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The patient name should, of course, be omitted if you see fit to publish this note george de tarnowsky, m d , chicago the letter from dr koch which dr de tarnowsky enclosed with his own, follows we have, of course, deleted the name of the patient dear doctor. Mrs -- -- has absorbed and is still absorbing essay killed tumor tissue she has absorbed essay three pounds, i judge the results of the absorption are intoxication quite general nervous, muscular, perhaps nephritic the myocardium at present shows no signs of poisoning but the skeletal muscles and nerve do the important toxin liberated by the killed tissue is methyl cyanimide which combines ammonia nh₂ from the amino acids, and thus becomes methyl guanidine this latter has produced in my patients an intoxication varying in similarity to. Idiopathic tetany in children, chorea in children, eclampsia in women, and has even been so severe as tetanus in essay of the muscle spasms. A toxic albuminuria has resulted in essay of my paper all of my paper have cleaned up so far of course, i cannot predict in any individual case, except that when the absorption has been completed and the toxin all eliminated, everything should return to normal, unless the toxin has destroyed tissue beyond physiological repair my suggestions as to treatment would be elimination, saving the kidneys as much as possible, by whatever methods you find best and necessary at present i am treating symptomatically thus-- atropin as a guanidine antidote, arsenic as a chorea coupled antidote as a prevention to the production of guanidine from the cyanimide, the use of dilute hydrochloric acid has proven successful to me even a urine boiling solid-- albumen has cleared up in one case in three days just by taking large quantities of 1/2 per cent hcl i am explaining the factors i have contended with in these paper, but do not want to influence your plan of treatment when your judgment finds me insufficient sincerely, wm f koch i shall have a publication out very soon on the treatment of these tetanics and eclampsia with hcl it is worth noting that this letter of dr koch was written june 28, just three days before dr de tarnowsky saw mrs -- -- and less than aweek before she died of generalized carcinoma not the least important element in the story which these two letterstell is the optimism engendered in the husband of the poor cancerpatient by the widely vaunted treatment of koch and herein lies oneof the most pernicious features connected with the exploitation ofalleged cures for cancer, tuberculosis, etc all such remedies, whetherfraudulent both in their inception and exploitation or those whichwhile equally worthless are at least honestly put forward and are basedon a certain amount of scientific investigation, produce a profoundand marked temporary change in the patient condition it is thisthat tends to warp the judgment not only of the unscientific layman, but also of the physician the psychic element in cancer has been welldescribed by weil.

medical practitioner, one-half for the use of the county and one-half for the use of thestate. But a state license may be obtained from the state treasurer for$30 good for twelve months, and he is then exempt from the portion ofabove tax due the state act 1891, c 323 fees - to the secretary of the board, before issuing a license ordiploma, $10 to the secretary of the board, for temporary license, $5 code, 3, 130 to clerk of the court, for registration and certificate, 25 cents to clerk of the county, for registration on removal, no fee act 1889, c 181, s 4 north dakota board of examiners - the governor appoints a state board of examinersof nine members, eight of whom are practising physicians in goodstanding. No member of any college or university having a medicaldewritingment shall be appointed two members shall be homœopathicphysicians and one a lawyer act 1890, c 93, s 1 the board must hold meetings for examination at such place or placesas it may designate on the first tuesday of january, april, july, and october of each year, and such other meetings as it may appointand must keep a record of its proceedings with a register of everyapplicant for a license with his or her age, the time spent in thestudy of medicine, and the name and location of all institutionsgranting to such applicant a degree or a certificate of lecturesin medicine or surgery, and whether the applicant was rejected orlicensed. And said books and register shall be prima facie evidenceof all matters therein recorded 2 qualification - all persons hereafter commencing the practice ofmedicine, surgery, and obstetrics in any of its branches shall applyto the board for a license, and at the time and place designatedby the board, or at its regular meeting, be examined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, materia medica, therapeutics, preventive medicines, practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, of the nervous system, of the eyeand ear, medical jurisprudence, and such other branches as the boardshall deem advisable, and produce evidence of having attended threecourses of lectures of at least six months each. The examination mustbe both practical and scientific, but of sufficient severity to testthe candidate fitness to practise medicine, surgery, and obstetrics when desired, the said examination may be conducted in the presenceof the dean of any medical school or the president of any medicalsociety of the state after examination the board must grant a licenseto practise medicine, surgery, and