History

Cheap Custom Research Papers


1 the information in regardto composition does not state the amount of potent ingredient, norpermit the determination of its identity and uniformity. 2 therecommendation for its use in such infectious diseases as pneumoniaand epidemic influenza is unwarranted and its claimed therapeuticefficacy in other diseases is without satisfactory supporting evidence;and 3 the recommendations for its use which appear on the label andthe circular wrapped with the trade package constitute an indirectadvertisement to the public the council accepts the explanation of the manufacturer that he hasbeen unable to obtain a satisfactory classification of the plant fromwhich syrup leptinol is made it would be undesirable to excludefrom therapeutic use a valuable drug simply because its botanicalcharacter has not been determined or because an exhaustive chemicalexamination had so far not been made however, in the absence of suchinformation the manufacturer should give full information with regardto the preparation or standardization of his remedy and the therapeuticclaims made for it should be accompanied by indisputable, thoroughlycontrolled clinical evidence in the case of syrup leptinol, there isno satisfactory evidence available showing that the preparation hasany value in the treatment of epidemic influenza, pneumonia, whoopingcough, etc while it is probable that a balsamic syrup, such as syrupleptinol, has palliative properties in coughs, such action does not atall justify the claim that it is useful in the contagious diseases forwhich it is proposed the council cannot recognize a syrup presentingan unknown plant in uncertain proportions which is recommended in avariety of dangerous contagious diseases in which it ultimately may beharmful, even though in early stages of these diseases it may serve toallay essay of the milder symptoms concerning the composition of the plant from which syrup leptinol isprepared, the balsamea company states that it contains “alkaloids, acids, glucosides, volatile and fixed oils, gums and resins ” thisinformation is valueless, since no information is given concerning thecharacter, amounts or pharmacologic action of the ingredients further, it is unreliable as far as the presence of alkaloids is concerned sincethe a m a chemical laboratory has been unable to find any alkaloidsin the specimen of the crude drug furnished by the manufacturers in accordance with its regular procedure, the council submitted thepreceding statement to the manufacturer in reply the balsamea company stated that it is more than ever of thebelief that syrup leptinol is deserving of recognition by the council, basing this opinion on further clinical experience with it in thetreatment of influenza the manufacturer stated that the use of the words “leptinol” and “syrupleptinol” interchangeably was due to an oversight and promised to limitthe use of the word “leptinol” to an alcoholic extract of the plant concerning the method of preparation of this alcoholic extract and theamount used in the preparation of syrup leptinol the balsamea companyreplied as follows. “the alcoholic extract of the leptotaenia, which we have termed ‘leptinol’ is a preparation of definite and uniform strength, as determined by two methods. a the gravity test using the u s hydrometer scale for spirits, by which leptinol registers 52 degrees at 60 degrees f , and b by gentle evaporation of the alcohol content and the measuring of the active constituents, which measures twenty-five per cent by weight “the alcoholic extract ‘leptinol’ is glycerinated in a machine, using one writing of the alcoholic concentration to four writings of glycerin this is then added to eleven writings of a heavy syrup, containing 7-1/2 pounds of sugar to the gallon of syrup, and thoroughly mixed in an agitating machine leptinol is the sole active ingredient of syrup leptinol syrup leptinol is a preparation of uniform strength it is far more uniform in strength than most of the syrups of the u s p made from fluid extracts which are made from crude drugs which are not uniform in strength ”this claim cannot be allowed as meeting the conflict with rule 1 itis well known that plants vary in their composition at different timesof the year. Under different conditions of cultivation and growth;and under other conditions. Hence the claim that alcoholic extractsof equal specific gravity insure uniformity of composition in activeprinciples must be considered entirely illogical, especially since theexact nature of the active principles, if any be present, is unknown if these are known their nature should be stated and tests for theiridentity be given if they are unknown it is manifestly misleading tostate that the preparation is of uniform strength it is evident that the council cannot approve of the use of apreparation of unknown composition without satisfactory evidence ofits value, especially when it is recommended in a variety of seriousinfectious diseases such as influenza and pneumonia the mere factthat a small number of patients who have received the drug recoveris no evidence of its curative value, and until carefully controlledclinical tests of the preparation are made, it is not entitled to theconsideration of physicians -- from the journal a m a , june 5, 1920 formitol tablets, ii report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following supplementaryreport on formitol tablets w a puckner, secretary in the council report the journal a m a , oct 4, 1919, p 1077 onthe ineffectiveness of lozenges claimed either to contain formaldehydor to liberate formaldehyd in the mouth, the composition of formitoltablets of the e l patch co was briefly discussed in the followingterms. “the a m a chemical laboratory reported that formitol tablets contained formaldehyd or paraformaldehyd, an ammonium compound, and essay hexamethylenamin it is probable that the formaldehyd or paraformaldehyd was produced by the decomposition of hexamethylenamin originally present in the tablets but decomposed by long contact with the acid ”at the time this report was published, the