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Hold it near to any toad, and she will make profferto take it away from you if it be right. Else not lemnius nephritichus lapis. Helps pains in the stomach, and is of great forcein breaking and bringing away the stone and gravel jasper. Being worn, stops bleeding, eases the labour in women, stopslust, resists fevers and dropsies mathiolus atites, or the stone with child, because being hollow in the middle, it contains another little stone within it, is found in an eaglenest, and in thesis other places. This stone being bound to the left armof women with child, stays their miscarriage or abortion, but whenthe time of their labour comes, remove it from their arm, and bind itto the inside of their thigh, and it brings forth the child, and that almost without any pain at all dioscorides, pliny lapis lazuli, purges melancholy being taken inwardly. Outwardly wornas a jewel, it makes men cheerful, fortunate and rich and thus i end the stones, the virtues of which if any thinkincredible, i answer. 1 i quoted the authors where i had them 2 iknow nothing to the contrary but why it may be as possible as the soundof a trumpet is to incite a man to valour. Or a fiddle to dancing. Andif i have added a few simples which the colledge left out, i hope myfault is not much, or at a leastwise, venial a catalogue of simples in the new dispensatory roots college sorrel, calamus aromaticus, water-flag, privet, garlick, marsh-mallows, alcanet, angelica, anthora, smallage, aron, birth-wortlong and round, sowbread, reeds, asarabacca, virginian snakeweed, swall-wort, asparagus, asphodel, male and female burdocks great andsmall, behen, or bazil, valerian, white and red daisies, beets, white, red, and black marsh-mallows, bistort, barrage, briony, white and black, bugloss, garden and wild calamus aromaticus, our lady thistles, avens, coleworts, centaury the less onions, chameleon, white and black celandine, pilewort, china, succory, artichokes virginian snakeroot, comfry greater and lesser contra yerva, costus, sweet and bitter turmerick, wild cucumbers, sowbread, hound-tongue, cypres, long and round toothwort, whitedittany, doronicum, dragons, woody nightshade, vipers bugloss, smallage, hellebore, white and black, endive, elicampane, eringo, colt-foot, fearn, male and female, filipendula or drop-wort, fennel, white dittany, galanga, great and small, gentian, liquorice, dog-grass, hermodactils swallow wort, jacinth, henbane, jallap, master-wort, orris or flower-de-luce, both englishand florentine, sharp pointed dock, burdock greater and lesser, lovage, privet, white lilies, liquorice, mallows, mechoacan, jallap, spignel, mercury, devil bit, sweet navew, spikenard, celtic andindian, water lilies, rest-harrow, sharp pointed dock, peony, male andfemale parsnips, garden and wild, cinquefoil, butter-bur, parsley, hog fennel, valerian, greater and lesser, burnet, land and waterplantain, polypodium of the oak, solomon seal, leeks, pellitory ofspain, cinquefoil, turnips, raddishes, garden and wild, rhapontick, common rhubarb, monk rhubarb, rose root, madder bruscus sopewort, sarsaparilla, satyrion, male and female, white saxifrage, squills, figwort, scorzonera, english and spanish, virginian snake weed, solomon seal, cicers, stinking gladon, devil bit, dandelion, thapsus, tormentil, turbith, colt-foot, valerian, greater and lesser, vervain, swallow-wort, nettles, zedoary long and round, ginger culpeper these be the roots the college hath named, and but onlynamed, and in this order i have set them down it seems the collegeholds a strange opinion, viz that it would do an englishman a mischiefto know what the herbs in his garden are good for but my opinion is, that those herbs, roots, plants, &c which grownear a man, are far better and more congruous to his nature than anyoutlandish rubbish whatsoever, and this i am able to give a reasonof to any that shall demand it of me, therefore i am so copious inhandling of them, you shall observe them ranked in this order 1 the temperature of the roots, herbs, flowers, &c viz hot, cold, dry, moist, together with the degree of each quality 2 what writing of the body each root, herb, flower, is appropriated to, viz head, throat, breast, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, bowels, reins, bladder, womb, joints, and in those which heat those places, andwhich cool them 3 the property of each simple, as they bind, open, mollify, harden, extenuate, discuss, draw out, suppure, cleanse, glutinate, break