obstetrics. Seven members mustconsent the board may revoke or refuse a license for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct, chronic or persistent inebriety, thepractice of criminal abortion, or for publicly advertising specialability to treat or cure diseases which, in the opinion of the board, it is impossible to cure in complaints for violating the provisionsof this section, the accused shall be furnished with a copy of thecomplaint, and given a hearing before the board in person or byattorney appeal lies from refusal or revocation to the appointingpower 3 the person receiving a license must file it, or a certified copy, withthe register of deeds where he resides on removal into another countyhe must procure from said register a certified copy of his license andfile it with the register of deeds in the county to which he shallremove 4 exceptions - the act does not apply to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army or navy, to physicians or surgeons in actualconsultation from other states or territories, or to actual medicalstudents practising medicine under the direct supervision of apreceptor 5 penalty - practising without a license or contrary to the act is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $200, or imprisonmentin a county jail from ten to sixty days, or both definition - any person is regarded as practising who appends theletters “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, or who for a fee prescribes, directs, or recommends for the use of any person any drug or medicineor other agency for the treatment, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture or bodily injury, infirmity, or disease 6 former law - the former law is repealed only so far as it isinconsistent with the foregoing act 7 the former law prohibited persons from practising medicine in any ofits branches unless graduates of a medical college or unless they wereshown by examination to be qualified and had been actually engaged inpractising for at least ten years compiled laws of dakota, s 205 fee - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, $20 act 1890, c 93, s 3 ohio qualification - no person who is not a graduate of a reputable schoolof medicine in the united states or a foreign country, or who cannotproduce a certificate of qualification from a state or county medicalsociety and is not a person of good moral character, can lawfullypractise or attempt to practise medicine in any of its dewritingments orprescribe medicine for reward or compensation. Except a person who hasbeen continuously engaged in the practice of medicine for ten years ormore the law allowed persons in continuous practice for five yearsor more, two years to comply with its provisions in case a person isa graduate of a school of medicine in any state or foreign country inwhich any condition or restriction is imposed by law upon the practiceof medicine by graduates of medical schools in ohio, he is subject tothe same restrictions or conditions a person violating this sectionis not entitled to any compensation for services smith & benedictrevised statutes of 1890, s 4, 403 penalty - whoever prescribes or practises or attempts to practisemedicine in any of its dewritingments, or performs or attempts to performa surgical operation without having attended two full courses ofinstruction and graduated at a school of medicine either in this or aforeign country, or who cannot produce a certificate of qualificationfrom a state or county medical society, except a person who has beencontinuously engaged in the practice of medicine for ten years or more, is punishable with a fine of from $50 to $100 and for a subsequentoffence with imprisonment for thirty days persons in continuouspractice for five years or more were allowed two years to comply withthis act 6, 992 oklahoma qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in anydewritingment unless he be a graduate of a medical college, or unless uponexamination before a board composed of the superintendent of publichealth and two other physicians to be selected by the territorial boardof health, he be found proficient in the practice of medicine andsurgery, and shall be found upon proof to have been actually engagedin the practice of medicine not less than five years no person shallpractise medicine unless he be of good moral character, and is not anhabitual drunkard a person possessing these qualifications shall, on presentation of hisdiploma, or proof thereof by affidavit if it be lost or destroyed, and the affidavit of two reputable citizens from the county where heresides that the applicant possesses the qualifications of a physician, as prescribed herein, to the superintendent of public health, receivefrom him a license, which shall be recorded in the office of theregister of deeds in the county where such physician resides offence - to practise without complying with this law, or to violateany of its provisions, is a misdemeanor definition - a person is regarded as practising medicine who professespublicly to be a physician and to prescribe for the sick, or whoappends to his name m d exceptions - the law does not prohibit students from prescribing underthe supervision of preceptors, nor prohibit gratuitous services in caseof emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united statesarmy and navy cancellation of license - the district court has power on complaint ofa member of the territorial board of health, or the county board ofhealth where he resides, to cancel any license issued to a person topractise medicine, where