History

Character Analysis Essay


For it is inadvisable toadminister the ingredients in fixed, but unknown proportions it is recommended that saloform be deemed inadmissible to n n r the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on character analysis essay pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 71 secretogen report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryabout a year ago the council declared secretogen, 103 a product theactive ingredient of which was stated to be “pancreatic secretin” andadvertised as a remedy for certain conditions of defective digestionand assimilation, to be ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies the reasons for this decision were stated at the time as follows:103 j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 “1 no evidence has been presented that the absence of secretin is acause of gastro-intestinal diseases it is usually present, and if notpresent, as in achylia gastrica, there is evidently essay compensatingarrangement by which the pancreas is stimulated to perform its regularfunctions “2 there is no evidence that secretin in any form is physiologicallyactive when administered by mouth ”since secretogen was not the only so-called secretin preparation onthe market, and since the use of secretin preparations was recommendedby certain writers, notwithstanding the lack of evidence of its value, the council caused an experimental investigation of the question to bemade this was carried out by prof a j carlson of the university ofchicago no secretin was found in the commercial products examined, namely, secretogen tablets, secretogen elixir and duodenin furthermore, carlson results104 confirmed the council previous conclusionas to the inertness of secretin administered by mouth the councilendorsed professor carlson findings 105104 carlson a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlman, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208. Reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 96 the g w carnrick company has replied to the publication of thisreport in the letter printed below a portion of this letter, whichconsists of a communication from an unnamed correspondent of the g w carnrick company and the company comment thereon, has been omitted the council offered to publish this if the carnrick company wouldfurnish the name of the writer this it has not done as will be seen, the company now shifts ground, abandoning entirely the claim thatsecretogen contains secretin the council has authorized publicationof the letter omitting the writing just mentioned, together with thecomment that follows w a puckner, secretary “the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation “gentlemen:-- the opinion of the council and the contribution byprofessor carlson which appeared in the journal of the american medicalassociation for jan 15, 1916, have been read by us with interest the column of current comment dealing with ‘tiger-bone therapy andclinical experience’ has appealed to our good nature and, under thecircumstances, our sense of humor “professor carlson seems to have quite well established that theso-called secretin preparations do not contain secretin to anyappreciable extent, and that they are inert in laboratory experimentson normal animals at the same time, to do away with an apparentdiscrimination on the writing of the management of the council, it wouldhave been well if professor carlson had included the so-called secretinpreparations belonging to another well-known firm which markets such aproduct this discrimination has already been referred to by us “had professor carlson stopped at the determination of the therapeuticavailability of secretin given by mouth, his work might have beenaccepted without comment, even if we should have thought it advisableto object to the matter published by the council but the professorwent beyond his province entirely when, in commenting on the findingsobtained by using secretogen clinically, he said. ‘it is, perhaps, impertinent for laboratory men to comment on these clinical results ’it is his point was well taken and it is a profound pity thatprofessor carlson did not observe his own ruling “in the words of a correspondent of the journal of the american medicalassociation, in discussing professor carlson criticism of dr crile‘kinetic drive, ’ ‘it behooves the laboratory man to be circumspect inhis criticism of clinical theories, since going beyond the bounds ofwell-established things weakens his position, not merely with referenceto the writingicular subject under discussion, but with reference toclinical phenomena in general ’ clinical results have definitelyestablished the value of secretogen as the matter now stands thisstatement is beyond criticism “when secretogen was first introduced we assumed that it depended onsecretin for results produced in this assumption we were in goodcompany, as witnessed by the testimony of moore, edie and abram when, in the course of their investigations as to the value in diabetesof a secretin-bearing extract given by mouth, 106 they said. ‘inthe majority of these paper there has been no appreciable fallin the output of sugar in essay of these negative paper there hasbeen noted, however, improvement in the digestion and, in certainpaper, the patient weight has increased ’ they also state thatthe secretin-bearing product ‘appears to stimulate the functionalactivity of the duodenum ’106 they give a most significantreport 107 we quote from the paper as follows:106 all italics are ours g w carnrick company 107 bio-chem jour 1:28, 1906 “‘the patient had been under observation for six months beforetreatment and the sugar was not reducible by diet almost at once thedyspepsia from which he was suffering was relieved and his generalnutrition improved to such an extent that he regained over eighteenpounds in weight, which he had previously lost, and this improvementwas accompanied by complete recovery of his physical and mentalenergies ’106“inasmuch as this improvement could not have been due to the containedsecretin it must have been due to essay other principle containedin the extract our experience and that of the physicians who haveused secretogen establish the fact that moore, edie and abram madeno mistake when they came to the conclusion that what they termed asecretin-bearing extract stimulates the functional activity of theduodenum and improves the digestion “when professor carlson was investigating secretogen he must haverealized that he was dealing essentially with an extract of theduodenal mucosa it is, therefore, all the more surprising, consideringhis extensive researches into the literature, that he should haveignored the testimony of essay of his own authorities, writingicularlyhallion, as to the value of extracts of the duodenal mucosa in duodenalinsufficiencies the meticulous carefulness with which this evidencewas avoided is hardly worthy of the best traditions of physiology, ascience which has truth for its first and last aim “hallion in his ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ says that the ‘aims ofduodenal opotherapy are.

