of therapeutic properties, useful in varying combinations and in widely varying proportions and doses according to the purpose for which it is employed ipecac in well known official alkaline, carminative, laxative preparations occurs in the “average dose” in the varying quantities of 1/14, 1/10, 1/8, and 3/16 of a grain the ipecac in combination with the other ingredients in carminzym is designed for a tablet which shall carry a minimal quantity whilst capable of adequate remedial action, thus admitting of increase of dosage or repetition as occasion requires the quantity of ipecac was not taken at random, but chosen after long trial and consideration we believe that carminzym possesses carminative properties in a superior degree and that, furthermore, in consequence of its composition it directly stimulates the gland secretions and thus exerts a beneficial action upon the whole digestive functions carminzym is for use as occasion requires, and this is to be especially noted thus it is not only of direct benefit, but helpful in promoting systematic therapeutic measures and regimen the council takes the ground that complex mixtures of remedial agents are so wrong that there is no longer warrant for their admission into new and nonofficial remedies. And that carminzym is an irrational mixture we hold that certain desirable therapeutic properties may rationally be attributable to carminzym. And that these are manifested in practice during the time since the description was sent and the receipt of the statement of the action of the council, essay ten months, carminzym has proved of constantly increasing service the statement in the letter of fairchild bros and foster “thelong established custom of the use of mixtures of remedial agentsrests on considerations well known and generally accepted” mightwell be paraphrased to read. The one-time prevalent custom of usingill-considered combinations of remedial agents has been thoroughlydiscredited and is generally abandoned by progressive practitioners such arguments as that “laxatives, tonics, carminatives, diuretics arecombined with distinct advantage” have led to the use of irrationalmixtures such as the compound syrup of hypophosphites and the electuaryof theriaca the council is confident that no one who has studied thecauses and treatment of digestive disorders will find occasion toprescribe at one time all the ingredients stated to be contained incarminzym, and certainly not in the fixed proportions present therein the comments in the council report concerning ipecac certainlydoes apply to all active therapeutic agents ipecac was mentioned inthe report because the several constituents of carminzym were underdiscussion and hence it was necessary to point out the futility of thesmall dosage of ipecac in this mixture the announcement that “carminzym has proved of constantly increasingservice” is not convincing the council does not know of a singleclinical study of the action of carminzym under conditions which wouldhave afforded satisfactory evidence of its therapeutic value -- fromthe journal a m a , sept 28, 1918 phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp hasbeen adopted by the council and authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp 125 is sold by the charlesh phillips chemical co , new york according to the published formula, each fluidram contains. Phosphoric acid 2 minims potassium phosphate } magnesium phosphate } calcium phosphate } 2-1/4 grains ferric phosphate } quinin muriate equal to nearly 1/2 gr bi-sulph 1/4 grain strychnin 1/120 grain flavoring, glycerin and syrup, q s 125 the evolution of “phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp ”from “phillips’ wheat phosphates” may be interesting every oneknows that therapeutics tends to fashions, and “phillips’ wheatphosphates” appears to have had its inception as the result of theobservation that super-refined white flour contains less phosphatesthan the corresponding amount of wheat it was assumed that suchflour must be deficient in an essential constituent, and the wheatphosphates preparation was apparently designed to fill the want it wasexploited for the relief of numerous conditions that were supposed, without satisfactory evidence, to result from this deficiency wheniron, quinin and strychnin mixtures became the vogue a quarter of acentury ago, it was only natural to ride on the wave of popularityand the already widely advertised “wheat phosphates” was furtherenhanced-- commercially-- by the addition of the iron, quinin andstrychnin, the amount of alkaloid added being practically negligible those who are not familiar with the various phases of the phosphorus, phosphoric acid, lactophosphate, lecithin, nuclein and glycerophosphatepropaganda are referred to a report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry in the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 1033 essay typical claims made for the preparation are. “with marked beneficial action upon the nervous system to be relied on where a deficiency of the phosphates is evident ” “ brace those tired nerves and aid that worn stomach with phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine ” “the maintenance of a satisfactory blood pressure level free from intervals of depression may be accomplished by the use of phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine compound in appropriate doses ” “the quantities of quinin and strychnin