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The recordsshall have the same weight as evidence as that given to conveyance ofland 12 on and after july 1st, 1894, any person not theretofore authorized topractise medicine and surgery in the state may deliver to the secretaryof the council a written application for a license with satisfactoryproof that the applicant is more than twenty-one years of age, is ofgood moral character, has obtained a competent common-school education, and has received a diploma conferring the degree of medicine fromessay legally incorporated medical college of the united states, ora diploma or license conferring the full right to practise all thebranches of medicine and surgery in essay foreign country applicantswho have received their degree in medicine after july 1st, 1894, musthave pursued the study of medicine for at least three years, includingthree regular courses of lectures in different years in essay legallyincorporated medical college or colleges prior to the granting of saiddiploma or foreign license such proof shall be made, if required, upon affidavit, and if the council is satisfied with the same it shallissue to the applicant an order for examination before such one of theboards of examiners as the applicant may select in case of failure atthe examination the candidate, after the expiration of six months andwithin two years, shall have the privilege of a second examination bythe same board without additional fee applicants examined and licensedby state boards of medical examiners or state boards of health of otherstates, on filing in the office of the medical council a copy of saidlicense certified by the affidavit of the president and secretary ofsuch board, showing also that the standard of acquirements adopted bysaid board is substantially the same as is provided by secs 11, 12, and 13 of this act, shall without further examination receive a licenseconferring on the holder all the rights and privileges provided bysecs 14 and 15 13 from and after march 1st, 1894, no person shall enter upon the practiceof medicine or surgery unless he has complied with this act and shallhave exhibited to the prothonotary of the court of common pleas ofthe county in which he desires to practise a license duly granted, which shall entitle him to be duly registered in the office of suchprothonotary penalty - violating the provisions of this act shall be a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of not more than $500 for each offence s 14 exceptions - the act does not interfere with or punish commissionedmedical officers serving in the army or navy of the united states, or its marine hospital service, while so commissioned, or medicalexaminers of relief dewritingments of railroad companies, while soemployed, or any one while actually serving as a member of the residentmedical staff of any legally incorporated hospital, or any legallyqualified and registered dentist exclusively engaged in the practiceof dentistry, nor interfere with or prevent the dispensing and saleof medicine or medical appliances by apothecaries or pharmacists, nor interfere with the manufacture of artificial eyes, limbs, ororthopædical instruments or trusses of any kind for sic fittingsuch instruments on persons in need thereof, or any lawfully qualifiedphysicians and surgeons residing in other states or countries meetingregistered physicians of this state in consultation, or any physicianor surgeon residing on the border of a neighboring state and dulyauthorized under the laws thereof to practise medicine and surgerytherein, whose practice extends into the limits of this state, providedsuch practitioner shall not open an office or appoint a place tomeet patients or receive calls within the limits of pennsylvania, orphysicians duly registered in one county of this state called toattend paper in another, but not residing or opening an office therein the act does not prohibit the practice of medicine and surgery by anypractitioner who shall have been duly registered before march 1st, 1894, according to the act of june 8th, 1881, and one such registrationshall be sufficient warrant to practise medicine and surgery in anycounty 15 former laws - all acts or writings of acts inconsistent with this arerepealed 17 fees - to the secretary of the council, upon application for a license, $25 to the secretary of the county, upon application for a license bylicensees in other states, $15 13 to the prothonotary, upon exhibition of a license, for registry, $114 rhode island registration - every physician must cause his name and residence tobe recorded in the town clerk office of the town where he resides public statutes, 1882, c 85, s 12 penalty - wilful neglect or refusal to perform this duty is punishablewith a fine not exceeding $20 11 south carolina qualification - all physicians engaging in the practice of medicineor surgery, before doing so, must submit their diplomas to a boardconsisting of three reputable physicians in each county the boardis appointed by the governor on the recommendation of the medicalsocieties of the counties, and where no medical society exists, upon the recommendation of the senator and members of the house ofrepresentatives for such counties act of 1890, c 454, s 1 the said board must examine said diploma, when submitted, and if theholder is a bona fide holder, and if the college issuing said diplomais a reputable medical college, and if he also submits a certificate ofgood moral character, the board must certify to the fact, and upon suchcertificate the diploma shall be registered by the clerk of the courtof the county in which the applicant resides 2 exception - the act does not apply to physicians and surgeons alreadyregistered under former laws 4 south dakota prohibition - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in any of their dewritingments without havingreceived a license to practise medicine from the board of health, andhaving it recorded in the office of the register of deeds in the countywhere such person resides act february 16th, 1893, s 1 exceptions - the act does not affect those in the lawful practice ofmedicine, surgery, or obstetrics in this state at the time of itspassage 2 nor does it prohibit students from prescribing under the supervisionof a preceptor, nor prohibit gratuitous services in case of emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united states army and navy3 penalty - violation of the act or practising without the license is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $25 to $100 or imprisonmentin