wind, breed seed, provoke or stop the menses, resist poison, abate swellings, ease pain this i intend shall be my general method throughout the simples, which, having finished i shall give you a paraphrase explaining theseterms, which rightly considered, will be the key of galen way ofadministering physic temperature of the roots roots hot in the first degree marsh-mallows, bazil, valerian, spattling, poppy, burdocks, borrage, bugloss, calamus aromaticus, avens, pilewort, china, self-heal, liquorice, dog-grass, white lilies, peony, male and female, wild parsnips, parsley, valerian, great andsmall, knee-holly, satyrion, scorzonera, skirrets hot in the second degree water-flag, reeds, swallow-wort, asphodel, male, carline thistle, cypress, long and round, fennel, lovage, spignel, mercury, devil bit, butter bur, hog fennel, sarsaparilla, squils, zedoary hot in the third degree angelica, aron, birthwort long and round, sowbread, asarabacca, briony, white and black, sallendine, virgianiansnakeroot, hemeric, white dittany, doronicum, hellebore, whiteand black, elicampane, fillipendula, galanga greater and lesser, masterwort, orris english and florentine, restharrow, stinking gladen, turbith, ginger hot in the fourth degree garlick, onions, leeks, pellitory of spain roots temperate in respect of heat, are bear breech, sparagus, ourlady thistle, eringo, jallap, mallows, mechoacan, garden parsnips, cinquefoil, tormentil roots cold in the first degree sorrel, beets, white and red, comfreythe greater, plantain, rose root, madder cold in the second degree alcanet, daisies, succory, hound tongue, endive, jacinth cold in the third degree bistort and mandrakes are cold in the thirddegree, and henbane in the fourth roots dry in the first degree bears-breech, burdocks, redbeets, calamus aromaticus, pilewort, self-heal, endive, eringo, jacinth, madder, kneeholly dry in the second degree waterflag, marshmallows, alkanet, smallage, reeds, sorrel, swallow-wort, asphodel male, bazil, valerian andspatling poppy, according to the opinion of the greeks our ladythistles, avens, succory, hound tongue, cypress long and round, fennel, lovage, spignel, mercury, devil bit, butter-bur, parsley, plantain, zedoary dry in the third degree angelica, aron, birthwort, long and round, sowbread, bistort, asarabacca, briony white and black, carline thistle, china, sallendine, virginian snake-root, white dittany, doronicum, hellebore white and black, elicampane, fillipendula, galanga greaterand lesser, masterwort, orris, english and florentine, restharrow, peony male and female, cinquefoil, hog fennel, sarsaparilla, stinkinggladen, tormentil, ginger dry in the fourth degree garlick, onions, costus, leeks, pellitoryof spain roots moist are, bazil, valerian, and spatling-poppy, accordingto the arabian physicians, daisies, white beets, borrage, bugloss, liquorice, dog grass, mallows, satyrion, scorzonera, parsnips, skirrets roots appropriated to several writings of the body heat the head doronicum, fennel, jallap, mechoacan, spikenard, celtic and indian peony male and female neck and throat pilewort, devil bit breast and lungs birthwort long and round, elicampane, liquorice, orris english and florentine, calamus aromaticus, cinquefoil, squills heart angelica, borrage, bugloss, carline thistle, doronicum, butterbur, scorzonera, tormentil, zedoary, bazil, valerian white and red stomach elicampane, galanga greater and lesser, spikenard, celticand indian, ginger, fennel, avens, raddishes bowels valerian great and small, zedoary, ginger liver smallage, carline thistle, sullendine, china, turmerick, fennel, gentian, dog-grass, cinquefoil, parsley, smallage, asparagus, rhubarb, rhapontic, kneeholly spleen smallage, carline thistle, fern male and female, parsley, water-flag, asparagus, round birthwort, fennel, capers, ash, gentian reins and bladder marshmallows, smallage, asparagus, burdock, bazil, valerian, spatling poppy, carline thistle, china, cyprus long andround, fillipendula, dog grass, spikenard, celtic and indian, parsly, knee-holly, white saxifrage womb birthwort long and round, galanga greater and lesser, peonymale and female, hog fennel fundament pilewort joints bear-breech, hermodactils, jallap, mecoacan, ginger, costus roots cool the head rose root stomach sow thistles, endive, succory, bistort liver madder, endive, chicory properties of the roots although i confess the properties of the simples may be found out bythe ensuing explanation of the terms, and i suppose by that means theywere found out at first.