label and the advertisingmatter contained but vague and indefinite statements with regard tothe composition of formitol tablets in the october, 1919, issue ofpatchwork, the house organ of the e l patch co , it was denied thatthese tablets contain hexamethylenamin since none had ever been used intheir manufacture it was also claimed that the company had a “printedsheet giving the formula of these tablets ”the council advised the e l patch co that it desires to publish onlyfacts about the products which it examines and that if the report onformitol tablets was inaccurate in any way the council would want tocorrect any error it might have unintentionally made as the formitoladvertising in the files of the council contained no information as tothe composition of the tablets, the firm was also requested to send theprinted sheet giving the “formula ”when this printed “formula” came it was found to be a sheet used bythe e l patch co for the purpose of giving its salesmen informationregarding formitol tablets, to be passed on to the physician thisprinted sheet conveyed the information that formitol tablets containammonium chlorid, benzoic acid, citric acid, guaiac, hyoscyamus, menthol, paraformaldehyd and tannic acid, but it gave no information inregard to the amount of any of the ingredients except that it declaredthat each tablet represents the equivalent of 10 minims of a 1 percent formaldehyd solution because of the nonquantitative, and, therefore meaningless printed“formula” and because, also, of its complexity, it was thoughtdesirable to make a more complete analysis of formitol tablets experience has shown that frequently the real formula of a thing isquite different from the alleged formula published by the manufacturer the details of the laboratory later analysis will appear in theannual reports of the chemical laboratory or may be had on request the result of the laboratory additional experimental work, especiallywhen taken in connection with investigations made elsewhere onthe interaction of formaldehyd and ammonium chlorid justifies theconclusion that formitol tablets do contain essay hexamethylenamin, even though the amount may be very small as the e l patch co declare that no hexamethylenamin is put into formitol tablets theconclusion drawn in the council original report to the effectthat the formaldehyd probably was formed by the decomposition ofhexamethylenamin was evidently an error the hexamethylenamin presentis doubtless produced by the action of the paraformaldehyd on theammonium chlorid present the analysis also showed that more than 78 per cent of the weightof formitol tablets was made up of sugars and about 16 5 per cent was starch and other material, essay of which was talcum or similarmaterial this means that about 94 per cent of the total weight ofthe tablets is sugar and starch, neither of which is mentioned in theprinted “formula ” the significance of this is apparent when it isconsidered that there are eight ingredients listed in the “formula” forwhich therapeutic effects are claimed since a tablet weighs about 13 5grains, the combined weight of all the claimed active ingredients isless than 1 grain per tablet!. The amount of ammonium chlorid found, as indicated by the totalnitrogen, was not more than 1 0 per cent or about 1/8 grain pertablet the amount of benzoic acid found was 0 34 per cent or 1/25grain per tablet yet these two drugs are said to exert their peculiarexpectorant action the u s p lozenge of ammonium chlorid contains1-1/2 grains ammonium chlorid or twelve times the amount of this drugin a formitol tablet the tannic acid contained in the tablets could not be determined withaccuracy but it was much less than 1 per cent or 1/8 grain pertablet yet it is said to add valuable astringent qualities to formitoltablets!. the u s p lozenge of tannic acid contains 1 grain oftannic acid the quantity of guaiac as resin is but a fraction of 1 per cent yet it is said to imwriting to formitol tablets “stimulant resolvent”properties and it is intimated that there is sufficient to be of valuein “paper of abscess of the throat and inflammation of the tissues ”the total acidity indicates the presence of about 2 per cent ofcitric acid or 1/4 grain per tablet yet this amount is said to be“antiseptic” and “aids in the general results ”while the presence of the drug hyoscyamus henbane was not positivelyidentified by microscopic examination, alkaloids were present the manufacturers claim that the tablets contain menthol yet onlya suggestion of menthol could be obtained from the odor however, the odor of methyl salicylate-- a constituent not declared in the“formula”-- predominated throughout the operations of analysis formitol tablets furnish a good illustration of essay well establishedbut often ignored truths:1 “formulas” that are nonquantitative are valueless or worse thanvalueless 2 the fact that a manufacturer puts certain drugs in a mixture, is noproof that these drugs are there when the mixture reaches the patient the physician must be assured that they are there when he prescribesthem 3 complex mixtures should be avoided it is absurd to expect, asis claimed in the case of formitol tablets, anodyne, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant, and resolvent action all at the sametime -- from the journal a m a , june 19, 1920 sukro-serum and aphlegmatol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytwo years ago, american newspapers contained accounts of an allegedcure for pulmonary tuberculosis “discovered” by prof domenico lomonaco of rome, italy at that time no reference to the “cure” couldbe found in medical journals which had come from italy and othereuropean countries the journal a m a , july 13, 1918, p 142 later, reports were published of experiments carried out in italy, according to which the intramuscular injection of solutions of sugar saccharose-- cane sugar diminished pulmonary secretion and was ofconsiderable value in the treatment of tuberculosis the journala m a , sept 28, 1918, p 1083 on the whole the reports of thetrial of what has been called the italian sugar cure for