the county jail not more than thirty days or both 4 qualification - the state board of health is constituted a board ofpublic examiners ex-officio to examine and license physicians topractise medicine any person who is a graduate of a lawful medicalcollege, who has attended three full courses of medical lectures ofsix months each, no two full courses within the same year, and who isof good moral character, and is not an habitual drunkard, shall, uponproof of such facts to the superintendent of the state board of health, as the board shall require, receive from said superintendent a license;which shall be recorded as above the requirement of three courses oflectures does not apply to those who had graduated prior to the passageof the act 5 cancellation of license - the state board of health, upon complaintmade to it on oath by one responsible person, has power to cancel anylicense that may have been fraudulently obtained or when the person towhom such license was issued is an habitual drunkard, or is guilty ofimmoral practices or gross unprofessional conduct such license shallnot be cancelled except after a hearing before such board of health, at which a majority of such board shall be present, and of which theperson holding the license to be cancelled shall have had at leastten days’ notice, and only upon due proof of the facts stated in thecomplaint an appeal may be taken to the circuit court of the countyin which the person whose license is cancelled lives by any personaggrieved, in the same manner as now provided by law in case of appealfrom the decisions of the county commissioners 6 fee - to the superintendent of the state board of health, for alicense, $5 5 tennessee qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in any of itsdewritingments, except dentistry, unless he possesses the qualificationsrequired by the act if a graduate in medicine, he must present hisdiploma to the state board of medical examiners for verification asto its genuineness if found genuine and from a legally charteredallopathic, homœopathic, or eclectic medical college in good standingwith the school of medicine in which said college is classed, of whichthe state board of medical examiners shall be the judge, and the personnamed therein be the person claiming and presenting it, the board mustissue a certificate to that effect, conclusive as to the rights of thelawful holder to practise medicine act of 1889, c 178, s 1 persons in actual practice at the time of the passage of the act wereallowed till july 1st, 1891, to comply with the provisions of the actrespecting them 2, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 1 a person wishing to enter upon the practice of medicine must presentto the board of medical examiners a diploma from essay medical collegein good standing as provided by sec 1, or shall present himself tothe said board for examination upon anatomy, physiology, chemistry, pathology, surgery, obstetrics, and therapeutics if the diploma befound genuine, or if the applicant for examination be found worthy andcompetent, the board shall issue a certificate which shall entitlethe lawful holder to all the privileges of this act 3, asamended act 1891, c 109, s 2 the governor appoints six graduate physicians as a state board ofmedical examiners. The three schools allopathic, homœopathic, andeclectic must be represented on the board. Five constitute a quorumand a majority of those present are necessary to reject an applicant, but such rejection shall not bar a re-examination after the lapse ofthree months. Provided the members representing each school shall havethe right to examine all applicants of that school, and the boardshall issue the certificate to applicants who are recommended by themember or members of the board who belong to said school after suchexamination 4 to prevent delay and inconvenience two members of the board may granta temporary license to any applicant if the applicant has not beenrefused a license by the board within six months, which shall be inforce till the next regular meeting of the board 5 the members of the board shall not be members of the state board ofhealth, nor any medical faculty 6 the regular meeting of the board shall be once in each year at suchtime and place as the board may decide, but the president of the boardmay call a special meeting when demanded by public necessity s 7 every person holding a certificate must have it recorded in the officeof the county court clerk where he resides, and the date of record mustbe indorsed thereon until such record is made the holder shall notexercise any of the rights and privileges conferred a person removingto another county to practise shall record his certificate in likemanner in the county to which he removes practitioners may go fromone county to another on professional business, without being requiredto register, if they have done so in the county in which they reside9 itinerant physician or vender - it is unlawful for an itinerantphysician or vender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance of anykind intended for the treatment of disease or injury to sell or applythe same, or by writing, printing, or other method to profess to cureor treat disease or deformity by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, orother expedient a violation of this section is punishable with a fine of $100 to $400, but this section does not apply to merchants and druggists, and thisact does not apply to veterinary surgeons and stock doctors s 13, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 3 penalty, exception - to practise medicine or surgery without acertificate is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $25 to file or attempt to file as his own the diploma or certificate ofanother or a forged affidavit of identification is a felony punishablesame as forgery the act does not apply to women who pursue theavocation of midwife 14, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 4 fees - to the county court clerk, for recording certificate, the usualfee 9 to the board of examiners, for issuing a certificate, $1 to the board of examiners, for examination of non-graduate, $10 if applicant fails to pass a satisfactory examination, and nocertificate or license is issued to him, $5 only is retained for a certificate of temporary license, $1, which is to be credited tothe applicant when he applies for a permanent license 12, asamended act 1891, c 109, s 2 texas constitutional provision - the legislature may pass laws prescribingthe qualifications of practitioners of