Andbeing made into an electuary, it is good for them that cannot fetchtheir breath. Used with salt, it takes away wens, kernels, or hardswelling in the flesh or throat. It cleanses foul sores, and easespains of the gout it is good for the liver and spleen a tansy orcaudle made with eggs, and juice thereof while it is young, putting toit essay sugar and rose-water, is good for a woman in child-birth, whenthe after-birth is not thoroughly voided, and for their faintings uponor in their sore travail the herb bruised and boiled in a little wineand oil, and laid warm on a boil, will ripen it, and break it barberry the shrub is so well known by every boy or girl that has but attainedto the age of seven years, that it needs no description government and virtues mars owns the shrub, and presents it tothe use of my countrymen to purge their bodies of choler the innerrind of the barberry-tree boiled in white wine, and a quarter of apint drank each morning, is an excellent remedy to cleanse the body ofcholeric humours, and free it from such diseases as choler causes, suchas scabs, itch, tetters, ringworms, yellow jaundice, boils, &c it isexcellent for hot agues, burnings, scaldings, heat of the blood, heatof the liver, bloody-flux. For the berries are as good as the bark, and more pleasing. They get a man a good stomach to his victuals, bystrengthening the attractive faculty which is under mars the hairwashed with the lye made of the tree and water, will make it turnyellow, viz of mars’ own colour the fruit and rind of the shrub, the flowers of broom and of heath, or furz, cleanse the body of cholerby sympathy, as the flowers, leaves, and bark of the peach-tree do byantipathy, because these are under mars, that under venus barley the continual usefulness hereof hath made all in general so acquaintedherewith that it is altogether needless to describe it, several kindshereof plentifully growing, being yearly sown in this land the virtuesthereof take as follow government and virtues it is a notable plant of saturn. If youview diligently its effects by sympathy and antipathy, you may easilyperceive a reason of them, as also why barley bread is so unwholeessayfor melancholy people barley in all the writings and compositions thereof except malt is more cooling than wheat, and a little cleansing:and all the preparations thereof, as barley-water and other thingsmade thereof, give great nourishment to persons troubled with fevers, agues, and heats in the stomach. A poultice made of barley meal orflour boiled in vinegar and honey, and a few dry figs put into them, dissolves all imposthumes, and assuages inflammations, being theretoapplied and being boiled with melilot and camomile-flowers, and essaylinseed, fenugreek, and rue in powder, and applied warm, it easespains in side and stomach, and windiness of the spleen the meal ofbarley and fleawort boiled in water, and made a poultice with honey andoil of lilies applied warm, cures swellings under the ears, throat, neck, and such like.

Pupils slightly dilated character analysis essay. Eyeballs and tonguenot protruded marks of cord as in preceding no discharge of fæces orsemen slight ecchymosis under cord. Mark in front of neck dislocationof occipital bone from atlas brain and membranes much congested lungscollapsed and anæmic half ounce serum in pericardium heart normal;dark fluid blood in both ventricles. Liver normal 79 cayley. Ibid , p 122 - man, age 35. Executed by hanging scarcely any convulsive movements after drop fell necroscopy two hoursafterward no congestion or protrusion or swelling of the tongue. Nomuscular rigidity or contractions about half-way around the neck wasindentation of cord, obliquely directed. Hardly perceptible in front;its surface appeared rubbed and compressed. No discoloration. Noecchymosis under skin cord lay across upper writing of thyroid cartilage larynx and trachea not injured fracture and dislocation of uppercervical vertebræ lungs collapsed, not congested pericardium empty;heart distended, left side with red blood just beginning to clot;right side with fluid black blood liver and other abdominal organsmuch congested no discharge of fæces or semen 80 garden. Same journal, 1880, xv , p 12 - man, age 40, weightabout one hundred and twenty pounds. Drop two feet. Was in a faintingcondition, and had to be supported. Was not probably fully consciouswhen platform fell there were spasmodic retractions of arms and legsfor about two minutes. Forty seconds after the drop his jungeas felloff.

