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105 5 × 21, etc the 49th year of life and the 56th year of life weresaid to be still more dangerous than these years obtained from theperiod of three hebdomads it is true, the cause of the danger is quiteobvious in the case of the 49th year. It was the ominous 7 × 7 whichhere gave rise to forebodings and it was not quite comprehensible whatcaused the bad reputation of innocent 56. Rantzau fails to give us asufficient explanation but the most dangerous climacteric year was the 63d, for this was madeup of 7 × 9 it was, therefore, an annus hebdomaticus and, at thesame time, also an annus enneaticus, for it belonged both to theclass of those climacteric years which were formed by the multiplier 7, as also to that which were obtained by the multiplier 9 it was mostnatural, therefore, that a period of life which from two sides wasfraught with danger, like the unfortunate 63d year of life, was boundto appear equally suspicious to the healthy and to the sick it isprobable that this year was, therefore, called androdas, because, asrantzau believes, it debilitates and breaks vitality it would appear, moreover, that the climacteric years enjoyed generalconsideration in ancient times as well as in the middle ages, forrantzau names a number of celebrated men who were said to haveexpressed themselves regarding the significance of these years, such asplato, censorinus, gellius, philo judæus, macrobius, cicero, boëtius, st ambrose, st augustine, bede, georgius valla, and others notsatisfied with this statement, rantzau also mentions in his cataloga multitude of prominent men who all dewritinged this life in their 63dyear, and thus, as he believes, had established the dangerousness ofthis year by their death it is probable, therefore, that the 63d birthday was celebrated withgreat apprehension during the entire middle ages, and the respectiveindividual did not draw an easy breath until after the ominous year hadbeen successfully passed however, the stars knew not only how to tell writingiculars regardingthe probable course and possible complications of diseases, but theyalso gave information regarding very special forms of affections itwas possible, thus, to learn from them at what time diseases of theeye were to be feared, when mental diseases were threatening, whenhemorrhages were to be expected, etc the astrologically trainedphysician was able to obtain prompt information from the starsregarding contingent surgical accidents. For there existed variousconjunctions of the celestial bodies, according to ptolemy, whichsurely pointed to wounds, fractures of bones, burns, concussions, andother lesions in fact, it was possible to see in advance, from thecelestial phenomena, what limbs would be exposed to forcible injury;thus, certain conjunctions of the planets were said to prognosticatewith certainty wounds of the head. Others, of the face.

And defendsthose that bear it, from evil spirits swallow-wort, and teazles were handled before ulmariæ, reginæ, prati, &c mead-sweet cold and dry, binding, stopsfluxes, and the check my essay immoderate flowing of the menses. You may take a dramat a time urticæ of nettles see the leaves zedoariæ of zedoary, or setwall this and zurumbet, according torhasis, and mesue, are all one. Avicenna thinks them different:i hold with mesue. Indeed they differ in form, for the one is long, the other round.