consumptionhave been unfavorable at a meeting in paris in october, 1918, drs louis rénon and mignot reported that they had found that the diseasein guinea-pigs was not modified by the treatment and with humans theresults were also negative paris letter, the journal a m a , nov 23, 1918, p 1760 in view of the exploitation of this treatment in the united statesby the anglo-french drug co , which offers “sukro-serum, ” and by g giambalvo & co , which sells “aphlegmatol, ” and because of inquiriesreceived, the council has authorized publication of the statement whichfollows w a puckner, secretary a circular issued by the anglo-french drug co , describes “sukro-serum”as a “sterilized solution of lacto-gluco-saccharose ” by reading thecircular to the end, however, one learns that “sukro-serum” is nota “serum” in the ordinary sense but apparently it is a solution ofordinary sugar sucrose “sukro-serum is a sterilized, speciallyprepared solution of saccharose ”sukro-serum has been advertised n y med jour , sept 6, 1919as an “intramuscular injection for tuberculosis” “ ready for usein paper of pulmonary and general tuberculosis” with the assertionthat “it is quite certain that in the near future sukro-serum will belargely used and its value fully recognized ” the circular receivedfrom the anglo-french drug co contains quotations from an article byprofessor lo monaco in the british medical journal aug 24, 1918setting forth the merits of intramuscular injections of sucrose intuberculosis it is recommended that “néocaine-surrénine” which theanglo-french drug co supplies be used for the control of pain whensukro-serum is injected the circular enclosed with a package of “aphlegmatol, ” purchased fromg giambalvo & co , contained the following with reference to thecomposition of this preparation. “a solution of hydrats of carbon after the formula of prof d lo monaco, director of the institut of physiological chemistry of the university of rome contents.

Wounds, vol i , p 476 et seq 5 fractures - if there are any evidences of fractures, thesituation of the bones involved should be noted, and whether theyare accompanied by contusions of the soft writings fractures which areinflicted during life are always accompanied by much more extravasationof blood, more injury to the soft writings, and more evidences of reactionthan those occurring after death it is a well-known fact that it ismuch more difficult to produce a fracture in a dead than a living body see wounds, vol ii , p 482 et seq 6 the temperature of the body should be taken 7 the rigidity and flexibility of the extremities should beascertained 8 the state of the eyes should be noticed, and the relative size ofthe pupils 9 cheap custom research papers attention should be paid to the condition of the cavities of themouth and nose the neck should be specially examined for marks ofexternal injury, or signs of ecchymosis or compression 10 genitals - the external genitals should be very carefullyexamined for evidence of injury, the presence of syphilitic lesions, and in the female the condition of the vagina should be writingicularlyascertained 11 œdema of the feet - if there is evidence of œdema in any writing ofthe body, especially about the ankles, its situation and extent shouldbe noted 12 ulcers and abscesses - the situation and extent of any ulcerfound on the body should be recorded, as also the presence andsituation of any abscess 13 burns - the extent of a burn, as also the state of the writingsinvolved, should be noted for example, whether they are inflamed orshow blisters, etc see heat and cold, vol i , p 647 et seq 14 hands - in medico-legal paper the hands of a dead person shouldalways be examined for the presence of cuts, excoriations, or foreignsubstances found upon them. Especially should the dorsal extremitiesbe examined this examination will often indicate that there has beena mortal struggle before death the impression of a hand or of essayof the fingers is often found on the skin of a dead body the exactsituation where found should be noted this may be of importance, aswhen it occurs where it would have been impossible or improbable forthe deceased to have caused it for appearances in death from lightning or electricity, see vol i , p 701 et seq , and in death from hanging, strangulation, and garroting, see vol i , pp 713, 746, 781, et seq internal examination having completed the examination of the external writings of the body, thenext proceeding is to open the body and make an internal examination this should be done by following a regular method, so as to examine therelations of writings and not to injure one organ while removing another in opening the various organs an incision should be made which willexpose the greatest amount of surface at one cut never make a numberof small and always unsatisfactory incisions in an organ in openingcertain organs like the brain and heart, the incisions are so plannedthat the writings of the organ may be folded together, and, if necessary, their relations to one another and the whole organ studied such organsare opened as one would open a book to examine its pages it is important to remember that after death the blood leaves thearteries and left side of the heart, and collects in the veins and theright cavities of the heart especially does it collect in the vesselsof the most dependent portions of the body and of the various organs, so that local congestions may often disappear after death. And again, they may be found at an autopsy where they were not present duringlife especially is this true of the mucous membranes such as those ofthe trachea and bronchi, and also of the blood in the sinuses of thedura mater in making autopsies it is a cardinal rule that all the cavitiesof the body should be examined, and not alone the one where onemight expect to find a lesion at medico-legal autopsies, the greatcavities the head, the thorax, and the abdomen should be examined intheir successive order from above downward the reason for beginningwith the head is that the amount of blood in the brain and itsmembranes may be determined accurately.