Being snuffed up in thenose, it helps spasmus cynicus, which is a wrying the character analysis essay mouth aside;it helps noise in the ears being dropped into them, it provokesthe menses, and helps the biting of venomous beasts. It is a mostgallant oil to strengthen the body, the back being anointed with it;strengthens the muscles, they being chafed with it. Helps head-ache, the forehead being rubbed with it moschelæum, or, oil of musk college take two nutmegs, musk one dram, indian leaf or mace, spikenard, costus, mastich, of each six drams, styrax calamitis, cassialignea, myrrh, saffron, cinnamon, cloves, carpobalsamum or cubebs, bdellium, of each two drams, pure oil three pounds, wine three ounces, bruise them as you ought to do, mix them, and let them boil easily, till the wine be consumed, the musk being mixed according to art afterit is strained culpeper it is exceeding good against all diseases of cold, especially those of the stomach, it helps diseases of the sides, theybeing anointed with it, the stranguary, cholic, and vices of thenerves, and afflictions of the reins oleum nardinum or, oil of nard college take of spikenard three ounces, marjoram two ounces, woodof aloes, calamus aromaticus, elecampane, cypress, bay leaves, indianleaf or mace, squinanth, cardamoms, of each one ounce and a half, bruise them all grossly, and steep them in water and wine, of eachfourteen ounces, oil of sesamin, or oil of olives, four pounds andan half, for one day. Then perfect the oil by boiling it gently in adouble vessel oleum populeum nicholaus college take of fresh poplar buds three pounds, wine four pounds, common oil seven pounds two ounces, beat the poplar buds very well, then steep them seven days in the oil and wine, then boil them in adouble vessel till the wine be consumed, if you infuse fresh buds onceor twice before you boil it, the medicine will be the stronger, thenpress out the oil and keep it culpeper it is a fine cool oil, but the ointment called by thatname which follows hereafter is far better ointments more simple unguentum album, or, white ointment college take of oil of roses nine ounces, ceruss washed inrose-water and diligently sifted, three ounces, white wax two ounces, after the wax is melted in the oil, put in the ceruss, and make itinto an ointment according to art, add two drams of camphire, madeinto powder with a few drops of oil of sweet almonds, so will it becamphorated culpeper it is a fine cooling, drying ointment, eases pains, anditching in wounds and ulcers, and is an hundred times better withcamphire than without it unguentum egyptiacum college take of verdigris finely powdered, five writings, honeyfourteen writings, sharp vinegar seven writings, boil them to a justthickness, and a reddish colour culpeper it cleanses filthy ulcers and fistulas forcibly, and notwithout pain, it takes away dead and proud flesh, and dries unguentum anodynum or, an ointment to ease pain college take of oil of white lilies, six ounces, oil of dill, andchamomel, of each two ounces, oil of sweet almonds one ounce, duckgrease, and hen grease, of each two ounces, white wax three ounces, mix them according to art culpeper its use is to assuage pains in any writing of the body, especially such as come by inflammations, whether in wounds or tumours, and for that it is admirable unguentum ex apio or, ointment of smallage college take of the juice of smallage one pound, honey nine ounces, wheat flower three ounces, boil them to a just thickness culpeper it is a very fine, and very gentle cleanser of wounds andulcers liniment of gum elemi college take of gum elemi, turpentine of the fir-tree, of each oneounce and an half, old sheep suet cleansed two ounces, old hoggrease cleansed one ounce. Mix them, and make them into an ointmentaccording to art culpeper it gently cleanses and fills up an ulcer with flesh, itbeing of a mild nature, and friendly to the body unguentum aureum college take of yellow wax half a pound, common oil two pounds, turpentine two ounces, pine rozin, colophonia, of each one ounce and anhalf, frankincense, mastich, of each one ounce, saffron one dram, firstmelt the wax in the oil, then the turpentine being added, let them boiltogether. Having done boiling, put in the rest in fine powder, letthe saffron be the last and by diligent stirring, make them into anointment according to art basilicon, the greater college take of white wax, pine rozin, heifer suet, greek pitch, turpentine, olibanum, myrrh, of each one ounce, oil five ounces, powder the olibanum and myrrh, and the rest being melted, make it intoan ointment according to art basilicon, the less college take of yellow wax, fat rozin, greek pitch, of each