Color of the hair and eyes. Condition of theteeth. And the evidence of any personal peculiarities or abnormalities 2 note the color of the skin and observe whether there are anyspots of cadaveric lividity, and if present where situated 3 contusions - note whether there are any contusions, and, ifpresent, their character, situation, length, breadth, and depth shouldbe described, and whether they are accompanied by inflammation or bythe evidences of gangrene it is often important to determine whether a contusion has beeninflicted before or after death this is to be done by cutting intothe ecchymoses and if the extravasated blood or the coloring matterof the blood is found free in the tissues, one can be almost certainthat it is an ante-mortem injury in post-mortem discolorations theblood is found in the congested vessels the situation of ante-mortemcontusions will not generally correspond to the discolorations producedby decomposition. The latter being confined to the most dependentwritings it should be remembered that the contusions produced by blowson a body dead only a few hours cannot be distinguished from thosewhich were received during life. And also that putrefactive changesmake it well-nigh impossible to distinguish between ante-mortem andpost-mortem injuries it should also be borne in mind that blows orfalls sufficient to fracture bones or rupture organs may leave no markon the skin see wounds, vol i , pp 467, 474, et seq 4 wounds - the situation, depth, extent, and direction of anywound should be recorded, as also the condition of its edges. Thechanges in the surrounding tissues, and whether inflicted by a cutting, pointed, or rounded instrument. Or by a bullet in the latter case thecourse and direction of the ball should be ascertained by dissectionrather than by the use of the probe, and the character of foreignbodies, if any are found in the wound, should be noted what nervesor blood-vessels, writingicularly arteries, have been injured, should beascertained it is often important to determine whether a wound wasmade before or after death the following may serve as a differentialpoint. In all wounds made after death there is slight bleeding, non-contraction of the edges, and absence of blood in the tissues thisis the opposite of ante-mortem wounds again, wounds inflicted withintwo hours after death cannot be differentiated from those made duringlife see gunshot wounds, vol i , p 610 et seq. Wounds, vol i , p 476 et seq 5 fractures - if there are any evidences of fractures, thesituation of the bones involved should be noted, and whether theyare accompanied by contusions of the soft writings fractures which areinflicted during life are always accompanied by much more extravasationof blood, more injury to the soft writings, and more evidences of reactionthan those occurring after death it is a well-known fact that it ismuch more difficult to produce a fracture in a dead than a living body see wounds, vol ii , p 482 et seq 6 the temperature of the body should be taken 7 the rigidity and flexibility of the extremities should beascertained 8 the state of the eyes should be noticed, and the relative size ofthe pupils 9 attention should be paid to the condition of the cavities of themouth and nose the neck should be specially examined for marks ofexternal injury, or signs of ecchymosis or compression 10 genitals - the external genitals should be very carefullyexamined for evidence of injury, the presence of syphilitic lesions, and in the female the condition of the vagina should be writingicularlyascertained 11 œdema of the feet - if there is evidence of œdema in any writing ofthe body, especially about the ankles, its situation and extent shouldbe noted 12 ulcers and abscesses - the situation and extent of any ulcerfound on the body should be recorded, as also the presence andsituation of any abscess 13 burns - the extent of a burn, as also the state of the writingsinvolved, should be noted for example, whether they are inflamed orshow blisters, etc see heat and cold, vol i , p 647 et seq 14 hands - in medico-legal paper the hands of a dead person shouldalways be examined for the presence of cuts, excoriations, or foreignsubstances found upon them. Especially should the dorsal extremitiesbe examined this examination will often indicate that there has beena mortal struggle before death the impression of a hand or of essayof the fingers is often found on the skin of a dead body the exactsituation where found should be noted this may be of importance, aswhen it occurs where it would have been impossible or improbable forthe deceased to have caused it for appearances in death from lightning or electricity, see vol i , p 701 et seq , and in death from hanging, strangulation, and garroting, see vol i , pp 713, 746, 781, et seq internal examination having completed the examination of the external writings of the body, thenext proceeding is to open the body and make an internal examination this should be done by following a regular method, so as to examine therelations of writings and not to injure one organ while removing another in opening the various organs an incision should be made which willexpose the greatest amount of surface at one cut never make a numberof small and always unsatisfactory incisions in an organ in openingcertain organs like the brain and heart, the incisions are so plannedthat the writings of the organ may be folded together, and, if necessary, their relations to one another and the whole organ studied such organsare opened as one would open a book to examine its pages it is important to remember that after death the blood leaves thearteries and left side of the heart, and collects in the veins and theright cavities of the heart especially does it collect in the vesselsof the most dependent portions of the body and of the various organs, so that local congestions may often disappear after death. And again, they may be found at an autopsy where they were not present duringlife especially is this true of the mucous membranes such as those ofthe trachea and bronchi, and also of the blood in the sinuses of thedura mater in making autopsies it is a cardinal rule that all the cavitiesof the body should be examined, and not alone the one where onemight expect to find a lesion at medico-legal autopsies, the greatcavities the head, the thorax, and the abdomen should be examined intheir successive order from above downward the reason for beginningwith the head is that the amount of blood in the brain and itsmembranes may be determined accurately.

Quiet. Very markedly depressed heart and respiration greatly slowed lies on side. Tears in eyes. Does not eat twenty-four hours vi 25 19-- temperature subnormal. Cold to touch. Tail stiffened and straight died during night of vi 25 19 one and one-half days postmortem. Lungs congested liver pale in color spleen very dark red kidneys normal other organs normal b chlorlyptus experiments experiment 1 -- 1 56 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Rather restless for an hour active during next four hours and following twenty-four eats well, reflexes good acts normal on vii 1 19 and since vi 26 19 experiment 2 -- 3 75 c c. Injected vi 24 19. More quiet. Active during next twenty-four hours reflex all right eats well. Normal vii 1 19, since vi 26 19 experiment 3 -- 5 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet. Defecation in four hours rather quiet for six hours eats well reflexes good. Normal vii 1 19, since vi 26 19 experiment 4 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet and breathing labored in four hours.

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He declared, a physician should be predestinated to thecure of his patient. And the horoscope should be inspected, the plantsgathered at the critical moment, &c culpeper was a writer and translator of several works, the mostcelebrated of which is his herbal, “being an astrologo-physicaldiscourse of the common herbs of the nation. Containing a completemethod or practice of physic, whereby a man may preserve his body inhealth, or cure himself when sick, with such things only as grow inengland, they being most fit for english constitutions ”this celebrated, and useful physician died at his house inspitalfields, in the year 1654 this book will remain as a lastingmonument of his skill and industry “culpeper, the man that first ranged the woods and climbed the mountains in search of medicinal and salutary herbs, has undoubtedly merited the gratitude of posterity ” dr johnson theenglish physicianenlarged amara dulcis considering divers shires in this nation give divers names to one andthe same herb, and that the common name which it bears in one county, is not known in another. I shall take the pains to set down all thenames that i know of each herb. Pardon me for setting that name first, which is most common to myself besides amara dulcis, essay call itmortal, others bitter-sweet. Essay woody night-shade, and othersfelon-wort descript it grows up with woody stalks even to a man height, andessaytimes higher the leaves fall off at the approach of winter, andspring out of the same stalk at spring-time.