medicine, but no preferenceshall ever be given by law to any schools of medicine const 1876, art xiv , s 31 in writing boards of examiners - a board of medical examiners for each judicialdistrict is appointed by the judge of the district court r s , art 3, 625 each board is composed of not less than three practising physiciansof known ability, graduates of essay medical college recognized by theamerican medical association, residents of the district from which theyare appointed art 3, 626 the boards are required to meet regularly semi-annually at essaycentral point in their districts to conduct examinations and grantcertificates, and after at least one month public notice of the timeand place of meeting by publication in at least one newspaper publishedin the district art 3, 629 qualification - the board is required to examine thoroughly allapplicants for a certificate of qualification to practise medicine inany of its branches or dewritingments, whether furnished with medicaldiplomas or not, upon anatomy, physiology, pathological anatomy andpathology, surgery, obstetrics, and chemistry. But no preference shallbe given to any school of medicine art 3, 632 when the board is satisfied as to the qualifications of an applicant, they are required to grant a certificate, which entitles him topractise medicine in any county when it has been recorded art 3, 633 any two members of the board may grant a certificate, and any membermay grant a temporary certificate upon examination, which shall be inforce until the next regular meeting of the board art 3, 634 the certificate must, before the person to whom it was granted isentitled to practise, be recorded in the office of the clerk of thedistrict court of the county in which such practitioner resides orsojourns, and when recorded the clerk shall certify thereon underhis official seal the fact and date of record, and shall return thecertificate to its owner art 3, 635 exceptions - this title does not apply to those who have alreadyqualified under the act of may 16th, 1873, nor to those regularlyengaged in the general practice of medicine in the state in any branchor dewritingment for five consecutive years prior to january 1st, 1875, nor to females who follow the practice of midwifery strictly as such art 3, 637 penalty - no person except those named in art 3, 637 can lawfullypractise medicine in any of its branches or dewritingments without havingfirst obtained and recorded a certificate of qualification as aboveprovided a person so offending shall be punished as provided in thepenal code art 3, 638 if any person shall practise for pay or as a regular practitionermedicine in any of its branches or dewritingments, or offer or attemptto practise medicine without first having obtained a certificate ofprofessional qualification from essay authorized board of medicalexaminers, or without having a diploma from essay actual medical collegechartered by the legislature of the state, or its authority, in whichthe same is situated, he shall be punished by a fine of not less than$50, nor more than $500 penal code, art 396 each patient visited or prescribed for, or each day offer to practiseconstitutes a separate offence art 397 if any person shall engage in the practice of medicine in any of itsbranches or dewritingments for pay or as a registered practitioner, without having first filed for record, with the clerk of the districtcourt of the county in which he resides or sojourns, a certificatefrom essay authorized board of medical examiners or a diploma from essayactual medical college, he shall be punished as prescribed in art 396 art 398 fees - to the clerk of the district court, for recording certificate, $1 r s , art 3, 635 to the board of examiners, for examination, $15, whether certificate isgranted or not r s , art 3, 636 utah board of examiners - the governor appoints by and with the advice andconsent of the council a board of seven medical examiners from thevarious recognized schools of medicine. Appointees are required to begraduates of a legally chartered medical college in good standing act1892, c 72, s 1 qualification - the board has power to issue certificates to all whofurnish satisfactory proof of having received degrees or licensesfrom a chartered medical college in good and legal standing, and passexaminations before said board 2 graduates of respectable medical colleges at the time of the passage ofthe act engaged in actual practice in the territory shall be licensedon presenting their degree to the board, and producing satisfactoryevidence of identity 4 every person holding a certificate from said board must have itrecorded in the office of the recorder of the county in which heresides within three months from its date, and the date of record mustbe indorsed thereon until the certificate is recorded, the holdershall not exercise any of the privileges conferred a person removingto another county to practise must record his certificate in likemanner in the county to which he removes 5 examinations shall be wholly or writingly in writing 7 the board may refuse to issue certificates to individuals guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, the nature of which shall bestated in writing, and it may revoke certificates for like causes to bestated in writing 8 definition - any person is regarded as practising medicine who treats, operates upon, or prescribes for any physical ailment of another for afee, or who holds himself out by means of signs, cards, advertisements, or otherwise as a physician or surgeon exceptions - the act does not prohibit service in case of emergencyor the administration of family remedies, and does not apply tocommissioned surgeons of the united states army in discharge of theirofficial duties, or to visiting physicians in actual consultation9 offence - practising medicine or surgery without a certificate orcontrary to this act is a misdemeanor 10 persons not graduates who had practised continuously for ten yearsin the territory prior to the taking effect of the act were allowedsix months in which to comply with its provisions concerning them practising without complying with these provisions, and practisingafter rejection of an application or the revocation of certificate, isa violation of the law 11 obstetricians - persons practising obstetrics were required withinthree months after the passage of the act to apply to the board for acertificate, and after passing a proper examination were entitled toone practising obstetrics without first obtaining a license or contraryto this act is a misdemeanor.