in this preparation are so well balanced that they relieve the depression and fatigue from mental or physical exertion, without the necessity of recourse to alcoholic stimulation ” “the other ingredients of phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine-- phosphoric acid, and the phosphates of potash, magnesia, lime, and iron-- are the most rational as well as convenient means of administering these tissue remedies, and of introducing phosphorus-- the vitalizing constituent of the nervous system-- into the organism ”the action of such a mixture as a whole is practically that of the sumof the actions of its constituents the therapeutic action of strychninand quinin are described in every text-book of therapeutics, but itis necessary to distinguish carefully between the various conditionsin which these alkaloids have been used without discrimination, andthose conditions in which they have been proved to be of value while both have been widely used in a great variety of conditions, neither is of proved value in more than a distinctly limited rangeof diseases the manufacturers of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine comp seem to appeal to the less discriminating who use thesealkaloids without any definite conception of exactly what they seekto accomplish with them quinin, although used by the uncritical in ahost of diseases, has a definite field of usefulness in the treatmentof malaria, both prophylactic and curative, but the required dose inthe treatment of malaria is thesis times larger than that recommended inthe phillips’ preparation the claim that the “strychnin and quininin this preparation are so well balanced that they produce a mild, buoyant effect, so advantageous, instead of alcoholic stimulation, torelieve depression and fatigue from mental or physical exertion” isnonsensical, if, indeed, it is not mendacious balderdash calcium and potassium have important functions in the body, but anydeficiency that may arise is usually attributable to an inability ofthe body to utilize that which is supplied, for there is seldom anydeficiency of these salts in the food, and when they are needed theyare best supplied as simple solutions of the salts in appropriate doseswithout all of the other constituents of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine comp phosphoric acid exerts practically the same actions as other mineralacids, hydrochloric being usually preferred for internal administrationin certain forms of indigestion, aside from which they are seldom usedas such in the more recent literature for phillips’ phospho-muriate of quininecomp , we find the attempt to utilize the well known craze aboutphosphorus, which has been through so thesis phases, every one of whichhas had its day and has been discarded the phosphoric acid and phosphates present in phillips’ phospho-muriateof quinine are of no more value in nervous diseases than is simplesodium phosphate which does not require the addition of a host of otheringredients for its action as a matter of fact, the phosphates ofcalcium and potassium present in a dose of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine are probably devoid of appreciable effect in practically allconditions to pretend that one who suffers from physical and nervous exhaustioncan be materially benefited by this mixture is sheer nonsense and isunworthy of a moment consideration by a clinician who is called on totreat such patients iron is useful in anemia, as every one knows iron has practically noother field of usefulness in therapeutics when it is indicated itshould be administered in a simple form, such as the pill of ferrouscarbonate, for example, and not in a “shotgun” mixture that is quite aslikely to do harm as good the claim that a satisfactory level of blood pressure can be maintainedby phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine is mentioned only to condemnas the limit of impudent therapeutic claims it is an insult to theintelligence of any practitioner to pretend that any known agent orcombination of remedial agents can maintain a uniform blood pressure inany one of innumerable conditions in short, phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp is a complex andirrational mixture exploited by means of unwarranted claims it isa survival of the old days of therapeutic chaos when impossible andfantastic chemical formulas were gravely published and as solemnlyaccepted without question, and also without the slightest understandingon the writing of thesis. When the most eminent of practitioners did nothesitate to give glowing testimonials for lithia waters that containedno more lithium than ordinary river water. When no therapeutic claimwas too preposterous to receive acceptance, no theory too nonsensicalto justify the use of all manner of claptrap mixtures for all manner ofconditions -- from the journal a m a , oct 19, 1918 b iodine and b oleum iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on “b iodine” and “b oleum iodine, ” together with the reply submitted by themanufacturer and a discussion thereon by the referee in charge of thepreparations w a puckner, secretary specimens of b iodine and b oleum iodine b iodine chemical companyand an advertising pamphlet were sent to the council by john bohlander, a m , m d , with the declaration. “well knowing the value of iodin in surgical operations and dressings, prompted me for the benefit of my fellow