Itauthorizes him to cheap custom research papers practise anywhere within the state. The applicantmust file with the clerk his affidavit stating that he has regularlygraduated in essay reputable medical college, and must exhibit to theclerk the diploma held by him, his affidavit, and the affidavit of tworeputable freeholders or householders of the county stating that theapplicant has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetricsin the state continuously for ten years immediately preceding thedate of taking effect of this act, stating writingicularly the localityor localities in which he has practised during the said period, andthe date and length of time in each locality. Or his affidavit andthe affidavit of two reputable freeholders or householders of thecounty, stating that he has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in the state continuously for three years immediatelypreceding the taking effect of this act, and stating writingicularly thelocalities in which he practised during the said period, and the dateand length of time in each locality, and that he, prior to said date, attended one full course of lectures in essay reputable medical college the clerk must record the license and the name of the college in whichthe applicant graduated, and the date of his diploma 2, asamended by act march 9th, 1891 a license issued to a person who has not complied with the requirementsof sec 2, or one procured by any false affidavit, is void act april11, 1885, s 3 penalty - practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics without a licenseis a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $200 s 4 no cause of action lies in favor of any person as a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician who has not prior to the service procured a license;and money paid or property paid for such services to a person not solicensed, or the value thereof, may be recovered back 5 exemptions - women practising obstetrics are exempted from theprovisions of the act 4 fees - to clerk, for license, $1 50 act april 11th, 1885, as amendedact march 9th, 1891 registration - it is the duty of all physicians and accoucheurs toregister their name and post-office address with the clerk of thecircuit court of the county in which they reside act 1881, p 37, s 10 fees - to the clerk, for registration, 10 cents 11 iowa qualification - every person practising medicine, surgery, orobstetrics, in any of their dewritingments, if a graduate in medicine, must present his diploma to the state board of examiners forverification as to its genuineness if the diploma is found genuine, and is by a medical school legally organized and of good standing, which the board determines, and if the person presenting be theperson to whom it was originally granted, then the board must issuea certificate signed by not less than five physicians thereof, representing one or more physicians of the schools on the board sic, and such certificate is conclusive if not a graduate, aperson practising medicine or surgery, unless in continuous practice inthis state for not less than five years, of which he must present tothe board satisfactory evidence in the form of affidavits, must appearbefore the board for examination all examinations are in writing;all examination papers with the reports and action of examiners arepreserved as records of the board for five years the subjects ofexamination are anatomy, physiology, general chemistry, pathology, therapeutics, and the principles and practice of medicine, surgery, andobstetrics each applicant, upon receiving from the secretary of theboard an order for examination, receives also a confidential number, which he must place upon his examination papers so that, when thepapers are passed upon, the examiners may not know by what applicantthey were prepared upon each day of examination all candidates aregiven the same set or sets of questions the examination papersare marked on a scale of 100 the applicant must attain an averagedetermined by the board. If such examination is satisfactory to atleast five physicians of the board, representing the different schoolsof medicine on the board, the board must issue a certificate, whichentitles the lawful holder to all the rights and privileges in the actprovided laws 1886, c 104, s 1 the board receives applications through its secretary five physiciansof the board may act as an examining board in the absence of the fullboard. Provided that one or more members of the different schoolsof medicine represented in the state board of health shall also berepresented in the board of examiners 2 the affidavit of the applicant and holder of a diploma that he is theperson therein named, and is the lawful possessor thereof, is necessaryto verify the same, with such other testimony as the board may require diplomas and accompanying affidavits may be presented in person or byproxy if a diploma is found genuine and in possession of the person towhom it was issued, the board, on payment of the