half apound, oil nine ounces. Mix them together, by melting them according toart culpeper both this and the former, heat, moisten, and digest, procure matter in wounds, i mean brings the filth or corrupted bloodfrom green wounds. They clense and ease pain ointment of bdellium college take of bdellium six drams, euphorbium, sagapen, of eachfour drams, castoreum three drams, wax fifteen drams, oil of elder orwall-flowers, ten drams, the bdellium, and sagapen being dissolved inwater of wild rue, let the rest be united by the heat of a bath unguentum de calce or, ointment of chalk college take of chalk washed, seven times at least, half a pound, wax three ounces, oil of roses one pound, stir them all togetherdiligently in a leaden mortar, the wax being first melted by a gentlefire in a sufficient quantity of the prescribed oil culpeper it is exceeding good in burnings and scaldings unguentum dialthæ or, ointment of marsh-mallows college take of common oil four pounds, mussilage of marsh-mallowroots, linseed, and fenugreek seed two pounds. Boil them together tillthe watery writing of the mussilage be consumed, then add wax half a pound, rozin three ounces, turpentine an ounce, boil them to the consistenceof an ointment, but let the mussilage be prepared of a pound of freshroots bruised, and half a pound of each of the seeds steeped, andboiled in eight pounds of spring water, and then pressed out see thecompound unguentum diapompholygos college take of oil of nightshade sixteen ounces, white wax, washed, ceruss, of each four drams, lead burnt and washed, pompholixprepared, of each two ounces, pure frankincense one ounce. Bring theminto the form of an ointment according to art culpeper this much differing from the former, you shall have thatinserted at latter end, and then you may use which you please unguentum enulatum or, ointment of elecampane college take of elecampane roots boiled in vinegar, bruised andpulped, one pound, turpentine washed in their decoction, new wax, ofeach two ounces, old hog grease salted ten ounces, old oil fourounces, common salt one ounce, add the turpentine to the grease, wax, and oil, being melted, as also the pulp and salt being finely powdered, and so make it into an ointment according to art unguentum enulatum cum mercurio or, ointment of elecampane with quick-silver, college is made of the former ointment, by adding two ounces ofquick-silver, killed by continual stirring, not only with spittle, orjuice of lemons, but with all the turpentine kept for that intent, andwriting of the grease, in a stone mortar culpeper my opinion of this ointment, is briefly this. It wasinvented for the itch, without quick-silver it will do no good, withquick-silver it may do harm unguentum laurinum commune or, ointment of bays common college take of bay leaves bruised one pound, bay berries bruisedhalf a pound, cabbage leaves four ounces, neat-foot oil five pounds, bullock suet two pounds, boil them together, and strain them, that soit may be made into an ointment according to art unguentum de minie sive rubrum camphora or, ointment of red lead college take of oil of roses one pound and an half, red lead threeounces, litharge two ounces, ceruss one ounce and an half, tutty threedrams, camphire two drams, wax one ounce and an half, make it into anointment according to art, in a pestle and mortar made of lead culpeper this ointment is as drying as a man shall usually readof one, and withal cooling, therefore good for sores, and such as aretroubled with defluctions unguentum e nicotiona, seu peto or, ointment of tobacco college take of tobacco leaves bruised, two pounds, steep them awhole night in red wine, in the morning boil it in fresh hog grease, diligently washed, one pound, till the wine be consumed, strain it, andadd half a pound of juice of tobacco, rozin four ounces, boil it to theconsumption of the juice, adding towards the end, round birthwort rootsin powder, two ounces, new wax as much as is sufficient to make it intoan ointment according to art culpeper it would take a whole summer day to write the writingicularvirtues of this ointment, and my poor genius is too weak to give itthe hundredth writing of its due praise. It cures tumours, imposthumes, wounds, ulcers, gun-shot, stinging with nettles, bees, wasps, hornets, venomous beasts, wounds made with poisoned arrows, &c unguentum nutritum, seu trifarmacum college take of litharge of gold finely powdered, half a pound, vinegar one pound, oil of roses two pounds, grind the litharge ina mortar, pouring to it essaytimes oil, essaytimes vinegar, till bycontinual stirring, the vinegar do no more appear, and it come to awhitish ointment culpeper it is of a cooling, drying