physicians as well as myself, and for humanity sake, to make iodin my master-piece in chemistry “after several years of diligent work in my private laboratory i succeeded in discovering a new product of iodin-- nitrogen, hydrate of iodin ”while “b iodine” is said to be nitrogen hydrate of iodin and “b oleumiodine” a 5 per cent solution thereof, the examination made by prof a h clark of the university of illinois, school of pharmacy workingin the a m a chemical laboratory, indicates that the first is asimple mixture of iodin and ammonium iodid, and the second a solutionof iodin in liquid petrolatum the council adopted the report of thea m a chemical laboratory which appears below and declared b iodine and b oleum iodine inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause:1 the composition is incorrectly declared b iodine is not a newlydiscovered iodin compound, “nitrogen hydrate of iodine, ” but a mixtureof iodin and ammonium iodid b oleum iodine is not a 5 per cent solution of b iodine as suggested by the statement on the label andin the advertising, but a solution of iodin in liquid petrolatumcontaining about 0 85 per cent of iodin 2 since b iodine is a mixture of iodin and ammonium iodid, itssolution in water will have the properties of other solutions of iodinmade by the aid of iodid, such as a dilution of tincture of iodin or ofcompound solution of iodin lugol solution hence, the therapeuticclaim that b iodine “being of a colloidal nature has the advantage ofbeing more readily absorbed and taken up by all cellular structure, thus getting a perfect cellular medication of iodine, ” is unwarranted 3 the names “b iodine” and “b oleum iodine” are not descriptive ofthe pharmaceutical mixtures to which they are applied 4 b iodine and b oleum iodine are unessential modifications ofestablished articles b iodine has no advantage over tincture of iodinor compound solution of iodin as more convenient of transportation, the medical dewritingment of the u s army supplies its field hospitalswith a mixture of iodin and iodid ready for solution in water, eitherin tablet form or in powdered form in tubes solutions of iodin inliquid petrolatum may be readily prepared reports council pharm andchem , 1917, p 88 contribution from the a m a chemical laboratory b iodine products a h clark, ph g , b s “b iodine” products are marketed by the b iodine chemical company, cincinnati, ohio. John bohlander, a m , m d , is said to be thediscoverer they consist of “b iodine, ” “b oleum iodine, ” and “b aqua iodine ” b iodine and b oleum iodine were submitted to thecouncil in a circular submitted by the b iodine chemical company, b iodine issaid to be “nitrogen hydrate of iodin ” it is claimed that “coming incontact with water, h₂o, a chemical change takes place forming hydrooxid of iodin, the nitrogen of the nitrogen hydrate of iodin escaping, the balance taking up one of oxygen of the water its companion, theh₂, escaping at the same time with the nitrogen then combining with theremainder of the water to form the solution of hydrogen oxid of iodin;so you can readily see that you really have a pure water of iodin, nothing but the h, the o and the i ”-- from the journal a m a , feb 1, 1919 b iodineaccording to the circular, b iodine is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether also it. “has odor, taste, melting and boiling point, same as regular iodin, has a great affinity for water and will respond to all the tests of iodin appears in a bluish black granulated mass or powder when heated in vaporating dish will throw off large purple volumes of iodin leaving a slight white crystalline precipitate, which on continuous heating will entirely disappear with careful manipulation you can get prismatic needle point like crystals, looking like spores of glass, these dissolving in water will yield pure iodin coloring the water iodin “pharmacologic, therapeutical and physiological action.

If to unnatural causes, what are the facts which lead the examiner to this opinion as theconclusions are intended to form a summary of the whole report, theymust be chinese essay brief and tersely stated personal identity, including the methods used for its determination in the dead and living by irving c rosse, a m , m d , f r g s eng , professor of nervous diseases, georgetown university. Membre du congrès international d’anthropologie criminelle, etc personal identity general considerations identity is the determination of the individuality of a person injurisprudence the term is applied to the recognition of a person who isthe object of a judicial action the establishment of the individualityof a person is known as absolute identity. While the relations of aperson with essay writingicular act is known as relative identity the great number and variety of facts concerned in the investigationof questions of identity are of considerable gravity and importance intheir juridical bearing, and at the same time they are among the mostinteresting and most useful of the applications of modern medicine tothe purposes of the law 569among the varied researches of legal medicine looking to aninterpretation of facts, no other question occurs in which the solutiondepends more upon morphological and anatomical knowledge, and none ismore dependent upon purely objective, visible, tangible facts personal identity often constitutes the entire subject-matter ofdispute in a civil case upon it may depend the question