No respiration. No reflex action galvanism failed toarouse any muscular action the details are too numerous to give all ofthem there was reduplication of heart-sounds for several days, due tointerference with pulmonary circulation she recovered both bodily andmental health 45 richards. Indian med gaz , 1886, xxi , p 78 - man, age 20;suicide.

Diseasesof stomach, cheap essay writer service intestine and pancreas, 1912 reed, boardman. Am jour gastro-enter , october, 1912 ewald therapie der gegenwart, 1915, p 5 reports favorable results with secretogen in one of thirteenpaper 80 harrower. Pediatrics 25:430, 1913. New york m j 118:315, 1913. Arch f verdauungskr 20:577, 1914 physiologic considerationsthroughout its clinical use, secretin has been given by mouth. Butits direct introduction into the intestine of a dog under anesthesiain even enormous quantities is without effect this fact, firstobserved by bayliss and starling, 32 was confirmed by fleig, 81 andmatuso, 36 and our personal experiments have convinced us of itstruth matuso found that ordinary secretin and that obtained fromintestinal lumen gave equally negative results large quantities ofactive secretin, moreover, acidified to 0 2 per cent hydrochloricacid, and left in the ileum for fifteen minutes, were still negative wertheimer and duvillier, 82 in a previous paper on this subject, had likewise found that acid solutions of secretin which might beconsidered more normal for the intestine than when neutral, whenintroduced into the ileum gave negative or inconstant results theyconclude that it is more likely that the pancreas does not respond tosuch minimal stimuli, than that the secretin is not absorbed 81 flieg. Arch gén de méd 191:1482, 1903 82 wertheimer and duvillier. Compt rend soc de biol 68:535, 1910 the destructive action of the digestive enzymes leads us to believethat it is in inactive form that secretin is absorbed likeepinephrin, it cannot pass through the digestive tract bayliss andstarling state that it is destroyed by one hour tryptic digestion lalou62 worked with the action on secretin of pepsin, dog gastricjuice, pancreatic juice, succus entericus and erepsin, and found ineach case a destructive effect, even almost after mixing. And afterfive minutes over 75 per cent of the activity had disappeared matuso36 introduced 30 c c of active secretin into the intestine, removed it five minutes later, and found that no activity remained other methods of administration have been tried subcutaneousinjections are practically negative matuso, 36 hallion83and intrapleural injections are likewise negligible bayliss andstarling55 83 hallion. Presse méd 20:433, 1912 starling63 finds that continued intravenous injections of secretin ina healthy dog produces after a time severe symptoms of collapse, which, he believes, are due to change in the intestinal mucous membrane causedby the entry and non-neutralization of the strongly alkaline pancreaticjuice intestinal digestion seems little affected in achylia gastrica stockton, 84 ehrman and lederer, 85 bayliss and starling32 thismay be due to other secretin stimulants as fats, or to the action ofthe nervous mechanisms meltzer86 84 stockton. In osier and mccrae modern medicine 3:19, 1914 85 ehrman and lederer. Deutsch med wchnschr 35:879, 1909 86 meltzer, s j. The factors of safety in animal structure andanimal economy, j a m a , feb 23, 1907, p 655 the destruction of secretin by human gastric juicewe have carried out in detail experiments on the digestive effect ofhuman gastric juice on secretin our results in every respect confirmthe findings of lalou, 62 who worked with commercial pepsin and doggastric juice, but are even more striking because of the much superiorquality of pure human gastric juice methods -- the human gastric juice was obtained from mr v , thegastric fistula case of our laboratory the chemical and digestivecharacters of his juice are discussed in a recent paper 87 in thedifferent experiments, different samples of gastric juice were used the secretin employed was always freshly prepared digestion wascarried out in the incubator at 38 c with the reaction of 0 4 percent acid, and the end of the period was marked by either boilingthe mixture or in the first two experiments by turning the mixturealkaline the action of the preparation, we proved, was not influencedby the method used the dogs on which the preparations were testedwere prepared for carotid blood pressure, injection into the externaljugular vein, and cannula in the pancreatic duct, essentially