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When it is desired to obtain theeffects of pancreatic extract by oral administration it must beadministered with a view of preventing its destruction by the gastricfluid with this end in view an antacid should be administered todecrease the acidity of the gastric juice the amount of alkali maybe supplied in the form of any of the official preparations, but theamount must be adjusted to the individual patient for the reason thatno two successive patients are likely to have cheap thesis writing services the same degree ofgastric acidity ipecac has a well defined though limited field of usefulness when itis used, it should be given with a due regard to the amount needed bythe patient and the frequency of the repetition of the dose there isno reason to suppose that any two successive patients will requireipecac and extract of pancreas in a fixed proportion and with equalfrequency as a matter of fact, the amount of ipecac in carminzym is sosmall that no definite therapeutic action can be assigned to it and itsuse in this combination is purely empirical in a word, the employment of mixtures of pancreatic extract, alkalis, ipecac and carminatives in fixed proportion leads to slipshod treatmentand irrational therapeutics carminzym is an irrational mixture the useof which is detrimental to therapy the preceding report was sent to fairchild bros and foster for commentin accordance with the council usual procedure the following replywas received. The long established custom of the use of mixtures of remedial agents rests upon considerations well known and generally accepted this is equally true of combinations of drugs of similar and dissimilar properties the drugs of these combinations, especially those of marked therapeutic action, are well known and used by themselves when indicated in fact, dissimilarity of action is a cause of combination, an essential of synergism drugs classed as similar are by no means alike in action. Laxatives, tonics, carminatives, diuretics are combined with distinct advantage, economy of dose, enhanced effect, potency not obtainable with the single drug your sweeping arbitrary conclusions that complex mixtures of remedial agents are from every point of view inimical to therapeutic progress is not, it seems to us, sustained by fact and experience there is therapeutic progress in the considerate use and observation of combinations as well as in the use of a single drug indeed, in the production of a synthetic chemical substance as a therapeutic agent, the combination of potent and dissimilar elements is worked out to mitigate and correct an objectionable side effect, and promote desirable action as for ourselves, at the very outset in our line of work we quite voluntarily declared our principles and our intentions as opposed to incompatible and therefore unstable or inert combinations of the enzymes. And against the “unnecessary multiplication of preparations”-- see fairchild hand-book of the digestive ferments is not this after all the crux of the whole matter-- does a combination contain the ingredients stated, does it possess the demonstrable properties which are to be attributed to it in consequence of this composition. And if for a certain purpose, is it well designed therefor?.

’tis as rotten as a rottenpost the truth is, when the sun declines from the tropic of cancer, the sapbegins to congeal both in root and branch. When he touches the tropicof capricorn, and ascends to us-ward, it begins to wax thin again, andby degrees, as it congealed but to proceed 3 the drier time you gather the roots in, the better they are. Forthey have the less excrementitious moisture in them 4 such roots as are soft, your best way is to dry in the sun, or elsehang them in the chimney corner upon a string. As for such as are hard, you may dry them any where 5 such roots as are great, will keep longer than such as are small;yet most of them will keep a year 6 such roots as are soft, it is your best way to keep them always nearthe fire, and to take this general rule for it. If in winter-time youfind any of your roots, herbs or flowers begin to be moist, as thesistimes you shall for it is your best way to look to them once a monthdry them by a very gentle fire. Or, if you can with convenience keepthem near the fire, you may save yourself the labour 7 it is in vain to dry roots that may commonly be had, as parsley, fennel, plantain, &c but gather them only for present need chapter vof barks 1 barks, which physicians use in medicine, are of these sorts. Offruits, of roots, of boughs 2 the barks of fruits are to be taken when the fruit is full ripe, as oranges, lemons, &c but because i have nothing to do with exoticshere, i pass them without any more words 3 the barks of trees are best gathered in the spring, if of oaks, orsuch great trees. Because then they come easier off, and so you may drythem if you please. But indeed the best way is to gather all barks onlyfor present use 4 as for the barks of roots, ’tis thus to be gotten take the roots ofsuch herbs as have a pith in them, as parsley, fennel, &c slit them inthe middle, and when you have taken out the pith which you may easilydo that which remains is called tho’ improperly the bark, and indeedis only to be used chapter vi of juices 1 juices are to be pressed out of herbs when they are young andtender, out of essay stalks and tender tops of herbs and plants, andalso out of essay flowers 2 having gathered the herb, would you preserve the juice of it, whenit is very dry for otherwise the juice will not be worth a buttonbruise it very well in a stone mortar with a wooden pestle, then havingput it into a canvas bag, the herb i mean, not the mortar, for thatwill give but little juice, press it hard in a press, then take thejuice and clarify it 3 the manner of clarifying it is this. Put it into a pipkin orskillet, or essay such thing, and set it over the fire. And when thescum arises, take it off. Let it stand over the fire till no more scumarise. When you have your juice clarified, cast away the scum as athing of no use 4 when you have thus clarified it, you have two ways to preserve itall the year 1 when it is cold, put it into a glass, and put so much oil on it aswill cover it to the thickness of two fingers. The oil will swim at thetop, and so keep the air from coming to putrify it. When you intend touse it, pour it into a porringer, and if any oil come out with it, youmay easily scum it off with a spoon, and put the juice you use not intothe glass again, it will quickly sink under the oil this is the firstway 2 the second way is a little more difficult, and the juice of fruitsis usually preserved this way when you have clarified it, boil it overthe fire, till being cold it be of the thickness of honey.