such license was fraudulently obtained, orwhere the person to whom it was issued has been guilty of violating anyprovision of this act fee - to superintendent of board of health, for license, $2 comp stats , 1893, s 352 oregon qualification - every person practising medicine and surgery in anyof their dewritingments must possess the qualifications required by theact if a graduate of medicine he must present his diploma to the boardof examiners for verification as to its genuineness if found genuineand the person named therein be the person claiming and presentingthe same, the board issues its certificate, which is conclusive ifnot a graduate, he must submit to an examination as the board shallrequire, and if the examination be satisfactory the board issues itscertificate, and the lawful holder is entitled to all the rights andprivileges mentioned in the act act february 28th, 1889, s 1 the governor appoints three persons from among the most competentphysicians of the state, residents of the state for seven years and ofat least five years’ practical experience in their profession, to bethe board of examiners 2 the board must issue certificates to all who furnish satisfactoryproof of having received a diploma or license from a legally charteredmedical institution in good standing of whatever school of medicine, and they are not permitted to make discrimination against holders of ageneral license or diploma under any school or system of medicine ingood standing 3, as amended february 21st, 1891 the verification of a diploma consists in an affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the person therein named, taken before anyperson authorized to administer oaths, attested under the hand andofficial seal of the official, if he have a seal. Graduates may presenttheir diplomas and affidavits by letter or proxy the act allowspersons taking advantage of section 13 ninety days after its passage inwhich to procure a certificate 4, as amended february 21st, 1891 all examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates must be madedirectly by the board, and certificates authorize the person named topractise medicine and surgery 5 the holder of a certificate must have it recorded in the office ofthe county clerk of the county in which he resides, and the recordmust be indorsed thereon on removal to another county to practise hemust procure an indorsement to that effect on the certificate from theclerk, and have the certificate recorded in the office of the clerk ofthe county to which he removes 6 the examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing and must be of anelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 8 the board may refuse a certificate to an individual guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes, after giving the accused an opportunity to be heard in his defencebefore the board 9 definition, exceptions - any person is regarded as practising medicinewho professes publicly to be a physician and to prescribe for thesick, or appends to his name the letters “m d ;” but the act doesnot prohibit students from prescribing under the supervision of apreceptor, nor gratuitous services in paper of emergency, nor does itapply to commissioned surgeons of the united states army, navy, andmarine hospital service 10 itinerant vender - any itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, medicine, ointment, or appliance of any kind intended for the treatment ofdisease or injury, who shall publicly profess to cure or treatdiseases, injuries, deformities, or ailments by any drug, nostrum, medicine, or other appliance, shall pay a license to the secretary ofthe state of $100 per month violation of this section is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of notmore than $500 or imprisonment in a county jail for not more than sixmonths, or both such licenses to any firm or company do not permit thetransaction of business in different places at the same time s 11, as amended february 21st, 1891 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without complying with theact is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $500 orimprisonment in a county jail from thirty days to three hundred andsixty-five days, or both, for each offence filing or attempting tofile as his own the certificate of another, or a forged affidavit oridentification, is a felony punishable the same as forgery in thesecond degree 12 former practitioners - persons practising in the state at the time ofthe passage of the act were allowed sixty days afterward to register13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for examining a genuine diploma, $1 to the secretary of the board, for examining a fraudulent diploma, or adiploma not owned by the possessor, $20 4 to the county clerk, for recording certificate, usual fee s 6 to board of examiners, for examination, $10 8 to the secretary of the state, from itinerant vender, for license, $100per month 11, as amended february 21st, 1891 pennsylvania present law - the following is the law at present in effect. For thenew law which goes into effect hereafter, see below qualification - the standard of a practitioner of medicine, surgery, orobstetrics consists of a good moral character, a thorough elementaryeducation, a comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy, humanphysiology, pathology, chemistry, materia medica, obstetrics, andpractice of medicine and surgery and public hygiene act march 24th, 1877, s 1 it is unlawful for any person to announce himself as a practitionerof medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to