fee to its secretary, must issue a certificate if a diploma is found fraudulent or notlawfully in possession of the holder or owner, the person presentingit, or holding or claiming possession, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from $20 to $100 3 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the county recorderin the county wherein the holder resides, within sixty days after itsdate should he remove from one county to another to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, his certificate must be recorded in the countyto which he removes the recorder must indorse upon the certificate thedate of record 4 any one failing to pass is entitled to a second examination withintwelve months without a fee. Any applicant for examination, by noticein writing to the secretary of the board, is entitled to examinationwithin three months from the time of notice, and the failure togive such opportunity entitles such applicant to practise without acertificate until the next regular meeting of the board the boardmay issue certificates to persons who, upon application, present acertificate of having passed a satisfactory examination before anyother state board of medical examiners, upon the payment of the feeprovided in sec 3 6, as amended c 66, laws 1888, 22 gen assembly the board may refuse a certificate to a person who has been convictedof felony committed in the practice of his profession, or in connectiontherewith. Or may revoke for like cause, or for palpable evidence ofincompetency, and such refusal or revocation prohibits such personfrom practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, and can only be madewith the affirmative vote of at least five physicians of the stateboard, in which must be included one or more members of the differentschools of medicine represented in the said board. The standing of alegally chartered medical college from which a diploma may be presentedmust not be questioned except by a like vote 7 definition, exceptions - any person is deemed practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to be a physician, who publicly professesto be a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician, and assumes the duties, or who makes a practice of prescribing, or prescribing and furnishingmedicine for the sick, or who publicly professes to cure or heal by anymeans whatsoever. But the act does not prohibit students of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics from prescribing under the supervision ofpreceptors or gratuitous services in case of emergency. Nor does itapply to women at the time of its passage engaged in the practice ofmidwifery, nor does it prevent advertising, selling, or prescribingnatural mineral waters flowing from wells or springs, nor does itapply to surgeons of the united states army, navy, or marine hospitalservice, nor to physicians defined therein who have been in practicein this state for five consecutive years, three years of which musthave been in one locality, provided such physician shall furnish thestate board with satisfactory evidence of such practice and shallprocure a proper certificate, nor to registered pharmacists fillingprescriptions, nor does it interfere with the sale of patent orproprietary medicines in the regular course of trade 8 penalty - a person practising medicine or surgery without complyingwith the act, and not embraced in the exceptions, or after beingprohibited as provided in sec 7, is guilty of a misdemeanor punishablewith a fine of from $50 to $100, or imprisonment in the county jailfrom ten to thirty days 9 filing or attempting to file as one own the diploma of another, orthe certificate of another, or a diploma or certificate with the truename erased and the claimant name inserted, or a forged affidavit ofidentification, is forgery 10 fees - to county recorder, 50 cents 4 to state board, for certificate to holder of diploma, $2 3 to secretary of state board, in advance, by candidate for examination, $10 6 by practitioner for five years, $2 8 kansas qualification - it is unlawful for a person who has not attended twofull courses of instruction and graduated in essay respectable school ofmedicine, either of the united states or of essay foreign country, orwho cannot produce a certificate of qualification from essay state orcounty medical society, and is not a person of good moral character, topractise medicine in any of its dewritingments for reward or compensation, for any sick person. Provided in all paper when any person has beencontinuously engaged in practice of medicine for ten years or more, heshall be considered to have complied with the provisions of the act gen stats , 1889, s 2, 450 penalty - practising or attempting to practise medicine in any ofits dewritingments or performing or attempting to perform any surgicaloperation in violation of the foregoing is punishable with a fine offrom $50 to $100. And a second violation, in addition to a fine, ispunishable with imprisonment in the county jail for thirty days.