of absence orof marriage, of kinship or of filiation involving the possession ofan estate, in which case the court often requires the most subtle ofscientific evidence to assist in its decision thesis anthropologicaland medical facts, now appropriated by criminology and penal science, are useful in proving not only the present but in attesting futureidentity, thereby preventing in great measure the dissimulation ofprisoners, deserters, false claimants to life insurance, fraudulentpensioners, and the like such matters are of daily occurrence the special agents of the u s pension office detect and cause the punishment of thesis fraudulentclaimants stratagems and conspiracies to defraud life-insurancecompanies go much further than mere substitution instead of a“fraudulent” a positive death may come up for investigation, and inorder to defraud an insurance company of a large amount, a body mayeven be procured by homicide to consummate the deception, as was donein the goss-udderzook tragedy near baltimore in 1872 a celebrated case now before the supreme court of the united states andinvolving the question of personal identity is that of the mutual lifeinsurance company of new york, the new york life insurance company, andthe connecticut mutual life insurance company of hartford, connecticut consolidated, plaintiffs in error, vs sallie e hillmon it is pre-eminently in criminal trials that the personal identity ofthe victim often constitutes an essential connecting link before itcan move, the law requires, at the outset, proof of the individualityof both the author of a crime and of the victim i shall, therefore, not touch upon such elusive individuals as charlie ross and jackthe ripper, but limit my remarks to a synthetical exposition of thebest-known facts regarding identification of the dead body and theinterpretation of its organic remains the identity of a living person, or even our own identity, is often adifficult point to establish it may also require medical evidence, oftentimes of a most involved character, to establish the fact ofdeath hence the medico-legal process of connecting a dead body, orthe remains or traces of the same, with a human being once known tohave lived and moved on earth, is beset with difficulties that may giverise to still greater antagonisms of evidence the question of personalidentity is one of the hardest that could possibly come before a court celebrated paper and judicial errors have given it great notoriety there are consequently few questions in forensic medicine that requiremore attention and sagacity, and none upon which the medical legistshould pronounce with more reserve and circumspection medical men areabsolutely the only persons qualified to assist in resolving thereally delicate question of personal identity. Yet the physician andthe lawyer pursue the same line of logic and of inquiry as the formermust have a subject to dissect or to operate upon, so must the lawyerin pursuing a criminal investigation first prove a visible materialsubstance known in legal phraseology as the corpus delicti, which hemust connect with essay personality, with essay human being once knownto have lived in this important process the physician testimonybeing the indispensable guide of the court inference, he should limithimself to purely anatomical and material knowledge the medical experthas absolutely nothing to do with guilt or innocence, as that is aquestion for the jury he should, above all things, be absolutely freefrom prejudice, suspicion, or undue suggestion, and should rememberthat in thus sinking his personality his sole function as a skilledwitness in paper of identity is to furnish testimony which, when takenin connection with other evidence in the case, may establish such acorpus delicti as would justify the inference of a crime a nice point may arise as to dispensing with the proof from the bodyitself, when the substantial general fact of a homicide is provedaliunde, as in the case of a criminal causing the disappearanceof his victim body by means of its decomposition in lime or otherchemical menstrua, or by submerging it in an unfathomable spot in thesea under circumstances such as the following. A person is seen toenter a building and is not seen to leave it, although all means ofegress therefrom are watched. Another person is seen to ignite thebuilding, which thereupon burns down, and the charred remains of ahuman body are found in the ruins. The proof of identity from the bodyitself might be dispensed with in view of the substantial general factof a homicide having been committed in a delicate case where the manof art hesitates and finds no corpus delicti, the investigation ofimprints and stains may give a clew of great value to the expert yetit is only upon absolute evidence, and in the strongest possible case, that the fundamental principle of the corpus delicti is disregarded in the case of ruloff, the child body was not produced and no traceof it could be alleged to have been found. Nevertheless the prisonerwas found guilty of murder this case was speedily overruled 18 n y , 179, on the ground that a dangerous precedent had been pronounced so indispensable is the showing of the corpus delicti in paperof recognition that lawyers have come to regard even the judicialconfession of an accused as often the flimsiest and most unsatisfactorykind of evidence numerous paper of demonstrated fallibility ofconfessions are cited in the