Either a radical changein the patent law itself or the application of more brains in itsadministration -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 12, 1918 299 dec 28, 1917, p 629 patents perpetuated by trade namesthe patent on aspirin300 acetylsalicylic acid, controlled bythe bayer company, american representative of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld company, will expire next year 1917 the journal haspreviously stated that the grant of this patent was regrettable andworked injustice to american citizens it is unnecessary again to gointo the grounds for this statement. Neither in the farbenfabrikenhome country, gerthesis, nor in any other country except in the unitedstates, has a patent been granted for this product owing to theirmonopoly, the manufacturers have been able to exact a much higherprice for acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, in this country, thanelsewhere naturally, the bayer company, the american agents, view withdisfavor the prospect of being compelled to share this rich field withcompetitors the foregoing furnishes the answer to inquiries which havereached us from all over the country with regard to the campaign ofpublicity which the bayer company has inaugurated in the lay press apresumably authentic and apparently candid exposition of the methodsused and the motives behind the aspirin advertising is furnished inprinters’ ink:301300 granted feb 27, 1900 301 printers’ ink, june 29, 1916, p 189. July 13, 1916, p 100 “the manufacturers of aspirin are about to launch an extensive advertising campaign to clinch the market as far as possible before the expiration of their patent rights next year the purpose of the campaign is to identify the product with the trademark of the bayer company and to this extent hamper competition after the expiration of the patent ”the business of the bayer company, the article goes on to say, has beenhurt by the sale of worthless or even harmful imitations put on themarket by irresponsible and unauthorized persons when the present warstopped importations from gerthesis “the public knew aspirin, but did not know who made it italics ours when the bayer company, inc , took over the manufacture of aspirin in this country, the first steps were taken to identify the product with the firm who made it of course, there are good reasons why the makers were loth to advertise the product or to exploit their trademark as every one knows, the advertising of a medical proposition is an extremely ticklish subject it is easy to make a misstep aspirin is one of those proprietary drugs that are extensively prescribed by physicians if anything were done that might possibly associate this drug with the patent medicines that are in disfavor with the profession, the valuable influence and cooperation of thousands of doctors might be lost it is believed that this knotty phase of the question is being answered in the present advertising since nothing is mentioned about ‘medicine, ’ ‘cures’ or ‘ailments, ’ it is anticipated that there will be but little objection to the copy all that the advertising attempts to do is to link up the name ‘bayer’ with aspirin the nearest the copy gets to medical talk is in this sentence in very small type at the bottom of the advertisement, ‘the trademark “aspirin” reg u s patent office is a guarantee that the monoacetic acid ester of salicylic acid in these tablets is of the reliable bayer manufacture ’”from this it appears that, not content with seventeen years ofmonopoly, the aspirin people are attempting to retain a hold onthe market in perpetuo by associating the name of the companywith the trade name “aspirin ” there can be no better time than thepresent, therefore, for the medical profession to substitute, forthe nondescriptive name “aspirin, ” the descriptive and correct nameacetylsalicylic acid -- editorial from the journal a m a , aug 12, 1916 patenting therapeutic agentsin the past, therapeutic agents and apparatus have been controlledby patents and trademarks for profit if there have been exceptions, they have been rare the principles of medical ethics of the americanmedical association contain this statement. “it is unprofessionalto receive remuneration from patents for surgical instruments ormedicines ” this does not mean that the patenting is wrong in itself;there are occasions when it is wise, if not necessary, to obtain apatent in the interest of the public, and, in the case of surgicalinstruments and medicines, of the medical profession in certaininstances it is absolutely necessary that the article produced shallmaintain a definite standard of quality and purity-- and, it may beadded, shall be sold at a reasonable price enterprising pharmaceuticalmanufacturers have usually been ready to appropriate the results ofscientific research by investigators or therapeutic measures suggestedby practicing physicians not infrequently, in such instances, thedesire for financial gain has caused the marketing of such productswith extravagant, if not false, claims as to their value yet thepatent laws may be used so as to protect and benefit the public and themedical profession in research laboratories, work is being carried onresulting in the production of new therapeutic agents it is importantthat these agents shall be so controlled that they may be madeavailable without subordination to commercial interests it has becomepractically necessary, therefore, for research workers to protecttheir products in the interest of the public welfare and scientificmedicine it has not been an easy matter to decide how best to bringabout the desired results this question has been before the board oftrustees of the american medical association. And, in 1914, the houseof delegates passed a resolution authorizing the board to accept at itsdiscretion patents