Jour am chem soc , xxx, 881 mclean, hugh cheap custom research papers. Chem abstracts, may 20, 1915 there is not the slightest reliable evidencethat commercial lecithin has any advantage over the lecithin containedin natural foods. The weight of probability is on the other side the doses recommended, moreover, are absurdly small. And the amountthus administered is without practical value why administer a fewmilligrams of a more or less decomposed lecithin when it is possible togive a far larger weight of a purer substance in the form of yolk ofegg?. In view of these considerations the council voted that the followingproprietary products be omitted from the next edition of n n r. Glycerole of lecithin lecibrin lecithin solution lecithol neuro-lecithin-abbottand that the general article on “lecithin preparations” be transferredto the annual council reports as a matter of record the report was submitted to the manufacturers their replies wereevidently based on commercial consideration, and called for nomodification in the report the referee recommended that the preceding report be published togetherwith the following extracts from the replies of the manufacturers:from armour and company. “we are selling a good deal of lecithol and it seems to be giving satisfactory results in essay quarters we shall continue to advertise lecithol along the lines we have employed heretofore ”from the abbott laboratories. “we can assure you of our confidence in the therapeutic value of neuro-lecithin this has been attested by the reports of favorable results sent us by thesis physicians, as well as by the periodical literature of the last few years which contains a considerable number of very encouraging references to lecithin therapy ”from fairchild bros & foster. “we would like simply to say that the physician and the council must be aware of the circumstances and the purposes which actuated us in placing lecithin at disposal, viz , the studies-- research-- of lecithin and the properties attributed to it and which led to inquiry for and consideration of it the quantities proposed for medicinal use were not suggested by us. The suggestion of lecithin in small quantities as a therapeutic agent was obviously directed by those who proposed it the question whether lecithin, per se, has therapeutic properties in contrast to lecithin as naturally contained in food substances, is essaything we do not undertake to decide the council, on purely theoretical grounds, decides in the negative notwithstanding clinical experience-- internal and hypodermic-- and thus would deny lecithin the status of a new and nonofficial remedy, worthy of at least tentative progressive clinical consideration we can only say that we offered bona fide lecithin and that we did not make the investigation of lecithin a pretext for the sale of all sorts of lecithin ‘jumbles’ with lecithin in small proportions, taking their name and making their bid on lecithin ”below appears the general article which has been omitted from n n r. lecithin preparationslecithins are fat-like bodies belonging to the group of phosphatides they all consist of glyceryl esters containing two fatty acid radicalsand the phosphoric acid radical in which one of the residual hydrogensis replaced by the choline group the fatty acid may be palmitic, oleicor stearic and various combinations are known to exist. For example, distearyl lecithin, stearyl palmityl lecithin and so on the commerciallecithins usually include the closely related kephalins on saponification the lecithins split more or less readily intocholine, the fatty acids and glycerophosphoric acid, and by fusion withalkali nitrate and carbonate they yield alkali phosphate they occur, free or in combination as lecithoproteins, most abundantly in certainanimal tissues, but there are also vegetable lecithins the lecithinsof commerce are obtained usually from yolks of eggs or from calves’ orsheep brains numerous processes have been devised for the preparation of lecithinfrom egg-yolk or animal tissue from egg-yolk it may be obtained bymaking an alcoholic extract and precipitating by cadmium chloride theprecipitate is washed with alcohol and ether, mixed with 80 per cent alcohol and warmed with the proper amount of ammonium carbonate toremove the cadmium after filtering hot and concentrating the filtratethe lecithin is thrown down by cooling to a low temperature-- 10 c orbelow the precipitate is taken up in chloroform and reprecipitated byacetone from tissues it is obtained by extracting with warm alcohol and ether, concentrating the extract, precipitating with acetone and repeating theoperations pure lecithin is white, but the commercial preparations areyellowish-brown wax-like solids, which are not soluble in water butform milky emulsions which exhibit the myeline figures under themicroscope the solubility in cold alcohol or ether is slight, but heataids it lecithins are not soluble in acetone they are hygroscopic andthe water mixtures undergo decomposition on standing they darken onexposure to air and light the alcoholic solution is precipitated by platinum or cadmiumchloride it is decomposed by alkalies with the formation of cholineand trimethylamine the ash contains phosphoric acid the differentlecithins contain from 3 84 to 4 12 per cent of phosphorus and 1 73 to1 86 per cent of nitrogen the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus shouldbe at 1 to 2 21 lecithin is incompatible with alkalies. It should be kept inwell-stoppered bottles and should be