themethods of bayliss and starling32 being employed the preparationswere injected at body temperature after being neutralized and filtered except for the addition of normal salt solution instead of gastricjuice, the control injections of secretin were submitted to exactly thesame treatment as the other preparations 87 carlson. Am jour physiol 38:248, 1915 results -- our results are embodied in table 1 we assured ourselvesbefore beginning the series that incubation of secretin with boiledgastric juice produced no change it is to be noted in the table thateach experiment is a unit complete in itself, beginning and endingwith a control injection of secretin special attention is called tothe marked destruction that follows contact of human gastric juicewith secretin for merely one minute in experiment 4, using 1 c c of human gastric juice, the action fell to 14 drops from an originalsecretion of 21. In experiment 5, using 8 c c of gastric juice, theaction fell to 6 drops from an original secretion of 20 of interestalso is the rate at which we get complete destruction of secretin this is practically 2 hours for 2 c c with secretin giving originally110 drops experiment 2, fig 1, or 30 minutes for 5 c c with asecretin giving originally 53 drops experiment 6 these results arepractically parallel, though they were obtained with different samplesof gastric juice and in different experiments table 1 -- the destruction of secretin by human gastric juice | | secretion of pancreatic juice in drops | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- no |quan-|10 c c c| the secretin after incubation |10 c c of | tity|secretin| with human gastric juice |secretin exper-|of |control -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -control iment|gas- |-- begin-| | | | | | |-- end of | tric| ning |dig |secre-|dig |secre-|dig |secre-|experi- |juice|experi- |time, | tion |time, | tion |time, | tion | ment |used, | ment |hrs |rate |hrs |rate |hrs |rate | |c c | | | | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 2 | 28 |6 | 0 |4 | 0 |2 | 0 | 16 2 | 2 | 110 |2 | 7 |1-1/2| 18 |1 | 18 | 41 3 | 2 | 40 |1 | 7 | 3/4| 7 | 1/4 | 8 | 31 4 | 1 | 21 | 1/2| 11 | 1/4| 12 | 1/60| 14 | 18 5 | 8 | 20 | 1/2| 1 | 1/4| 3 | 1/60| 6 | 18 6 | 5 | 53 | 1/2| 2 | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- we also tried the effect of keeping the digestive time constant andvarying the amount of gastric juice employed increasing the quantityof gastric juice used increases the quantity of secretin destroyed table 2 table 2 -- experiment 7* pancreatic preparation juice drops 10 c c secretin 20 10 c c secretin digested with 0 5 c c gastric juice 15 10 c c secretin digested with 3 c c gastric juice 13 10 c c secretin digested with 10 c c gastric juice 8* the digestive time was kept constant at fifteen minutes the gastricjuice used had been diluted with stomach washings the reader will observe in table 1 that the results obtained fromthe control injection of secretin at the beginning of the experimentis uniformly greater than that obtained after several injections ofdigested secretin in view of the established fact that equal quantities of secretin cangenerally be relied on to produce results, 21 one might suggest thatthe injections of the split products of secretin have inhibited to essaydegree the action of the pancreas we can submit the data in table 3in support of this view, showing among other things that the action ofsecretin is not influenced by previous injections of inert depressorsubstances, though it by the injection of the cleavage products ofsecretin the various injections in the experiments were made at aboutfifteen-minute intervals we have carefully analyzed the reaction in blood pressure that followsthe injection of the various preparations we find no constant effect digested secretin gives a fall in blood pressure that is at times less, at times equal, and at other times greater fig 1 than that producedby the original preparation besides the bearing that it has on the therapeutic use of secretin, this destructive action of the digestive enzymes is also of primephysiologic interest failure to realize it has led to misconceptionsas to the intrinsic nature of secretin table 3 -- experiments 8 and 9 pancreatic preparations juice drops experiment 8. 10 c c secretin, five injections of inert depressor substances 29 10 c c secretin, two injections of completely digested secretin 28 10 c c secretin, eight injections of inert depressor substances 16 10 c c secretin 16 experiment 9.