“surely you cheap thesis writing services are willing to helpto that amount to ‘down’ the ‘gang’ in charge of the a m a , ” isfeatured another group of letters has gone out to the graduates of thebarnes medical college this commences. “most graduates of ‘old barnes’ have joined our society of protest against the iniquities of the a m a why should you also not come in?. it costs only $1 00 to become a member, including the cost of a beautiful certificate of membership ”still another group appeal is based on sex. Thus lanphear. “we want every reputable ‘lady physician’ in this country to join our society of protest against the iniquities of the a m a ”and yet another. “you formerly belonged to the tri-state medical society, of which i was treasurer for 20 years it is now dead i wish you would join our new society which has superseded tri-state in this territory ”with these various letters is enclosed a “preliminary program” of the1918 meeting which is to be held october 8 and 9 in chicago as mightbe expected, thesis of the names on the program are characteristic of theorganization and an interesting “story” might be made from the materialin the journal files on the individuals such names are of men, who, professionally speaking, range from faddists, who ride grotesque andbizarre medical hobbies, to those who with special interests to exploitand unable to use reputable medical organizations for that purpose, take refuge in such hybrid conglomerations as the medical society ofthe united states not that the program contains the names of crudequacks, or obvious medical swindlers it is representative, rather, ofthat twilight zone of professionalism, the penumbra, in whose uncertainlight it is difficult to distinguish between the unbalanced visionary, with a fad, and the more sinister near-quack, with a “scheme ”-- fromthe journal a m a , oct 5, 1918 the national formulary-- a review of the fourth editionthe fourth edition of the national formulary appears simultaneouslywith the u s pharmacopeia ix, and is to become official at the sametime september 1 the principles which determine its scope, asfrankly set forth in the preface, are apparently the same as thoseapplied, though more faint-heartedly, in the compilation of thepharmacopeia a statement in the preface of the new national formularyruns. “the scope of the present national formulary is the same as in previous issues, and is based on medical usage rather than on therapeutic ideals the committee consists entirely of pharmacists, or of men with a pharmaceutical training, and it cannot presume either to judge therapeutic practice or to follow any writingicular school of therapeutic practice the question of the addition or deletion of any formula was judged on the basis of its use by physicians and its pharmaceutical soundness the considerable use by physicians of any preparation was considered sufficient warrant for the inclusion of its formula in the book, and a negligible or diminishing use as justifying its exclusion ”writing i of the volume contains formulas, good, bad and indifferent, including the equivalents of a large number of shotgun proprietaries writing ii contains descriptions of drugs this is a new feature thepurpose is to provide standards for those drugs not described inthe pharmacopeia but used in n f preparations thesis of these drugswere described in the u s pharmacopeia viii, but have not beenincluded in the ninth revision practically all are either worthlessor superfluous writing iii contains descriptions of special tests andreagents among the therapeutically useful formulas are those for aromatic castoroil, emulsion of castor oil, sprays or nebulae, solution of aluminumacetate, solution of aluminum subacetate and wine of antimony the twolast named are also included in “useful drugs ” several formulas fornew classes of preparations which may or may not be found superiorto old forms are paste pencils for the application of medicaments tolimited areas of the skin, mulls, which are ointments spread likeplasters, and fluidglycerates, which are fluidextracts in whichglycerin takes the place of alcohol it should be noted also that, as aresult of criticism, the alcohol content of essay preparations has beenreduced as a whole, the present edition of the national formulary, like itspredecessors, is “pharmaceutically useful but not a therapeuticnecessity ” to say that it is not a therapeutic necessity is tostate the matter mildly, since most of the formulas and almost allof the drugs described have been discarded long since by rationaltherapeutists so long as there are physicians who prescribetherapeutic monstrosities, however, the druggist should have theaid that is furnished by this book in compounding them from thepharmacist point of view, therefore, the book is a valuable one physicians who have a scientific training in the pharmacology of drugswill not want it. Others will be better off without the temptationsoffered by its thesis irrational formulas -- book review in the journala m a , sept 2, 1916 nonspecific protein therapythe treatment by nonspecific methods in a series of paper of influenzalpneumonia has been the subject of two recent papers 295 these methodsare a development of the work of ichikawa, kraus, lüdke, jobling andpetersen, and others on the treatment of typhoid fever and of millerand lusk work on arthritis in the original work in this field itwas recognized that there were certain inherent dangers in the methodand that wide application would be permissible only with the greatestcaution