nature, good for itching ofwounds, and such like deformities of the skin unguentum ophthalmicum or, an ointment for the eyes college take of bole-ammoniac washed in rose water, one ounce, lapis calaminaris washed in eye bright water, tutty prepared, of eachtwo drams, pearls in very fine powder half a dram, camphire half ascruple, opium five grains, fresh butter washed in plantain water, asmuch as is sufficient to make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it is exceeding good to stop hot rheums that fall downinto the eyes, the eyelids being but anointed with it unguentum ex oxylapatho or, ointment of sharp-pointed dock college take of the roots of sharp-pointed dock boiled in vinegaruntil they be soft, and then pulped, brimstone washed in juice oflemons, of each one ounce and an half, hog grease often washed injuice of scabious, half a pound, unguentum populeon washed in juice ofelecampane, half an ounce. Make them into an ointment in a mortar culpeper it is a wholeessay, though troubleessay medicine for scabsand itch unguentum e plumbo or, ointment of lead college take of lead burnt according to art, litharge, of each twoounces, ceruss, antimony, of each one ounce, oil of roses as much as issufficient. Make it into an ointment according to art culpeper take it one time with another, it will go neer to do moreharm than good unguentum pomatum college take of fresh hog grease three pounds, fresh sheep suetnine ounces, pomewater pared and cut, one pound and nine ounces, damaskrose-water six ounces, the roots of orris florentine grossly bruisedsix drams, boil them in balneo mariæ till the apples be soft, thenstrain it, but press it not and keep it for use. Then warm it a littleagain and wash it with fresh rose-water, adding to each pound twelvedrops of oil of lignum rhodium culpeper its general use is, to soften and supple the roughness ofthe skin, and take away the chops of the lips, hands, face, or otherwritings unguentum potabile college take of butter without salt, a pound and an half, spermaceti, madder, tormentil roots, castoreum, of each half an ounce:boil them as you ought in a sufficient quantity of wine, till the winebe consumed, and become an ointment culpeper i know not what to make of it unguentum resinum college take of pine rozin, or rozin of the pine-tree, of thepurest turpentine, yellow wax washed, pure oil, of each equal writings:melt them into an ointment according to art culpeper it is as pretty a cerecloth for a new sprain as most is, and cheap unguentum rosatum or, ointment of roses college take of fresh hog grease cleansed a pound, fresh redroses half a pound, juice of the same three ounces, make it into anointment according to art culpeper it is of a fine cooling nature, exceeding useful in allgallings of the skin, and frettings, accompanied with choleric humours, angry pushes, tetters, ringworms, it mitigates diseases in the headcoming of heat, as also the intemperate heat of the stomach and liver desiccativum rubrum or, a drying red ointment college take of the oil of roses omphacine a pound, white wax fiveounces, which being melted and put in a leaden mortar, put in the earthof lemnos or bole-ammoniac, lapis calaminaris, of each four ounces, litharge of gold, ceruss, of each three ounces, camphire one dram, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it binds and restrains fluxes of humours unguentum e solano or, ointment of nightshade college take of juice of nightshade, litharge washed, of eachfive ounces, ceruss washed eight ounces, white wax seven ounces, frankincense in powder ten drams, oil of roses often washed in watertwo pounds, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it was invented to take away inflammations from wounds, and to keep people from scratching of them when they are almost well or, ointment of tutty college take of tutty prepared two ounces, lapis calaminaris oftenburnt and quenched in plantain water an ounce, make them, being finelypowdered, into an ointment, with a pound and an half of ointment ofroses culpeper it is a cooling, drying ointment, appropriated to theeyes, to dry up hot and salt humours that flow down thither, theeyelids being anointed with it valentia scabiosæ college take of the juice of green scabious, pressed out with ascrew, and strained through a cloth, hog grease, of each as muchas you will, heat the hog grease in a stone mortar, not grind it, putting in the juice by degrees for the more commodious mixture andtincture, afterwards set it in the sun in a convenient vessel, so asthe juice may overtop the grease, nine days being passed, pour off thediscoloured juice, and beat it again as before, putting in fresh juice, set it