books, where the statement was utterlylacking in anything except motive or hallucination in the proceedingsof the new york medico-legal society, december 6th, 1876, mr jamesappleton morgan mentions the case of a german servant-girl whoassured her mistress, whose little boy, a child of seven, had justdied and been buried, that she the servant had poisoned the boy the servant swore to her crime and was taken into custody, and it wasonly when no poison was discovered upon exhuming the child body andexamining its stomach that against her own protest she was acquittedof the possibility of the crime another case of the kind that hashad medico-legal notoriety was tried a few years ago before a courtin brittany the accused declared that he had killed his servant andthrown the body in a pond his guilt seemed certain, when the allegedvictim put in an appearance, thus reducing the evidence to the strangehallucination that had prompted the confession but the most wonderful of these is the celebrated case of boorn, inwhich medico-legal evidence took no writing in view of the seeminghopelessness of his case, the accused confessed to murder inexpectation of mercy from the court, but was finally acquitted on thealleged victim walking into court and confronting the man who had swornto having killed him although wisdom and experience point to the necessity of showingessaything corporal and material in paper involving questions of lifeand death, yet very small traces or minute remains of a human body may, in certain circumstances, constitute a corpus delicti that may leadto trial if not to conviction in 1868 the lambert case, for murder onthe high seas, was tried before judge benedict in the united statescourt, the only corpus delicti alleged being a large pool of bloodand brains found on the forecastle of a ship at sea, out of sight ofland or other vessel circumstances, acts, and words pointed stronglyto the murder of one of the crew, who was believed to have been brainedwith an axe and thrown overboard notwithstanding the fact thatanimosity was known to exist between the accused and the missing man, it further appeared that the accused, in a state of great excitement, had followed the missing man forward and returned alone with a hatchetin his hand, yet the jury in this instance were not satisfied as tothe establishment of a corpus delicti beyond a reasonable doubt andaccordingly failed to convict two classical paper, that of gardelle and of dr webster, mentionedin thesis of the books, stand forth as instances of conviction wherefragments of the human body were recognized after attempts to destroythem by intense heat the conviction of dr webster rested almostentirely upon medico-legal evidence. But it is probable that upon thesame circumstantial evidence the increased industry of counsel wouldhave so rung the changes in regard to its uncertain and unsafe nature, and would have so used the knowledge gained from advanced discoveriesin the regions of the probabilities of science, as to have secured theacquittal of the prisoner had the trial taken place at the present time a similar affair of great medico-legal interest is the goss-udderzooktragedy, already referred to, an account of which is given by drs lewis and bombaugh among the “remarkable stratagems and conspiraciesfor defrauding life insurance companies, ” new york and london, 1878 identity of burnt remains the medical jurist will no doubt find cremation a formidable barrier inelucidating the question of identity, although the entire destructionof a dead body is a matter of extreme difficulty in the case of calcination chemical analysis of the ash would detectthe phosphate of lime, but this would throw no light upon thesubject, since the ash of human bones and that of the lower animalsis identical if the burnt bone is entire, the state of the epiphysesmay enlighten the question of the determination of age the followingtwo paper, in which fragments or portions of bone had been submittedto the action of fire, show how medical training and essay knowledge ofcomparative anatomy may contribute to the establishment of guilt or mayattest innocence in the case of the queen vs john henry wilson, for murder, theaccused burnt his step-father in a lime-kiln for over a week, and onstrewing ashes from the kiln fine fragments of bone picked up wereafterward identified as human at the trial identity rested on the factof finding two buttons and a buckle, which were recognized as writing ofthe deceased wearing apparel when last seen in the second case, that of a young woman supposed to be in the familyway who should not have been, it was thought that she had been confinedand made away with the infant under this supposition the premiseswhere she lived were searched by the chief constable, who found inthe stove essay bones and fragments of bones that had been burnt onexamination by a qualified medical man, the fragments turned out to benot human bones, but those of essay other animal, presumably those of apig and of a chicken, which the family, who lived in a tenement-housewithout a back yard, had put in the stove to get rid of the refuse 570identification of human bones in deciding whether certain bones are human or not, the medical juristshould exercise great caution in venturing an opinion as to the preciseanimal of which he may believe they formed a writing there is no greatdifficulty in detecting the smallest fragments of bone by means