practise as such, who hasnot received in a regular manner a diploma from a chartered medicalschool, duly authorized to confer upon its alumni the degree of doctorof medicine the act does not apply to a resident practitioner who hasbeen in continuous practice in the commonwealth for not less than fiveyears prior to its passage 2 before any person can lawfully engage in the practice of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or who has not a diploma as provided in sec 2, he must make an affidavit under oath, or affirm before the prothonotaryof the county in which he intends to practise, setting forth the timeof continuous practice and the place or places where such practice waspursued in the commonwealth, and it shall be entered of record s 3 transient practitioner - any person attempting to practise medicineor surgery for a valuable consideration by opening a transient officewithin the commonwealth, or by handbill or other form of written orprinted advertisement, assigning such transient office or other placeto persons seeking medical or surgical advice, or prescribing oritinerating from place to place or from house to house and proposing tocure any person sick or afflicted, by the use of any medicine, means, or agency whatsoever, for a valuable consideration, shall before beingallowed to practise in this manner appear before the clerk of thecourt of quarter sessions of the county where he desires to practiseand furnish satisfactory evidence to such clerk that this act has beencomplied with, and shall take out a license for one year and pay $50therefor 4 penalty - to violate this act is a misdemeanor punishable with a fineof from $200 to $400 for each offence 5 qualification - every person who shall practise medicine or surgery, or any of their branches, for gain, or shall receive or accept for hisservices any fee or reward directly or indirectly, shall be a graduateof a legally chartered medical college or university having authorityto confer the degree of doctor of medicine except as provided insec 5, and shall present to the prothonotary of the county in whichhe resides or sojourns his medical diploma as well as a true copyof the same, including any indorsements thereon, and make affidavitbefore him that the diploma and indorsements are genuine. Thereuponthe prothonotary shall enter in the register the name in full of thepractitioner, his place of nativity, place of residence, the name ofthe college or university that has conferred the degree of doctor ofmedicine, the year when it was conferred, and in like manner any otherdegree or degrees that the practitioner may desire to place on record;to all of which the practitioner shall make affidavit before theprothonotary and the prothonotary shall place the copy of the diplomaand indorsements on file act june 8th, 1881, s 2 any person whose medical diploma has been destroyed or lost shallpresent to the prothonotary of the county in which he resides orsojourns a duly certified copy of his diploma, but if the same isnot obtainable a statement of this fact, with the names of theprofessors whose lectures he attended and the branches of study uponwhich each professor lectured, to all of which the practitioner shallmake affidavit before the prothonotary. After which the practitionershall be allowed to register and the prothonotary shall place suchcertificate or statement on file 3 any person desiring to commence the practice of medicine or surgery, having a medical diploma issued by any college, university, society, or association in another state or foreign country, shall lay the samebefore the faculty of one of the medical colleges or universities ofthis commonwealth for inspection, and the faculty being satisfiedas to the qualifications of the applicant and the genuineness of thediploma shall direct the dean of the faculty to indorse the same, afterwhich such person shall be allowed to register as required by sec 24 the act extends the privilege of continuing to practise to those whohave been in the continuous practice of medicine or surgery in thecommonwealth since 1871, but such a person must make affidavit to awritten statement of the facts before the prothonotary of the countyin which he resides.

The aqueous solution wasintensely bitter, and the yellow color intensified with acids the dryresidue became intensely yellow with concentrated sulphuric acid. Withnitric acid it became violet turning to yellow, and with concentratedsulphuric acid and potassium nitrate it gave a yellowish green color, turning to violet and finally to a wine color all these reactions aretypical of colchicin from 1 gm of the powdered pills there was obtained 0 0425 gm of ash, or 4 25 per cent when the powdered pills were extracted with chloroform in a soxhletapparatus, a very uniform quantity of extract was obtained from 5 gm there was obtained, in one case, 0 581 gm. In another, 0 5755 gm , andin a third, 0 588 gm , the average being 0 5815 gm or 11 63 per cent on still further extracting with alcohol, a small amount of extractivewas obtained, the amount depending on the length of time the extractionwas continued on extracting with hot water the residue left after exhaustion withchloroform and with alcohol, a further extract was obtained in onecase, it amounted to 0 4763 gm or 9 53 per cent , and in another caseit amounted to 0 470 gm , or 9 40 per cent. Average 9 47 per cent in attempting to dry the pills or the above-mentioned chloroformicextract at 100 c , a crystalline sublimate was obtained which had theodor of benzoic acid the