for medical and surgical instruments and appliances;as trustees, for the benefit of the profession and the public, provided that neither the association nor the patentee should receiveremuneration from these patents the rockefeller institute for medicalresearch has solved the problem in a similar manner in connection withthe report of the discovery of several new arsenic compounds, jacobsand heidelberger, 302 working in the rockefeller institute, say:302 jacobs, w a , and heidelberger, m. Aromatic arsenic compounds, ii, the amides and alkyl amides of n-- arylglycine arsonic acids, j am chem soc 41:1587 oct 1919 it may be appropriate to mention here that this substance and related compounds, described in the present and following papers of the series, are covered by u s patents nos 1280119-27 patents have also been applied for in foreign countries all discoveries made at the rockefeller institute are made freely available to the public, in accordance with the philanthropic purposes of the institution in order to insure purity of product and protection against exploitation, it has been deemed necessary in certain instances to protect the discoveries by patents it is the purpose of the institute to permit any drugs which may prove of practical therapeutic value to be manufactured under license by suitable chemical firms and under conditions of production which will insure the biological qualities of the drugs and their marketing at reasonable prices other than through the issuance of license, the rockefeller institute does not writingicipate in any way in the commercial preparation or sale of the manufactured chemicals.

The leaves, flowers, and seed, all or any of them, are good toexpel cheap essay writing service pensiveness and melancholy. It helps to clarify the blood, andmitigate heat in fevers the juice made into a syrup prevails much toall the purposes aforesaid, and is put, with other cooling, opening andcleansing herbs to open obstructions, and help the yellow jaundice, andmixed with fumitory, to cool, cleanse, and temper the blood thereby;it helps the itch, ringworms and tetters, or other spreading scabs orsores the flowers candied or made into a conserve, are helpful in theformer paper, but are chiefly used as a cordial, and are good for thosethat are weak in long sickness, and to comfort the heart and spiritsof those that are in a consumption, or troubled with often swoonings, or passions of the heart the distilled water is no less effectual toall the purposes aforesaid, and helps the redness and inflammations ofthe eyes, being washed therewith. The herb dried is never used, butthe green. Yet the ashes thereof boiled in mead, or honied water, isavailable against the inflammations and ulcers in the mouth or throat, to gargle it therewith. The roots of bugloss are effectual, being madeinto a licking electuary for the cough, and to condensate thick phlegm, and the rheumatic distillations upon the lungs blue-bottle it is called syanus, i suppose from the colour of it. Hurt-sickle, because it turns the edge of the sickles that reap the corn. Blue-blow, corn-flower, and blue-bottle descript i shall only describe that which is commonest, and inmy opinion most useful. Its leaves spread upon the ground, beingof a whitish green colour, essaywhat on the edges like those ofcorn-scabious, amongst which rises up a stalk divided into diversbranches, beset with long leaves of a greenish colour, either but verylittle indented, or not at all. The flowers are of a blueish colour, from whence it took its name, consisting of an innumerable company offlowers set in a scaly head, not much unlike those of knap-weed. Theseed is smooth, bright, and shining, wrapped up in a woolly mantle. Theroot perishes every year place they grow in cornfields, amongst all sorts of corn pease, beans, and tares excepted if you please to take them up from thence, and transplant them in your garden, especially towards the full of themoon, they will grow more double than they are, and thesis times changecolour time they flower from the beginning of may, to the end of theharvest government and virtues as they are naturally cold, dry, andbinding, so they are under the dominion of saturn the powder ordried leaves of the blue-bottle, or corn-flower, is given with goodsuccess to those that are bruised by a fall, or have broken a veininwardly, and void much blood at the mouth. Being taken in the water ofplaintain, horsetail, or the greater confrey, it is a remedy againstthe poison of the scorpion, and resists all venoms and poison theseed or leaves taken in wine, is very good against the plague, andall infectious diseases, and is very good in pestilential fevers thejuice put into fresh or green wounds, doth quickly solder up the lipsof them together, and is very effectual to heal all ulcers and soresin the mouth the juice dropped into the eyes takes away the heat andinflammation of them the distilled water of this herb, has the sameproperties, and may be used for the effects aforesaid brank ursine besides the common name brank-ursine, it is also called bear-breach, and acanthus, though i think our english names to be more proper. Forthe greek word acanthus, signifies any thistle whatsoever descript this thistle shoots forth very thesis large, thick, sadgreen smooth leaves on the ground, with a very thick and juicy middlerib. The leaves are writinged with sundry deep gashes on the edges. Theleaves remain a long time, before any stalk appears, afterwards risingup a reasonable big stalk, three or four feet high, and bravely deckedwith flowers from the middle of the stalk upwards. For on the lowerwriting of the stalk, there is neither branches nor leaf the flowers arehooded and gaping, being white in colour, and standing in brownishhusk, with a long small undivided leaf under each leaf.