protected from the light the content of lecithin plus kephalin in tissues is about as follows. per cent egg-yolk 8 to 12 egg-white 0 1 to 0 2 liver 2 0 to 3 0 kidney 2 0 to 3 6 lung 2 0 to 3 0 pancreas 2 0 to 3 0actions and uses -- the lecithin preparations have been recommendedin thesis pathologic conditions, especially in malnutrition and sexualdebility moderate doses are said to bring about a marked retention ofnitrogen and phosphorus, but satisfactory proof of this is lacking itis extremely unlikely that the small doses which have been recommendedin pill or tablet form or in emulsions can have any perceptible action, in view of the fact that thesis of our natural foods contain much greaterweights of available lecithins than the medicinal doses provide thereis no good basis for the statement that the free lecithin has a greaterfood value or is more readily assimilated than is the substance asfound in eggs or tissue the reverse proposition is much more likelyto be true, especially when it is considered that the commercialpreparations are usually essaywhat altered or decomposed in the processof separation dosage -- given by the mouth in the form of pills, tablets orglycero-alcoholic emulsions the amount of actual lecithin ingestedin this way is usually small because of the doubtful purity of theoriginal preparation several doses, as commonly administered, wouldbe required to furnish the amount of lecithin present in a smallegg -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 122 proprietary names for liquid petrolatum report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has accepted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary a former report of the council liquid petrolatum or “russian mineraloil, ” report council pharm and chem , the journal, may 30, 1914, p 1740 called attention to the large number of concerns that wereplacing on the market liquid petrolatum as a proprietary under coinednames since then the number of such products has increased thecouncil has been requested by several concerns to consider theirproducts put out under proprietary brand names the rules of the council affirm that “the application of ‘trade names’to official or established nonproprietary substances tends to confusionand fosters thesis abuses ” in accordance with this general ruling, the council has invariably refused to countenance proprietary namesapplied to liquid petrolatum the council holds that proprietary orcoined names for this substance are detrimental to medical progress, since they are sure to foster the impression that the writingicularproduct is different from liquid petrolatum manufacturers have beenadvised that there is no objection to distinguishing their productsby the addition of their firm name or the initial representing thefirm name. For instance, “liquid petrolatum, a b and co ” or “liquidpetrolatum, smith ” the council also believes that such designationsas “star liquid petrolatum” or “liquid petrolatum, anchor brand, ”may be regarded as unobjectionable, provided that the words “liquidpetrolatum” are always used in connection with the brand designationand given equal prominence -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 127 seng report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary seng sultan drug co , st louis is called by the manufacturers.

  • topic c essay examples
  • write my paper for me cheap
  • animal farm essay
  • how to start a persuasive essay
  • why mba essay
  • essay sentence starters
  • academic writing services for graduate students
  • free persuasive essay
  • causes of the american revolution essay
  • staar persuasive essay prompts
  • essay writing jobs
  • home work help for kids
  • sat essay score
  • 10000 word essay
  • buy a business plan for school
  • compare and contrast essay graphic organizer
  • business plan writing services nyc
  • a modest proposal essay
  • night by elie wiesel essay
  • which of the following best describes what a thesis for a historical essay should be?
  • do my paper

Also being applied to the stomach, itstrengthens it, helps digestion, stays vomiting and putrefaction ofthe meat there emplastrum e cymino or, a plaister cheap custom research papers of cummin college take of cummin-seed, bayberries, yellow wax, of each onepound, per-rozin two pounds, common rozin three pounds, oil of dillhalf a pound. Mix them, and make them into a plaister culpeper it assuages swellings, takes away old aches coming ofbruises, and applied to the belly, is an excellent remedy for the windcholic this i have often proved, and always with good success emplastrum diacalciteos college take of hog grease fresh and purged from the skins twopounds, oil of olives omphacine, litharge of gold beaten and sifted, of each three pounds, white vitriol burnt and purged four ounces. Letthe litharge, grease, and oil boil together with a gentle fire, witha little plantain water, always stirring it, to the consistence of aplaister, into which being removed from the fire put in the vitrioland make it into a plaister according to art culpeper it is a very drying, binding plaister, profitable in greenwounds to hinder putrefaction, as also in pestilential sores after theyare broken, and ruptures, and also in burnings and scaldings diachylon simple college take of mussilage of linseed, fenugreek seed, marsh-mallowroots, of each one pound, old oil three pounds. Boil it to theconsumption of the mussilage, strain it, and add litharge of gold infine powder, one pound and an