crystals were acid, their neutral solutiongave a flesh-colored precipitate with ferric chlorid, and they meltedat 120-121 c this crystalline substance appeared to be benzoic acid the quantity of benzoic acid in this extract was determined by heatingit to about 140 c a current of air was drawn through the flask andthe sublimed benzoic acid collected in a cooled tube the benzoic acidwas washed out of the tube with neutral alcohol, and the solution wastitrated with tenth normal potassium hydroxid in one case, 11 25 c c of tenth-normal alkali was used, indicating 0 1373 gm, of benzoic acid;in another, 12 27 c c , indicating 0 1498 gm of benzoic acid. Average0 1436 gm , or 2 87 per cent in a third case the temperature reached250 c , and there was essay decomposition of the fat in the flask andessay colored material distilled over for this sublimate 15 54 c c oftenth-normal alkali were required after evaporating the alcohol and acidulating the solutions obtainedin the previous experiments, the benzoic acid was extracted withchloroform in the first case, 0 1383 gm was obtained. In the second, 0 1541 gm. Average 0 1462 gm , or 2 92 per cent of benzoic acid when the original chloroformic extract was heated until all of thebenzoic acid had been driven off, the residue had the appearance of asemisolid fat it compared quite closely in color, odor, etc , with thefatty material obtained by extracting colchicum seed with chloroform, although the odor was more suggestive of oleic or stearic acid it wasdistinctly acid, which is also true of the fatty material obtained froma sample of colchicum seed the extract obtained with hot water was light yellow. Gummy, at first, but dried to a glass-like brittle mass it had a slight burned-sugarodor and taste, and was neutral in reaction it was stronglydextrogyrate and at once reduced fehling solution as well as alkalinesilver nitrate solution on boiling with potassium hydroxid solution, it turned deep red it also gave the molisch carbohydrate reaction, and the ozazone test in seventeen minutes as described in mulliken identification of pure organic compounds, ed 1, 1905, p 26 theseare all characteristic reactions of lactose or milk sugar from this examination we conclude that desanctis’ pills containpowdered colchicum seed, benzoic acid, and sugar of milk there is alsopresent fatty material which resembles the fat of colchicum seed, butmay be, in writing, added fatty acid the percentage of colchicin found 0 50 is about that of a good quality of colchicum seed, the u s pharmacopeial standard being not less than 0 45 per cent since thepills contain material other than colchicum seed, this assay wouldindicate a colchicum seed of high alkaloidal content, or the possiblereinforcement of the pills with colchicum extract or colchicin the amount of benzoic acid, 2 92 per cent , or about 1/7 grain perpill, is insignificant from a therapeutic standpoint, since an averagedose is 0 5 gm , or 8 grains fatty acids, and the fatty matter fromcolchicum seed are inert, at least in the quantities found here theonly office which fatty acids might perform, would be to give the pillsan enteric quality, preventing their absorption until they reach theintestine the sugar of milk, about 10 per cent , or 1/2 grain perpill, no doubt is simply an excipient desanctis’ pills are therefore essentially 5 grain doses of powderedcolchicum seed, of which the average dose is 0 2 gm , or 3 grains u s p ix, p 120 the journal in presenting the facts contained in the above report madethe following comments:“here then, we have sold for self-medication an extremely poisonousdrug, with no warning of the risk the public runs in using it whilethe directions call for “one pill every eight hours until relieved, ”it is notorious that the public takes the attitude toward “patentmedicines” that, if a little is good, more is better, and the averageuser of remedies for self-treatment is likely, unless there is essaywarning, to use his own discretion as to the amount taken “the individual dose is above that of the average recommended in theunited states pharmacopeia colchicum or its alkaloids-- or for thatmatter, any drug as toxic as colchicum-- have no place in preparationsof the home-remedy type in the case of all “patent medicines, ”public interest demands that the full quantitative formula of thetherapeutically active ingredients should be given on the label, forwhen the public prescribes for itself, it has a right to know what itis taking unfortunately, public interest clashes with vested interestsand, as usual, vested interests get the better of it in the case ofsuch dangerous preparations as desanctis’ pills, if their sale is tobe permitted at all, not only should the names and quantities of alltherapeutically active ingredients in the mixture be given, but thelaw should require that the word poison be plainly printed on thelabel ”-- abstracted from the journal a m a , july 19, 1919 iodex and liquid iodexthe a m a chemical laboratory examined iodex in 1915 213 theclaims made, at that time, by the exploiters, menley & james, wereshown to be contrary to facts in that iodex contained only traces offree iodin while they claimed “5 per cent therapeutically free iodin ”even the total quantity of iodin was shown to be only about one halfof the 5 per cent claimed to be present as free iodin 213 annual reports of the chem lab of the a m a , 1915, p 89 an examination of the advertising matter sent out by menley & jamesin 1919 showed that substantially the same claims were being made asin 1915 this at once suggested the inquiry.