With semicircular blackish marks on them, usuallyeither blueish or whitish, with such like seed following the root islong, with thesis strings thereat, perishing yearly. This has no sharptaste as another sort has, which is quick and biting but rather sourlike sorrel, or else a little drying, or without taste place it grows in watery places, ditches, and the like, which forthe most writing are dry in summer time it flowers in june, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues as the virtue of both these is various, sois also their government. For that which is hot and biting, is underthe dominion of mars, but saturn, challenges the other, as appears bythat leaden coloured spot he hath placed upon the leaf it is of a cooling and drying quality, and very effectual for putrifiedulcers in man or beast, to kill worms, and cleanse the putrifiedplaces the juice thereof dropped in, or otherwise applied, consumesall colds, swellings, and dissolveth the congealed blood of bruises bystrokes, falls, &c a piece of the root, or essay of the seeds bruised, and held to an aching tooth, takes away the pain the leaves bruisedand laid to the joint that has a felon thereon, takes it away thejuice destroys worms in the ears, being dropped into them. If the hotarssmart be strewed in a chamber, it will soon kill all the fleas;and the herb or juice of the cold arssmart, put to a horse or othercattle sores, will drive away the fly in the hottest time of summer;a good handful of the hot biting arssmart put under a horse saddle, will make him travel the better, although he were half tired before the mild arssmart is good against all imposthumes and inflammations atthe beginning, and to heal green wounds all authors chop the virtues of both sorts of arssmart together, as menchop herbs for the pot, when both of them are of contrary qualities the hot arssmart grows not so high or tall as the mild doth, buthas thesis leaves of the colour of peach leaves, very seldom or neverspotted. In other writingiculars it is like the former, but may easily beknown from it, if you will but be pleased to break a leaf of it crossyour tongue, for the hot will make your tongue to smart, but the coldwill not if you see them both together, you may easily distinguishthem, because the mild hath far broader leaves asarabacca descript asarabacca appears like an evergreen, keeping its leavesall the winter, but putting forth new ones in the time of spring ithas thesis heads rising from the roots, from whence come thesis smoothleaves, every one upon his foot stalks, which are rounder and biggerthan violet leaves, thicker also, and of a dark green shining colouron the upper side, and of a pale yellow green underneath, little ornothing dented about the edges, from among which rise small, round, hollow, brown green husks, upon short stalks, about an inch long, divided at the brims into five divisions, very like the cups or headsof the henbane seed, but that they are smaller. And these be all theflower it carries, which are essaywhat sweet, being smelled to, andwherein, when they are ripe, is contained small cornered rough seeds, very like the kernels or stones of grapes or raisins the roots aresmall and whitish, spreading divers ways in the ground, increasing intodivers heads. But not running or creeping under the ground, as essayother creeping herbs do they are essaywhat sweet in smell, resemblingnardus, but more when they are dry than green. And of a sharp and notunpleasant taste place it grows frequently in gardens time they keep their leaves green all winter. But shoot forth newin the spring, and with them come forth those heads or flowers whichgive ripe seed about midsummer, or essaywhat after government and virtues it is a plant under the dominion of mars, and therefore inimical to nature this herb being drank, not onlyprovokes vomiting, but purges downwards, and by urine also, purgesboth choler and phlegm.