But they were not again, if the ligature had been around his neck so long as he said, the impression of it would have been more marked again, if his stertorous breathing had lasted long it would have been heard by neighbors the injury on the back of the head, said to be due to a blow, was believed by tardieu to be due to dragging him on the ground he further had stated that when he received the blow on the head he became unconscious, and yet he also described how armand bound him after knocking him down again, he had made no outcry. But if he had been strangled while writingly unconscious and afterward recovered his senses, he would have been unable to give an account of the matter. If, however, he had been strangled while conscious, there was no reason why he should not have cried out his inability to speak the first day was assumed, because what was a simulation of absolute mutism should have been simply a loss of voice the innocence of armand was ultimately established illustrative paper homicide 1 cullingworth. Lancet, may 1st, 1875, p 608 - woman believed tohave been intoxicated face, especially right side, swollen and livid;a little blood had oozed from mouth, nose, and inner angle of each eye immediately over in front of?. larynx and on each side of middle linewere marks of irregular outline such as might be caused by pressure ofthumb and fingers several dark, bruise-like discolorations on flexorsurface of each forearm hands clinched elbows flexed discharge offæces by rectum necroscopy. Brain and membranes normal hyoid bone andlaryngeal cartilages uninjured mucous membrane of larynx and tracheacongested and covered with frothy mucus lungs intensely congested several hemorrhages. Masses of tissue of each lung, chiefly towardbase, were solidified by effused blood all the heart cavities empty stomach normal, empty no congestion of abdominal viscera 2 taylor. “med jur , ” am ed , 1892, p 412 - man and woman strangled by cord, tied so tightly that there was hemorrhage from mouthand nose 3 harvey. Indian med gaz , december 1st, 1875, p 312 - hindoowoman, age 45 strangled with the right hand necroscopy. Twocontusions and abrasions on temple neck discolored from right to leftjugulars. Marks of thumb on right side and three fingers on left, extending from jugulars to windpipe eyes half protruded tonguediscolored blood-vessels full of clots brain congested ?. and showedexternal hemorrhages ?. lungs normal heart empty liver ruptured tothe extent of four inches, with adherent blood-clot spleen, stomach, and intestines normal muscles of chest, both sides, congested, discolored, and there were clots of blood over and under them firstsix ribs of left side and first three of right fractured 4 harris. Ibid , p 313 - boy, age 10 abrasions over front ofneck, especially near left ear, probably from ligature. Also abrasionon upper writing of chest, probably from forcible pressure underneaththese marks the veins were much distended trachea minutely congested;contained much frothy fluid lungs showed rupture of essay of theair-vesicles. Entire tissues distended with blood and frothy fluid dark fluid blood in both sides of heart large quantity of fluid inpericardium brain much congested eyes congested tip of tonguebetween teeth other organs normal 5 mackenzie. Ibid , february, 1889, p 44 - hindoo woman, age notgiven, strangled by another, stronger woman necroscopy.