and under careful control 295 roberts, dudley, and cary, e g. Bacterial protein injectionsin influenzal pneumonia, j a m a 72:922 march 29 1919 cowie, d m , and beaven, p w. Nonspecific protein therapy in influenzalpneumonia, j a m a 72:1117 april 19 1919 when vaccines and other toxic protein substances are injectedintravenously a train of reactions takes place that includes. aa primary leukopenia, followed by a leukocytosis. b a primarylessening of the coagulability of the blood, followed after essayinterval by a reduction of the coagulation time. c a pronouncedlymphagogue effect, the flow of lymph from the thoracic duct beingincreased threefold. d a hyperperistalsis of the intestinal tract, and e a marked splanchnic engorgement with a resulting lowering ofthe systemic blood pressure the alteration of the coagulability of theblood, together with the vascular engorgement of the splanchnic areaand the coincident increase in motility of the intestinal tract thatfollow the therapeutic injection, all tend to increase the possibilityof intestinal hemorrhage protein therapy is therefore not a safeprocedure in this writingicular disease that we are able to terminate acertain number of paper of typhoid fever by crisis by means of suchinjections is of very great interest from a theoretical point of view in the treatment of arthritis, the results seem much more satisfactory the work of miller and lusk296 has been confirmed by a number ofobservers, among them culver, cecil, snyder, cowie and calhoun. Andthere seems little doubt that we may be able to give prompt relief andeven permanent freedom from symptoms in a considerable percentage ofpaper of acute and subacute arthritis, especially those classed as ofrheumatic origin-- and this with practically no risk to the patient 296 miller, j l , and lusk, f b.

Ann et bull soc roy de sc méd et nat 70:178, 1912 properties of secretinprosecretin -- secretin is soluble in water, yet a watery extract ofintestinal scrapings is without action, 32 even after being submittedto acid treatment 38 starling therefore holds that secretin existsin the intestinal mucosa in an inactive form, as “prosecretin ” thecontent of the intestine in prosecretin decreases from the duodenumdown, so that one is unable to demonstrate any prosecretin in the last2-1/2 feet of the ileum prosecretin is insoluble in water, acetone, absolute alcohol or ether secretin, on the other hand, is readilysoluble in water, normal salt solution and diluted alcohol 70 percent , but likewise insoluble in absolute alcohol and ether 38 starling. Lancet, london 2:433, 1905 preparation -- all of the more dissociated acids liberate secretinfrom intestinal mucosa on boiling their action is dependent onthe degree of dissociation, 39 carbonic and boric acids beinginactive 40 secretin can also be prepared with strong soaps from10 to 30 per cent sodium oleate, alcohol 70 per cent , 41 0 6 percent sodium chlorid36 the acid and soap in the duodenum producesecretion. There is no necessary correspondence between the action of asubstance in the intestine and that obtained by injection after boilingmucosa with it the sodium chlorid, bile, maltose and glucose produceessay secretion by the latter method yet none by the former 36 on theother hand, ether, chloral and oil of mustard excite secretion whenin the intestine, but no secretin can be prepared from boiled mucosaby their action the irritation of the lining cell has produced thenecessary hydrolysis 38 in well-controlled experiments, wertheimerand lepage42 found that after the introduction of acid, secretion issecreted into the lumen of the intestine matuso36 confirmed theirresults, and found this a satisfactory method for the preparation ofsecretin it is said that secretin can be obtained by merely boilingthe mucosa with water, but the results are inconstant 4339 frouin and lalou. Compt rend soc de biol , 71:189, 1911 40 camus. Compt rend soc de biol , 1902, 54:442, 1902 41 fleig. Jour de physiol et de path gén 6:32, 50, 1904 42 wertheimer and lepage. Jour de physiol et de path gén 4:1061, 1070, 1902 43 stepp. Jour physiol 43:441, 1912 action -- secretin is an excitant not only of the pancreatic juicebut also of the liver and the intestinal mucosa the flow of bile ismarkedly accelerated henri and portier, 44 enriquez and hallion45, likewise that of succus entericus delezenne and frouin, 46 bottazziand gabrielli47, and intestinal peristalsis is stimulated enriquezand hallion, 48 falloise49 injections of secretin produce a markedvasodilatation, but the secretory effect is independent of the bloodpressure changes the pancreas is not readily fatigued by secretin bayliss and starling50 have obtained undiminished flow after eighthours of continuous injection our experience confirms this result also, equal doses of secretin give corresponding results at variousintervals moreover, anesthesia does not affect the flow secretinis unrecoverable from the glands even after two hours of continuousinjection 51 the juice obtained by secretin has been subject to thesisstudies 52 it is of high alkalinity about seventh normal, containsall the pancreatic ferments, and corresponds in all respects to thejuice obtained in digestion from permanent pancreatic fistulas 5344 henri and portier. Compt rend soc de biol 54:620, 1902 45 enriquez and hallion. Presse méd 1:105, 1903 46 delezenne and frouin. Compt rend soc de biol 56:319, 1904 47 bottazzi and gabrielli. Arch internat de physiol 111:156, 1905 48 enriquez and hallion. Bull gén de thér 162:202, 1911 49 falloise.