half. Boil them with a little water overa gentle fire always stirring them to a just thickness culpeper it is an exceeding good remedy for all swellings withoutpain, it softens hardness of the liver and spleen, it is very gentle diachylon ireatum college add one ounce of orris in powder to every pound ofdiachylon simple diachylon magnum college take of mussilage of raisins, fat figs, mastich, mallow-roots, linseeds, and fenugreek-seeds, bird-lime, the juice oforris and squills, of each twelve drams and an half, œsypus or oilof sheep feet an ounce and an half, oil of orris, chamomel, dill, of each eight ounces, litharge of gold in fine powder one pound, turpentine three ounces, per-rozin, yellow wax, of each two ounces, boil the oil with the mussilages and juices to the consumption of thehumidity, strain the oil from the faces, and by adding the lithargeboil it to its consistence. Then add the rozin and wax. Lastly, itbeing removed from the fire, add the turpentine, œsypus and birdlime, make of them a plaister by melting them according to art culpeper it dissolves hardness and inflammations diachylon magnum cum gummi college take of bdellium, sagapenum, amoniacum, of each two ounces, dissolved in wine, and added to the mass of diachylon magnum. Firstboil the gums being dissolved, to the thickness of honey culpeper this is the best to dissolve hard swellings of all thethree diachylon compositum, sive emplaistrum e mussilaginibus or, a plaister of mussilages college take of mussilages of the middle bark of elm, marsh-mallowroots, linseed, and fenugreek seed, of each four ounces and an half, oil of chamomel, lilies, and dill, of each an ounce and an half, ammoniacum, galbanum, sagapen, opopanax, of each half an ounce, new waxtwenty ounces, turpentine two ounces, saffron two drams, dissolve thegums in wine, and make it into a plaister according to art culpeper it ripens swellings, and breaks them, and cleanses themwhen they are broken it is of a most excellent ripening nature emplaistrum diaphœnicon hot college take of yellow wax two ounces, per-rozin, pitch, of eachfour ounces, oil of roses and nard, of each one ounce, melt themtogether, and add pulp of dates made in wine four ounces, flesh ofquinces boiled in red wine an ounce, then the powders following. Takeof bread twice baked, steeped in wine and dried, two ounces, mastich anounce, frankincense wormwood, red roses, spikenard, of each two dramsand an half, wood of aloes, mace, myrrh, washed aloes, acacia, trochesof gallia moschata, and earth of lemnos, calamus aromaticus, of eachone dram, labdanum three ounces, mix them and make them into a plaisteraccording to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and liver exceedingly, helpsfluxes, apply it to the places grieved diaphœnicon cold college take of wax four ounces, ship pitch five ounces, labdanumthree ounces and an half, turpentine an ounce and an half, oil of rosesone ounce, melt these, and add pulp of dates almost ripe, boiled inaustere wine four ounces, flesh of quinces in like manner boiled, breadtwice baked often steeped in red wine and dried, of each an ounce, styrax calamitis, acacia, unripe grapes, balaustines, yellow sanders, troches of terra lemnia, myrrh, wood of aloes, of each half an ounce, mastich, red roses, of each an ounce and an half, austere wine asmuch as is sufficient to dissolve the juices, make it into a plaisteraccording to art culpeper it strengthens the belly and liver, helps concoction inthose writings, and distribution of humours, stays vomiting and fluxes emplastrum divinum or, a divine plaster college take of loadstone four ounces, ammoniacum three ounces andthree drams, bdellium two ounces, galbanum, myrrh, of each ten drams, olibanum nine drams, opopanax, mastich, long birthwort, verdigris, of each an ounce, litharge, common oil, of each a pound and an half, new wax eight ounces. Let the litharge in fine powder be boiled withthe oil to a thickness, then add the wax, which being melted, take itfrom the fire, add the gums dissolved in wine and vinegar, strain it, then add the myrrh, mastich, frankincense, birthwort, and loadstone inpowder, last of all the verdigris in powder, and make it into a plasteraccording to art culpeper it is of a cleansing nature, exceeding good againstmalignant ulcers, it consumes corruption, engenders new flesh, andbrings them to a scar emplastrum epispasticum college take of mustard seed, euphorbium, long pepper, of each onedram and an half, stavesacre, pellitory of spain of each two drams, ammoniacum, galbanum, phellium, sagapen, of each three drams, wholecantharides five drams, ship pitch, rozin, yellow wax, of each sixdrams, turpentine as much as is sufficient to make it into a plaster culpeper thesis people use to draw blisters in their necks for thetooth ache, or for rheums in their eyes. If they please to lay aplaster of this there, it will do it emplastrum a nostratibus, flos unguentorum dictum or, flower of ointments college take of rozin, per rozin, yellow wax, sheep suet, of eachhalf a pound, olibanum four ounces, turpentine two ounces and an half, myrrh, mastich, of each an ounce, camphire two drams, white wine half apound, boil them into a plaster culpeper i found this receipt in an old manuscript written in theyear 1513, the quantity of the ingredients very little altered a plaster of gum elemi college take of gum elemi three ounces, per rozin, wax, ammoniacum, of each two ounces, turpentine three ounces and an half, mallaga wineso much as is sufficient.