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On the otherhand there is evidence that it is not innocuous, as the recentinvestigations of hanzlik and scott and their collaborators cinchophen, neocinchophen and novaspirin in rheumatic fever, j a m a 76. 1728 june 18 1921 show that it may injure thekidney the circular also contains the following. “no longer, hit and miss relief of pain at the expense of the heart, the intestines, the kidneys and the nervous system, but the promptest and most reliable analgesic, anti-inflammatory and decongestive action so far known, with notable freedom from heart depressant, renal irritant, constipating and cumulative toxic by-effects no contraindications, except chronic nephritis and the presence of kidney concretions ”this is misleading the drug depresses the circulation, injures thekidney and produces symptoms of salicylism or “toxicity ” it is notthe promptest and most reliable analgesic. Morphin is superior andsalicylate is just as efficient the phrase “decongestive action” isvague treatment of pulmonary congestion from phosgene, and congestionof the conjunctiva in mustard oil chemosis of cats, with large dosesof atophan was ineffective. In fact, it proved distinctly harmful this was shown by such workers as laqueur and magnus, and heubnerand gildemeister ztschr f d ges exper med 13:200, 1921 itis incorrect to ascribe “decongestive” or “anticongestive” action inthe true sense to atophan cinchophen the principal assets of thesalicylate-cinchophen class of drugs in the treatment of rheumatism andgout are their analgesic and antipyretic qualities the claim is made. “in rheumatic and gouty disorders, whether of the well-known muscular and arthritic type, or their eye, ear, nose and throat manifestations ”the suggestion that atophan is indicated in “their eye, ear, nose andthroat manifestations” is a vague generalization without definitemeaning, but nevertheless calculated to impress physicians and promotethe sale of atophan for common and minor ailments rhinitis and sorethroat are, of course, self-limited conditions which require chieflygood habits, personal and general hygiene as prophylactic measures, and simple hot baths with rest, instead of medication, for symptomaticrelief when it comes to ear and eye conditions, atophan certainlywould do no good in otitis media, panophthalmitis, choroiditis, retinitis, etc the administration of atophan is proposed “in migrains, hemicrania, eyestrain, etc , often vaguely grouped as ‘headaches ’” eyestrain andheadaches are vague symptoms often arising from numerous causes thatrequire no medication, but rather good habits, hygiene and similarcorrective measures there is always the possibility of habituationfrom the use of drugs for such common and vague symptoms, resultingeventually in more harm than good to the patient the use of atophan is proposed “in influenza grippe for the readyalleviation of the respiratory congestion, pain and stiffness oflimbs and back ” probably the entire claim is without warrant, sinceinfluenza is a self-limited disease atophan might relieve pain inthe joints, reduce the fever, etc , but at the same time it wouldtend to impair the functional efficiency of the heart, which may beimpaired already by the disease cardiac failure is one of the causesof death in influenza the recommendation for “alleviating respiratorycongestion” is certainly without warrant, since in actual trialin pulmonary congestion by magnus et al , atophan was found to bedeleterious and not beneficial phosgenized cats are probably as good atest object for the alleged decongestive action of atophan as anythingcould be, since, according to underhill and ringer j a m a 75:1531, 1920 the pathological physiology of the circulation andrespiration in phosgene poisoning and influenza are nearly identical further, atophan is recommended “in pyorrhea alveolaris as a systemicsupport to local and specific measures ” atophan is not indicated here pyorrhea requires local medication, if anything at all it could exertno local beneficial effects in this condition. Indeed, the employmentof atophan might lead to irritation good dental treatment is moreessential than medication finally, schering and glatz advise atophan “in eczema, pruritusand similar irritant and itching skin diseases with lowered bloodalkalinity ” the assumption that blood alkalinity is lowered inirritant and itching disease is unsupported by evidence in medicalliterature and the recommendation is incorrect and misleading neitherdoes atophan alter the reaction of the blood amelioration in thesecapricious conditions occurs without medication so that any reliefthat might be obtained could not be attributed to atophan the entireparagraph is misleading and will undoubtedly tend to