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Yet out of 952cataracts, of which a record has been kept, only two paper occurred injewellers besides, there is not one special sign or physical traceleft on the body by which a prostitute may be known, notwithstandingthe fact that in life the collective appearance would seldom deceive anexperienced man only in the case of sodomy, where anal coitus has been frequent, wouldcharacteristic signs be found on anal examination of 446 prostitutes, dr coutagne594 found the signs of post-perineal coitus in 180 he cites the case of a young prostitute presenting the astonishingcontrast of a gaping anus surrounded by characteristic rhagades, withthe genital writings of an extreme freshness, a very narrow vagina, andnon-retracted hymen, constituting by their reunion a still firm ring a fact yet more curious is shown by a specimen in the collection ofthe museum of the laboratory of legal medicine at lyons the genitalorgans of the cadaver of a woman of twenty-eight or thirty years showeda hymen intact and firm, but on examining the anal region it wassurprising to find an infundibuliform deformity with all the signs ofsodomitical habits, which of course rectified the opinion that had beenmade regarding the chastity of this woman thesis of the signs enumerated as peculiar to different callings haveno special anatomical characteristic that is easy to distinguish withprecision, consequently they do not present a degree of certainty orconstancy sufficient to be invoked as strong medico-legal proof ofidentity moreover, the effects of time or treatment may have causedalteration or disappearance of thesis of the signs in question, whichwould at best be of negative rather than of absolute value to arrive at an imwritingial appreciation of the relative value of theprofessional stigmata as signs of identity, a certain number of thesigns should be thrown aside as illusory others, on the contrary, aredurable, special, and constant, and assist in establishing the identityaccordingly as the lesions or alterations are complete or evident. Butit should be borne in mind that the physical alterations and chemicalmodifications resulting from the exercise of certain trades are not inour country so important from a medico-legal point of view as they arein europe, where class distinctions are more defined value of stains and different imprints in the same manner that a very small portion or fragment of the humanbody may suffice to establish the corpus delicti, so will minuteremains or traces, as finger-marks, footprints, and other materialsurroundings, even smells or traces of perfume, be of great assistanceto justice in determining the identity of both culprit and victim, andat the same time throw light on the attendant circumstances of thedeed the traces of a bloody hand or foot, smears of tar or paint, the various spots or stains found on fabrics, instruments, etc , mayinvolve questions of great nicety the relativity of which is apparent, especially in criminal trials newspapers have familiarized the publicwith thesis paper of the kind, in which medical experts have demonstratedblood and other stains with sufficient accuracy and positiveness tosatisfy a jury the cronin case is a notable instance imprints made by finger-tips are known to be singularly persistent in four specimens of inked digit marks of sir william herschel, madein the years 1860, 1874, 1885, and 1888 respectively, though therewas a difference of twenty-eight years between the first and last, nodifference could be perceived between the impressions the forms ofthe spirals remained the same, not only in general character, but inminute and measurable details, as in the distances from the centreof the spiral and in the direction at which each new ridge took itsrise sir william herschel has made great use of digit-marks forthe purposes of legal attestation among natives of india 595 theextraordinary persistence of the papillary ridges on the inner surfaceof the hands throughout life has been a theme of discussion by theroyal society, 596 and mr galton has devised a method of indexingfinger-marks 597the impress of a naked foot covered with blood may serve to direct theinvestigations of justice in a criminal affair in france, where eightindividuals were implicated, comparative experiments upon the identityof the foot, made with a view to determine to which of the individualsought to be attributed the bloody footprints found near a wardrobe, it was shown that a degree of recognition could be established onreproducing the footprints with defibrinated blood from the eightimprints of the left foot of each individual, impregnated with blood, measures and comparisons could be made, thus helping to establish thedifference or the resemblance with those found near the wardrobe imprints thus obtained may be looked upon as a kind of documentaryevidence, but too much importance should not be attached to them asarticles tending to prove criminality the futility of such evidenceis shown in the varying sizes of different impressions of the foot ofthe same person first in rapid progression, secondly by standing, and third by slow advance the results appear less sure in the case offootprints made in mud, sand, dust, or snow nevertheless thesis factsrelating thereto may be noted with great certainty the question hasbeen mooted as to whether or not the impress left upon the soil givesalways the exact dimensions of the foot that has made them one sidehas contended that the footprints are a little smaller, while theother refutes this opinion and thinks that they are a little larger the consistency of the soil, which does not seem to have entered intothe discussion, doubtless accounts for the small differences that havegiven rise to this discrepancy of opinion the outline of the sole ofthe foot and the relative position of the toes are more or less neatlydesigned as the ground is more or less wet or soft the means employedfor taking impressions of foot or other tracks in mud, etc , showconsiderable ingenuity on the writing of those who have elaborated thesubject to discover foot-marks in mud, powdered stearic acid is spreadover the imprint and a heat of at least 212° is applied from above bythis means a solid mould may be taken of the imprint these researcheshave been extended to the exact reproduction of imprints left upon snowby pouring melted gelatine upon the imprint previously sprinkled with alittle common table salt, which rapidly lowers the temperature of thesnow about fifteen degrees and permits the mould to be taken withouttoo much hurry the study has been extended to the configuration of theplantar imprints in tabetics, but it does not appear so far to be ofmuch medico-legal value the question may arise as to the length of time since the imprintswere made this would, of course, depend upon thesis circumstances, asweather, temperature, and the like it is a fact that in greenlandfootsteps in snow have been recognized thesis months after they weremade a few summers ago, on an arctic expedition, i climbed capelisbourne, alaska, in company with another person the ground beingthawed in thesis places, our feet left very decided imprints in the mud a year afterward i visited the same spot, and on again making theascent was astonished to recognize the footsteps made the year before circumstances essaytimes direct expert attention to vestiges of otheranimals the tracks of a dog or of a horse may become the object of amedico-legal inquest the books record a case in which it was necessaryto ascertain whether a bite had been made by a large or a small dog this question was settled by producing the dogs and comparing theirteeth with the scars persons familiar with border life know theimportance of trails and the minute observation that is brought to bearon them by the experienced frontiersman in following cattle-thievesand murderers, while with the fourth united states cavalry on the riogrande frontier, i have known the peculiarity of a horse footprint inthe prairie to tell a tale of great significance observation in this respect may extend to such apparently trivialobjects as the tracks of wheels, as those of a wagon, a wheelbarrow, or a bicycle, or to the singular imprints left by crutches or awalking-stick the imprint left in the ground by a cane usually occursin the remarkable order of every two and a half or every four and ahalf steps investigation of such circumstances may result in materialfacts that may be of great assistance in establishing the relation ofone or several persons with essay writingicular act deformities and pathological peculiarities the existence of deformities or injuries is so apparent in serving toestablish identity that it seems almost superfluous to mention them, except for the purpose of deciding whether the wounds were made duringlife or after death in the matter of gunshot wounds on persons whotook writing in the late civil war, thesis of whom unfortunately belong tothe vagrant class and are often found dead, their wounds essaytimesafford excellent means of identification in thesis instances themultiple character of these wounds is almost incredible when on dutyat the army medical museum, in connection with the preparation of the“medical and surgical history of the war of the rebellion, ” i saw a manwho was literally wounded from the crown of his head to the sole of hisfoot, the scars being fifty-two in number wounds made during life might show the suggillation peculiar tobruises or traces of inflammation besides, the gaping nature of thelips of the wound, the fact of hemorrhage having taken place and thecoagulation of the blood, the infiltration of blood into the cellulartissue, etc , are surgical facts that would leave but little doubt asto the infliction of the wounds during life the cause of death is often a difficult matter to determine, asit may have been accidental, suicidal, or the result of homicide the causes relating thereto are, moreover, so thesis and varied thatspace and time compel a reference to other headings of this work informing an opinion as to the probable date of death the extent ofputrefaction is the chief guide if death is quite recent, we may beguided by the post-mortem rigidity or the extent to which the body hascooled the march of putrefactive decomposition would, of course, beregulated by circumstances it takes place very rapidly in persons whohave succumbed to excessive fatigue or to any disassimilative excessesor derangement resulting in ante-mortem change of the tissues, suchas those occurring in virulent or infectious diseases the body ofan infant decays more rapidly that that of an adult the course ofputrefactive phenomena is also influenced by the seasons, the extentof the exposure to air, and to other mesological causes there is amanifest difference in the special putrefactive change accordingly asa body is buried in the earth, submerged in a fluid, thrown into acesspool, or buried in a dung-heap in certain paper, especially where the body has been much mutilated, itmay be desirable to know whether there was one or several murderers while no definite rule can be laid down on this point, we are justifiedin supposing that there were two or more assassins when the body of thevictim shows both gunshot and knife wounds, or that two persons wereconcerned in the dismemberment and mutilation of a body which shows thesimultaneous presence of writings skilfully cut, while others show evidentawkwardness where there is more than one mortal wound on the same dead body, a question of medico-legal significance may arise this occurred inthe burton murder case at newport, r i , in 1885, which gave rise todiscussion of the following abstract question. “whether it is possiblefor an individual, with suicidal intent, and in quick succession, to inflict a perforating shot of the head and another of the chestimplicating the heart or, reversing the proposition, is it incrediblethat a person bent on self-destruction can, with his own hand, shoothimself in the heart and in the head?.