Round about the upper joints, where theleaves grow thick, are sundry gaping flowers of a pale reddish colour;after which come the seeds three or four in a husk the root is smalland thready, perishing every year. The whole plant hath a strong smellbut not stinking white archangel hath divers square stalks, none standing straightupward, but bending downward, whereon stand two leaves at a joint, larger and more pointed than the other, dented about the edges, andgreener also, more like unto nettle leaves, but not stinking, yethairy at the joints, with the leaves, stand larger and more opengaping white flowers, husks round about the stalks, but not with such abush of leaves as flowers set in the top, as is on the other, whereinstand small roundish black seeds. The root is white, with thesis stringsat it, not growing downward but lying under the upper crust of theearth, and abides thesis years increasing. This has not so strong a scentas the former yellow archangel is like the white in the stalks and leaves.

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After which in their placecome forth cornered seed, four for the most writing standing together. Theroot is small and thready, perishing every year, and the seed sheddingevery year, raises it again the next spring place it grows in gardens, and flowers and seeds with us, notwithstanding it is not natural to this land, but to italy, spain, and france, where it grows plentifully government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and a good onetoo dioscorides saith, that a good handful of this, which is calledthe great turnsole, boiled in water, and drank, purges both choler andphlegm. And boiled with cummin, helps the stone in the reins, kidneys, or bladder, provokes urine and women courses, and causes an easyand speedy delivery in child-birth the leaves bruised and applied toplaces pained with the gout, or that have been out of joint and newlyset, and full of pain, do give much ease. The seed and juice of theleaves also being rubbed with a little salt upon warts and wens, andother kernels in the face, eye-lids, or any other writing of the body, will, by often using, take them away meadow trefoil, or honeysuckles it is so well known, especially by the name of honeysuckles, white andred, that i need not describe them place they grow almost every where in this land government and virtues mercury hath dominion over the common sort dodoneus saith, the leaves and flowers are good to ease the gripingpains of the gout, the herb being boiled and used in a clyster ifthe herb be made into a poultice, and applied to inflammations, itwill ease them the juice dropped in the eyes, is a familiar medicine, with thesis country people, to take away the pin and web as they callit in the eyes. It also allays the heat and blood shooting of them country people do also in thesis places drink the juice thereof againstthe biting of an adder. And having boiled the herb in water, theyfirst wash the place with the decoction, and then lay essay of the herbalso to the hurt place the herb also boiled in swine grease, and somade into an ointment, is good to apply to the biting of any venomouscreature the herb also bruised and heated between tiles, and appliedhot to the share, causes them to make water who had it stopt before it is held likewise to be good for wounds, and to take away seed thedecoction of the herb and flowers, with the seed and root, taken foressay time, helps women that are troubled with the whites the seed andflowers boiled in water, and afterwards made into a poultice with essayoil, and applied, helps hard swellings and imposthumes heart trefoil besides the ordinary sort of trefoil, here are two more remarkable, andone of which may be properly called heart trefoil, not only because theleaf is triangular, like the heart of a man, but also because each leafcontains the perfection of a heart, and that in its proper colour, viz a flesh colour place it grows between longford and bow, and beyond southwark, bythe highway and writings adjacent government and virtues it is under the dominion of the sun, and ifit were used, it would be found as great a strengthener of the heart, and cherisher of the vital spirits as grows, relieving the body againstfainting and swoonings, fortifying it against poison and pestilence, defending the heart against the noiessay vapours of the spleen pearl trefoil it differs not from the common sort, save only in this writingicular, ithath a white spot in the leaf like a pearl it is writingicularly underthe dominion of the moon, and its icon shews that it is of a singularvirtue against the pearl, or pin and web in the eyes tustan, or park leaves descript it hath brownish shining round stalks, crested the lengththereof, rising two by two, and essaytimes three feet high, branchingforth even from the bottom, having divers joints, and at each of themtwo fair large leaves standing, of a dark blueish green colour on theupper side, and of a yellowish green underneath, turning reddish towardautumn at the top of the stalks stand large yellow flowers, and headswith seed, which being greenish at the first and afterwards reddish, turn to be of a blackish purple colour when they are ripe, with smallbrownish seed within them, and they yield a reddish juice or