in the sun again five days, which being elapsed, beat it again, put in more juice, after fifteen days more, do so again, do so fivetimes, after which, keep it in a glass, or glazed vessel tapsivalentia college take of the juice of mullen, hog grease, of each as muchas you will, let the grease be cleansed and cut in pieces, and beat itwith the juice, pressed and strained as you did the former ointment, then keep it in a convenient vessel nine or ten days, then beat ittwice, once with fresh juice, until it be green, and the second timewithout juice beaten well, pouring off what is discoloured, and keep itfor use tapsimel college take of the juice of celandine and mullen, of each onewriting, clarified honey, two writings, boil them by degrees till the juicebe consumed, adding the physician prescribing vitriol, burnt alum, burnt ink, and boil it again to an ointment according to art ointments more compound unguentum agrippa college take of briony roots two pounds, the roots of wildcucumbers one pound, squills half a pound, fresh english orris roots, three ounces, the roots of male fern, dwarf elder, water caltrops, oraaron, of each two ounces, bruise them all, being fresh, and steep themsix or seven days in four pounds of old oil, the whitest, not rank, then boil them and press them out, and in the oil melt fifteen ouncesof white wax, and make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it purges exceedingly, and is good to anoint the belliesof such as have dropsies, and if there be any humour or flegm in anywriting of the body that you know not how to remove provided the writing benot too tender you may anoint it with this. But yet be not too busywith it, for i tell you plainly it is not very safe unguentum amarum or, a bitter ointment college take of oil of rue, savin, mints, wormwood, bitter almonds, of each one ounce and an half, juice of peach flowers and leaves, andwormwood, of each half an ounce, powder of rue, mints, centaury theless, gentian, tormentil, of each one dram, the seeds of coleworts, thepulp of colocynthis, of each two drams, aloes hepatic, three drams, meal of lupines half an ounce, myrrh washed in grass water a dram andan half, bull gall an ounce and an half, with a sufficient quantityof juice of lemons, and an ounce and an half of wax, make it into anointment according to art unguentum apostolorum or, ointment of the apostles college take of turpentine, yellow wax, ammoniacum, of eachfourteen drams, long birthwort roots, olibanum, bdellium, of each sixdrams, myrrh, gilbanum, of each half an ounce, opopanax, verdigris, ofeach two drams, litharge nine drams, oil two pounds, vinegar enough todissolve the gums, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it consumes corrupt and dead flesh, and makes flesh softwhich is hard, it cleanses wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, and restoresflesh where it is wanting unguentum catapsoras college take of ceruss washed in purslain water, then in vinegarwherein wild rhadish roots have been steeped and pressed out, lapiscalaminaris, chalcitis, of each six drams, burnt lead, goat blood, of each half an ounce, quick-silver sublimated an ounce, the juiceof houseleek, nightshade, plantain, of each two ounces, hog greasecleansed three pounds, oil of violets, poppies, mandrakes, of each anounce. First let them sublimate and exungia, then the oils, juices, andpowders, be mixed, and so made into an ointment according to art unguentum citrinum or, a citron ointment college take of borax an ounce, camphire a dram, white coral halfan ounce, alum plume an ounce, umbilicus marinus, tragacanth, whitestarch, of each three drams, crystal, dentalis utalis, olibanum, niter, white marble, of each two drams, gersa serpentaria an ounce, cerusssix ounces, hog grease not salted, a pound and an half, goat suetprepared, an ounce and an half, hen fat two ounces and an half powder the things as you ought to do both together, and by themselves, melt the fats being cleansed in a stone vessel, and steep in them twocitrons of a mean bigness cut in bits, in a warm bath, after a wholeweek strain it, and put in the powders by degrees, amongst which letthe camphire and borax be the last, stir them, and bring them into theform of an ointment unguentum martiatum college take of fresh bay leaves three pounds, garden rue twopounds and an half, marjoram two pounds, mints a pound, sage, wormwood, costmary, bazil, of each half a pound, sallad oil twenty pounds, yellowwax four pounds, malaga wine two pounds, of all of them being bruised, boiled, and pressed out as they ought, make an ointment according toart culpeper it is a great strengthener of the head, it being anointedwith it.