extend the use ofatophan in conditions for which it is not suited -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1921, p 8 urotropin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryurotropin is a proprietary name applied to the substance which is knownin chemical literature as hexamethylenetetramin and which is designatedhexamethylenamine in the u s pharmacopeia the council has authorizedpublication of the following report explaining that urotropinwas omitted from new and nonofficial remedies because schering &glatz, inc the firm that markets this brand of hexamethylenaminin the united states, refused to place the u s pharmacopeianame hexamethylenamine hexamethylenamina on the label and in itsadvertising so as to make clear to physicians the identity of theproduct, and, furthermore, because it was sold under therapeutic claimswhich the council held unwarranted w a puckner, secretary commercial history of hexamethylenaminthis substance which is generally referred to in chemical literature ashexamethylenetetramin, the cyclic condensation product of formaldehydand ammonia, appears to have been described first in 1860 butlerow:ann d chem 115:322, 1860 subsequently, numerous references tothe preparation, properties and constitution of the substance appearedin chemical literature hexamethylenetetramin is said to have been first used for therapeuticpurposes by g bardet, who, in 1894, reported to the société dethérapeutique that he believed this substance to be a uric acidsolvent at about the same period, a nicolaier, who gave bardet creditfor suggesting the use of hexamethylenetetramin as a uric acid solvent, announced the discovery of its antiseptic action centralbl f d med wissensch 32:897, 1894. Deutsche med wchnschr 21:541, 1895 shortly thereafter as a result of nicolaier publication, thechemische fabrik auf aktien vorm e schering, berlin, gerthesis, beganto offer the product to the medical profession under the trademarkedand nondescriptive name “urotropine ” in the united states, it wasmarketed by schering and glatz, who then were acting as american agentsfor the schering works of gerthesis it soon became evident that hexamethylenetetramin was a valuabledrug as the substance was introduced at a time when new “synthetic”drugs were rapidly appearing and when unlimited and uncriticalconfidence was placed in them, and before the medical profession becameskeptical of the claims advanced by manufacturers for their respective“discoveries, ” it was not long before this new drug was placed on themarket by thesis firms, each applying its own name and often keeping thechemical character of it in the background essay of the names whichwere thus applied to hexamethylenamin were cystogen, aminoform, formin, uritone, urisol, {and} cystamine in 1907 the late prof j o schlotterbeck, then a member of thecouncil, protested against the confusion caused by the marketing of agiven drug under different names he stated that it was not uncommonfor a physician to prescribe two or more of these identical substancesin the same mixture, expecting to get the combined action of differenturinary antiseptics. Also, that patients had been treated first withhexamethylenamin under one name and later by the same substance underanother name the journal, jan 19, 1907, p 241 hexamethylenetetramin was admitted to the eighth revision of theu s pharmacopeia in writing because of this official recognitionand standardization and in writing because the extravagant reports ofits virtues had been largely discounted, physicians have in generalprescribed the drug by its pharmacopeial name, with one notableexception. Urotropin one reason for this is that urotropin was thefirst proprietary brand of hexamethylenetetramin introduced, a secondreason is that through the extensive and persistent advertising ofthe proprietary name under which the substance was introduced, it hasbecome firmly fixed in the minds of thesis physicians the other is thatthe product was claimed to be of greater purity than the product soldunder the pharmacopeial or other name although no evidence confirmatoryof this claim has ever been published on the other hand, danielbase, as long ago as 1907, found that hexamethylenamin sold under itspharmacopeial name is just as pure as when sold under proprietarynames when, in 1907, urotropin was admitted to new and nonofficialremedies, the published description showed that it was manufacturedby the chemische fabrik auf aktien vorm e schering, berlin, andthat schering and glatz were the united states agents in 1919, thedescription was revised to show that schering and glatz were no longerselling the german product as it is the general practice to omit articles that are admitted tothe u s pharmacopeia for the reason that their