liquor, essaywhat resinous, and of a harsh and stypick taste, as the leaves alsoand the flowers be, although much less, but do not yield such a clearclaret wine colour, as essay say it doth, the root is brownish, essaywhatgreat, hard and woody, spreading well in the ground place it grows in thesis woods, groves, and woody grounds, as parksand forests, and by hedge-sides in thesis places in this land, as inhampstead wood, by ratley in essex, in the wilds of kent, and in thesisother places needless to recite time it flowers later than st john or st peter-wort government and virtues it is an herb of saturn, and a most nobleanti-venerean tustan purges choleric humours, as st peter-wort, is said to do, for therein it works the same effects, both to helpthe sciatica and gout, and to heal burning by fire. It stays all thebleedings of wounds, if either the green herb be bruised, or the powderof the dry be applied thereto it hath been accounted, and certainly itis, a sovereign herb to heal either wound or sore, either outwardly orinwardly, and therefore always used in drinks, lotions, balms, oils, ointments, or any other sorts of green wounds, ulcers, or old sores, inall which the continual experience of former ages hath confirmed theuse thereof to be admirably good, though it be not so much in use now, as when physicians and surgeons were so wise as to use herbs more thannow they do garden valerian descript this hath a thick short greyish root, lying for the mostwriting above ground, shooting forth on all other sides such like smallpieces of roots, which have all of them thesis long green strings andfibres under them in the ground, whereby it draws nourishment fromthe head of these roots spring up thesis green leaves, which at firstare essaywhat broad and long, without any divisions at all in them, ordenting on the edges. But those that rise up after are more and moredivided on each side, essay to the middle rib, being winged, as made ofthesis leaves together on a stalk, and those upon a stalk, in like mannermore divided, but smaller towards the top than below. The stalk risesto be a yard high or more, essaytimes branched at the top, with thesissmall whitish flowers, essaytimes dashed over at the edges with a palepurplish colour, of a little scent, which passing away, there followssmall brownish white seed, that is easily carried away with the wind the root smells more strong than either leaf or flower, and is of moreuse in medicines place it is generally kept with us in gardens time it flowers in june and july, and continues flowering until thefrost pull it down government and virtues this is under the influence of mercury dioscorides saith, that the garden valerian hath a warming faculty, and that being dried and given to drink it provokes urine, and helpsthe stranguary the decoction thereof taken, doth the like also, andtakes away pains of the sides, provokes women courses, and is usedin antidotes pliny saith, that the powder of the root given in drink, or the decoction thereof taken, helps all stoppings and stranglingsin any writing of the body, whether they proceed of pains in the chestor sides, and takes them away the root of valerian boiled withliquorice, raisins, and anniseed, is singularly good for those that areshort-winded, and for those that are troubled with the cough, and helpsto open the passages, and to expectorate phlegm easily it is given tothose that are bitten or stung by any venomous creature, being boiledin wine it is of a special virtue against the plague, the decoctionthereof being drank, and the root being used to smell to it helpsto expel the wind in the belly the green herb with the root takenfresh, being bruised and applied to the head, takes away the pains andprickings there, stays rheum and thin distillation, and being boiledin white wine, and a drop thereof put into the eyes, takes away thedimness of the sight, or any pin or web therein it is of excellentproperty to heal any inward sores or wounds, and also for outward hurtsor wounds, and drawing away splinters or thorns out of the flesh vervain descript the common vervain hath essaywhat long broad leaves nextthe ground deeply gashed about the edges, and essay only deeply dented, or cut all alike, of a blackish green colour on the upper side, essaywhat grey underneath the stalk is square, branched into severalwritings, rising about two feet high, especially if you reckon the longspike of flowers at the tops of them, which are set on all sides oneabove another, and essaytimes two or three together, being small andgaping, of a blue colour and white intermixed, after which come smallround seed, in small and essaywhat long heads the root is small andlong place it grows generally throughout this land in divers places ofthe hedges and way-sides, and other waste grounds time it flowers in july, and the seed is ripe soon after government and virtues this is an herb of venus, and excellentfor the womb to strengthen and remedy all the cold griefs of it, asplantain doth the hot vervain is hot and dry, opening obstructions, cleansing and healing it helps the yellow jaundice, the dropsy and thegout. It kills and expels worms in the belly, and causes a good colourin the face and body, strengthens as well as corrects the diseasesof the stomach, liver, and spleen.