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‘it is, perhaps, impertinent for laboratory men to comment on these clinical results ’it is his point was well taken and it is a profound pity thatprofessor carlson did not observe his own ruling “in the words of a correspondent of the journal of the american medicalassociation, in discussing professor carlson criticism of dr crile‘kinetic drive, ’ ‘it behooves the laboratory man to be circumspect inhis criticism of clinical theories, since going beyond the bounds ofwell-established things weakens his position, not merely with referenceto the writingicular subject under discussion, but with reference toclinical phenomena in general ’ clinical results have definitelyestablished the value of secretogen as the matter now stands thisstatement is beyond criticism “when secretogen was first introduced we assumed that it depended onsecretin for results produced in this assumption we were in goodcompany, as witnessed by the testimony of moore, edie and abram when, in the course of their investigations as to the value in diabetesof a secretin-bearing extract given by mouth, 106 they said. ‘inthe majority of these paper there has been no appreciable fallin the output of sugar in essay of these negative paper there hasbeen noted, however, improvement in the digestion and, in certainpaper, the patient weight has increased ’ they also state thatthe secretin-bearing product ‘appears to stimulate the functionalactivity of the duodenum ’106 they give a most significantreport 107 we quote from the paper as follows:106 all italics are ours g w carnrick company 107 bio-chem jour 1:28, 1906 “‘the patient had been under observation for six months beforetreatment and the sugar was not reducible by diet almost at once thedyspepsia from which he was suffering was relieved and his generalnutrition improved to such an extent that he regained over eighteenpounds in weight, which he had previously lost, and this improvementwas accompanied by complete recovery of his physical and mentalenergies ’106“inasmuch as this improvement could not have been due to the containedsecretin it must have been due to essay other principle containedin the extract our experience and that of the physicians who haveused secretogen establish the fact that moore, edie and abram madeno mistake when they came to the conclusion that what they termed asecretin-bearing extract stimulates the functional activity of theduodenum and improves the digestion “when professor carlson was investigating secretogen he must haverealized that he was dealing essentially with an extract of theduodenal mucosa it is, therefore, all the more surprising, consideringhis extensive researches into the literature, that he should haveignored the testimony of essay of his own authorities, writingicularlyhallion, as to the value of extracts of the duodenal mucosa in duodenalinsufficiencies the meticulous carefulness with which this evidencewas avoided is hardly worthy of the best traditions of physiology, ascience which has truth for its first and last aim “hallion in his ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ says that the ‘aims ofduodenal opotherapy are. 1, to supply deficient duodenal juice 2, above all to stimulate and to relieve this organ-- notably to aid theproduction of secretin4-- and so profit by the stimulating actionwhich duodenal extract exercises on the duodenal mucosa which actionwe, enriquez and myself, believe and have experimentally proved, conforms to the general principles of opotherapy 3, by means of theproduction of secretin, to reinforce the biliary, pancreatic andintestinal secretions 4, to stimulate intestinal peristalsis “‘principal indications. Intestinal dyspepsias, intestinalautointoxications, certain forms of constipation and duodenalinsufficiency ’“at the international congress of medicine, madrid, 1903, hallionsaid that he felt justified in stating that duodenal opotherapycorrectly carried out must be classed under the very best methods oftreating dyspepsia 106 the results had been satisfactory and, inthesis paper, remarkable it had been nil in a few paper but it hadnever been harmful in any degree he pointed out that marfan was thefirst to employ this substance clinically marfan had had writingicularlyexcellent results in children of 15 months to 4 years suffering withmarked malnutrition, anorexia and constipation marfan prescribedthe duodenal extract given in milk 106 hallion further remarks that, as he is not a practitioner, he had had only one opportunity to testduodenal opotherapy clinically the case was that of a man of 26 yearswith obstinate intestinal dyspepsia and severe constipation which hadpersisted from childhood this patient had been treated by enemas, laxatives, diet, etc treatment with duodenal extract resulted ina complete cure 106 hallion points out that the most satisfactoryaspect of duodenal opotherapy is the permanent effect produced, 106which bears out his statement that these extracts have the power to aidin the restoration of function and structure of an organ “this has been so well established that the principle is now embodiedin a law which is frequently referred to as ‘hallion law’. ‘extractsof an organ exert on the same organ an exciting influence which lastsfor a longer or shorter time when the organ is insufficient it isconceivable that this influence augments its action and, when it isinjured, that it favors its restoration ’“in ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ hallion points out that ‘theopotherapeutic product which corresponds to the affected organrepresents in essay way the stimulating and elective food for thatorgan, and if we supply the organ with a food which is more completethan it necessarily needs, the affected organ can exercise its electiveaction and take up only those substances of which it is in need ’“hallion observations on this point are beautifully borne out bythe classic work of j w draper, as reported in the journal of theamerican medical association, sept 26, 1914 this report gives resultsin both laboratory and clinical experiments “in order to show that fed jejunal and ileac epithelium exerciseessay special detoxicating power, not yet understood but definitelyrecognizable, draper fed a control series of dogs with intestinalobstruction, experimentally produced, on emulsified cells of liver, spleen, pancreas and muscle tissue these animals lived a few hourslonger than not-fed controls, but draper says that it is evidentthat these cells had either no detoxicating action, or a very feebleone compared with intestinal epithelium he used jejunal and ileacepithelium clinically in two instances. 1st, in a female dog which hadhad ‘chronic stomach trouble’ for six months when draper saw her shehad had complete intestinal obstruction for five days, with symptoms oftachycardia, extreme nervousness and great weakness in the hind legs draper removed a pebble from her intestine but her condition was stillgrave “she was immediately put on small-intestine epithelium derived fromtwo dogs of different breed draper says that from a long experiencewith duodenally obstructed dogs, he should not have expected her torecover, but the symptoms gradually subsided and she lived the secondinstance in which he used the epithelium therapeutically was in thecase of a man who suffered from an annular cancer of the intestine withdefinite symptoms of obstruction after the operation, and realizingthat the patient was in a desperate condition, he fed him an emulsionof intestinal epithelium from a dog the pulse improved and the patientlived “essay of draper conclusions are as follows:“‘autotoxemia in intestinal obstruction undoubtedly arises from aninterference with cellular reactions of the intestinal epithelium when small-intestine epithelial cells of healthy animals are placedin the stomach106 of duodenally obstructed animals, such animals havelived nearly twice as long as not-fed controlled animals this evidenceis strongly opposed to the bacterial theory of origin of toxins ’“the point to be emphasized is this. If this emulsion of intestinalepithelium had been fed to a normal dog and a normal man, what wouldhave happened?. absolutely nothing on the other hand, given as it wasto a dog and a man in desperate need it exercised a potent effect “abundant clinical testimony can be cited in support of the opinionsof moore, edie and abram, hallion, marfan and draper as to the valueof extracts of the intestinal mucosa given by mouth in pathologicalconditions we have previously cited the published favorable opinionsof such gastroenterologists as anthony bassler, lewis brinton, g r lockwood, and r c kemp, so there is no need to recapitulate theirexperiences with what they honestly believed to be secretin-bearingextracts, but which were essentially extracts of the duodenal mucosa “supplementing the evidence of these men as to the value of theseextracts we submit an excerpt from a letter from one of the best knownphysicians of edinburgh:“‘i can speak in very high praise of secretogen, which i have used inboth tablet form and as the elixir there is no doubt about its valuein a certain class of intractable indigestion which refuses to bebenefited by any other remedy on several occasions i have been muchgratified by the definite relief obtained in this class of paper ithits the mark also in essay types of obstinate constipation-- i thinkthose paper where the trouble is wrapped up in impaired enervationof the intestine, and where stasis occurs at certain segments of thecanal ’“hallion very pertinently points out108 that it is now accepted thatopotherapy is not substitutive, but homostimulative and he remarksfurther that it is well to bear in mind that the so-called activesubstances which make the extract efficacious need not necessarily bethe hormones ‘it may be the elements of tissue structure which maycome to the aid of the injured organ the hormone should not thereforebe looked on as the only active agent of opotherapy and, while itsaction is important, it need not necessarily be preponderant thechemical isolation of the hormones is, of course, of interest but maynot be as vital to organotherapy as we have thought ’ ”108 presse médicale, 1912, p 433 comment by the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe g w carnrick company, which formerly claimed that secretogen wasefficacious because it contained secretin, now admits this claim to beunfounded notwithstanding, the manufacturers still call their productsecretogen and make for it practically the same therapeutic claims asbefore they now base these claims on vague “principles of opotherapy”and on so-called “clinical testimony ” the burden of proof rests onthem to show that these old claims, already discredited but put forthagain on new grounds, are justified have they done so?. The “clinical te stimony” is not convincing so much of it as isdefinite enough to permit of criticism has already been dealt with theremainder consists of mere assertions.