quality is guaranteedunder the federal food and drugs act and because pharmacopeialnonproprietary articles are rarely advertised with claims that requirethe council control, yet, in the case of urotropin, it was retainedbecause it was sold under a name not recognized in the pharmacopeia andbecause special proprietary claims were made for it urotropin marketed under unwarranted therapeutic claimsthe period for which urotropin stood “accepted” expired with the closeof 1921 to determine its continued eligibility for new and nonofficialremedies, the council examined the labels and circular matter sent byschering and glatz for the purpose and also a booklet “urotropin, ”subsequently sent by the firm to physicians it was found that the pamphlet contained a number of unwarrantedstatements writingicularly objectionable are the claims made for the useof urotropin as an antiseptic in body fluids that are alkaline, such asthe cerebrospinal fluid, bile, aqueous humor of the eye, saliva, theexcretions caused by middle ear infection and other excretions of thenasal, bronchial, laryngeal and mucous membranes the lack of efficacyof hexamethylenamin in alkaline secretions is generally admitted andthe clinical references to the use of hexamethylenamin in the pamphletare obsolete in the introduction to the pamphlet, schering and glatzstate that they are well acquainted with the scientific research workdiscrediting the efficiency of hexamethylenamin in nonacid mediums, but that they feel that the accumulated evidence for its efficacy insuch conditions should not be “brushed aside ” however, the pamphletis not made up of quotations, but of unqualified statements with oneexception, all references to the antiseptic properties of the drug inalkaline mediums are previous to 1913, that is, before the importanceof reaction of the medium was fully appreciated to quote theseearlier articles without regard to the later work, which in most eyesdiscredited them, constitutes in effect an exploitation of this brandof hexamethylenamin under unwarranted therapeutic claims urotropin a brand of hexamethylenamine, u s p in consideration of the confusion which arises from the applicationof different names to an identical article, the rules of the councilprovide that when an article which has been accepted for new andnonofficial remedies is admitted to the u s pharmacopeia underanother name, it will be retained, provided the official name isgiven prominence on the label and in the advertising of such article neither the label nor the advertising for urotropin gives prominenceto the pharmacopeial name as a synonym nor indeed does it bring outthe fact that urotropin is a brand of hexamethylenamine, u s p schering and glatz, inc , was advised that urotropin could be retainedin new and nonofficial remedies only on condition that the objectionsto the therapeutic recommendations were removed and on agreement thatthe u s p name appear on the labels and circular matter the firmdid not offer to make the product eligible for continued recognition;accordingly the council directed the omission of urotropin because ofconflict with rule 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims and with rule8 objectionable names -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1921, p 71 styptysate not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report, declaring styptysate ernst hischoff co , inc inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary styptysate, according to the advertisement of ernst bischoff co , inc , new york, is “obtained by dialysis from bursa pastoris sheppardsic!. purse ” it is claimed to be “the remedy for hemorrhages, ”to be “superior to ergot and hydrastis, ” “of writingicular advantagein menorrhagia and metrorrhagia” and to have been “found of greatvalue in vesical hemorrhages and hemorrhages from mucous membranes ingeneral ” the styptysate label bears the synonym “dialysate herba bursapastoris”. The statement that it contains “alcohol 11 per cent ” andthat it is “made in gerthesis ” no other statement of the composition orstrength of “styptysate” is furnished nor is the name of the germanmanufacturer disclosed in an advertising circular entitled “styptysate, a new reliablehemostatic, ” it is declared that in recent years the plant, shepherdpurse capsella bursa pastoris, “has been submitted to clinicaltests in the form of a concentrated dialysate, known as styptysate, by loewy, oppenheim, krummacher and others, and that their reportscoincide in regard to styptysate as a hemostatic par excellence, writingicularly in uterine hemorrhages, even in paper where ergot andhydrastis had failed to produce satisfactory results ” the circularalso reprints essay “short clinical reports” without reference to theirauthorship.