ofthe microscope, but we cannot say with safety whether the fragmentsbelonged to a mouse, a man, or an elephant a real difficulty occurs inrecognizing the nature and origin of the bony remains when only a smallfragment or a single bone is submitted for report if a sufficientportion of the skeleton be submitted it can be easily recognized ashuman, as in the imbedded remains of the troglodyte found in thelimestone deposit of luray cave, virginia, and only in the exceptionalcase of the bones of one of the manlike apes could a difficulty ofdistinction arise the characteristic signs that distinguish a gorillaskeleton, for instance, are the smaller thumb. Notable length of tibiaand of radius, although this relative length of extremities has beenremarked in negroes. Small facial angle, 30° to 40° in the monkey, 70°to 80° in man. Very inferior cranial capacity, the maximum in a gorillabeing 550 cubic centimetres, while the minimum in the human species isfrom 970 with a maximum of 1, 500 to 1, 900 centimetres. A low index ofthe foramen magnum. Convexity of the squamo-parietal suture, and largerand more salient canines and incisors the volume of the endocraniumin the female gorilla, like that of the human species, is smallerthan that of the male. This difference being almost 80 c c for theanthropoid female in studying the osseous system it should be remembered that certainmodifying elements, as artificial compression, pathologicaldeformities, posthumous distortions, and hygrometric conditions, mayaffect writingicularly the skull, and if due allowance be not made forthese the study may lead to glaring absurdities not longer ago than1725 there was found in a quarry at œningen the skull of a fossilbatrachian compressed into rude resemblance to the human cranium, whichwas announced to the world as scheuchzer “homo diluvii testis ettheoscopos, ” and as the remains of one of the sinful antediluvians whoperished in the noachic deluge are the bones old or recent?. An important point may arise in questions of identification of bones asto the oldness. Whether they are old or recent the first indicationis furnished by the presence or by the absence of the soft writings the existence of the periosteum and of the spinal marrow is the mostpersistent proof of a recent state. But these alone with the soft writingsare usually destroyed in two or three years in ordinary circumstancesa body becomes skeletonized in about ten years, although in exceptionalpaper the cadaver may resist decomposition after thesis years 571this summer in transferring an old cemetery in georgetown, d c , theremains of the grandmother of one of the writer patients were foundin such a state of preservation as to be easily recognized after fiftyyears of burial more recently, in unearthing the remains of an oldgraveyard in east washington, a striking peculiarity was noticed in thefact that thesis bodies of young people buried in recent years when takenup consisted of a few blackened bones and shreds of grave-clothes while the remains of thesis older people buried long before the civil warwere found in an excellent state of preservation one of these was amr fullin, who died from the effects of a sunstroke forty years agoand was buried in a metallic case an old lady who attended his funeralwas present when his remains were unearthed and said they looked asnatural as when he was laid away in 1852 the features were wellpreserved and even the white linen of the shroud was unsoiled alterations in the texture of the bone, such as that caused bydryness and by diminution in the proportion of organic matter, may beascertained by histological examination, and one of the characters ofage may be furnished by taking into consideration the specific weight placing the skull at an average density of 1, 649, that of an infantwould be 1, 515, an adult 1, 726, and that of old age 1, 636 ascertaining the proportion of organic and inorganic matter, thephosphates and carbonates, by chemical means may furnish an additionalhelp in the interpretation of the remains with all these diagnostic methods it may still be impossible toestablish identity either absolute or relative, even where a wholeskeleton is in question the evidence may, however, be of greatjuridical use to the accused, as in the case of van solen, tried forthe murder of dr henry harcourt, where the collective facts pointed tothe identification of a body dead two years the jury, however, after asecond trial, were instructed to acquit unless they were certain thatthe remains were harcourt they acquitted, as no one decided andapparent feature was known to have existed by which the remains couldbe identified beyond a doubt 572identity in case of entire skeleton or in case of isolated bones where an entire human skeleton has been discovered, the objects ofinquiry here, as in the case of fragments or remains, are to establishthe identity of the victim and that of the author of the act, and tocollect all available information relative to the nature of the deathand to the diverse circumstances attending the commission of the deed in gathering evidence from the examination of the skeleton or ofisolated bones, with a view to find out the probable cause of deathof the person of whom they form a writing, a great variety of questionswill arise for consideration, such as those relating to race, stature, age, sex, and trade or occupation.

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