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“‘compound lobelia powder’ has been, since 1852, official in cheap thesis writing services the american dispensatory, in the first edition of which 1852 its formula is given, as follows. “‘take of lobelia, in powder, twelve ounces. Bloodroot and skunk cabbage, in powder, of each, six ounces. Ipecacuanha, eight ounces. Capsicus, in powder, two ounces mix them ’ “this preparation came increasingly into demand with the eclectic profession, the principal use for which it was first employed as an emetic, being finally displaced by its local application in bronchial pneumonia troubles, when sprinkled on a greased cloth and applied to the chest ” “in 1898, dr finley ellingwood petitioned lloyd brothers to make for him, in plasma form, ready for application, a compound carrying the ingredients of the old ‘compound lobelia powder, ’ strengthened by the addition of melaleuca leucadendron, laurus camphora and nicotiana tabacum experiments not very encouraging in a pharmaceutical sense were made, and it was not until repeated requests had been made that a product was at last satisfactorily prepared and forwarded to dr ellingwood 1900, with no thought other than that of serving him personally in his practice this product he used and commended to his professional friends, and under his commendation it came into professional demand ”an examination of the information submitted by lloyd brothers showedlibradol to be in conflict with the principles and rules that govern inthe acceptance of articles for new and nonofficial remedies as follows:composition rule 1 -- the information which has been receivedgives little idea of the actual composition of the preparation. Forexample, the statement that libradol “carries the energies of its drugconstituents and the high antiseptic qualities of laurus camphoraand melaleuca” gives no indication as to the writing or writings of thelaurus camphora or melaleuca employed if the statement is correct, that libradol “is a homogeneous, highly medicated, and exceedinglypotent compound, ” it is essential that the several potent ingredientsbe stated clearly and not merely hinted at by their qualities otherconflicts with rule 1 might be enumerated, but the foregoing citationsstate the direct conflict. And this has not been removed, although aninquiry was sent to lloyd brothers for a statement of the amount ofeach potent ingredient in a given quantity of libradol indirect advertising rule 4 -- the recommendation for the use oflibradol in the treatment of colds, bronchitis, lumbago, sciatica andrheumatic pains, which accompanies the trade package, is prone tolead the public to depend on it in paper where definite treatment isimperative unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 -- libradol is recommended ina great variety of conditions and is especially claimed not only torelieve pain, but to remove the cause of pain this is explained asfollows. “in the study of the physiological action of thesis drugs, itwas found that the constituent remedies in this combination exerciseda most salutary influence, not only upon the sensibility of the nervesinvolved, but upon the capillary circulation within the diseased area, the muscular structures therein included, and, subsequently, upon thecourse of the advancement of the congestive and inflammatory processes, and upon secretion, exudation, adhesion, induration, hypertrophy, suppuration and excretion ”granting, for the sake of argument, that carefully controlledexperimental clinical evidence were available to substantiate thisstatement with reference to a single case of pain, the statementwould be misleading when considered as a general explanation of thepreparation relieving pain by removing the cause of pain when takenin connection with the conditions for which it is recommended and inwhich pain is even a minor symptom still, if pain were relieved inthese paper by removing the cause, the patient would be cured of theconditions which give rise to the pain, and these include. “acutepain in the chest. Acute inflammation in the chest. Persistentlocal pain. ” this might be interpreted as including tuberculosis;pneumonia.