History

Causes Of World War 1 Essay


Rope in a double noose without knot, a common dooree, such as is used for drawing water 9 ibid , p 32 - man, age 50 face livid, eyes red and protruding;teeth clinched. Lower jaw retracted. Tongue behind the teeth. Hands andfeet contracted. Anus covered with fæcal matter.

“the creator of nature has disclosed his benevolenceby wise care for all his creatures, in that he has bestowed upon eachone what is truly of service to it ”this teleological idea of all earthly becoming, being, and passing awaywas henceforth destined to be a permanent factor in human speculation christianity received it as a possession from antique civilization, andonly the philosophy and natural science of modern times have been ableto threaten its permanence biology, as of modern creation, teachesus that all natural phenomena owe their existence to natural causes, that the natural world is subject to natural laws and, accordingly, teleology, as we encounter it in the works of the heathen galen andin the writings of the christian church fathers, has turned out tobe superstition, which, however, must by no means be classed withthe vagaries of mere medico-physical superstition in coming to thisdecision, however, we must beware of rash generalization in thisconnection we refer only to that kind of teleology which dominated theworld previous to the teachings of descartes and spinoza, and previousto the advent of modern natural science, with its biological methods whether, after all, a theory of life might be possible which, whileavoiding the reproach of superstition, might be traced to teleologicalprepossessions, is a question we can not here discuss it is admittedlytrue that the deeper we penetrate into the secrets of nature the moreenergetically the existence of a marvelous, intelligent will manifestsitself as permeating all domains of nature however, if this fact isnot denied on principle, as modern materialism denies it, and properallowance is made for it, a rehabilitation of teleology as a necessaryfactor of our theory of life would be the logical consequence ofcourse, this teleology would bear a stamp entirely different fromthat of antiquity and of the middle ages, which is recognized to besuperstition it should not pretend to include the consideration of theentire organic world, but confine its conclusions to the last linksin the chain of experience and argument which science has forged fromnatural phenomena now this could be accomplished, in our opinion, evenwithout apprehension of interfering with the indispensable requirementsof modern naturalists. “the terrestrial world in its forms andprocesses is governed solely by terrestrial laws ” what the appearanceof such a teleology should be is expressed by william hartpole lecky inthe following:“this conception, which exhibits the universe rather as an organismthan a mechanism, and regards the complexities and adaptations itdisplays rather as the results of gradual development from withinthan of an interference from without, is so novel, and at first sightso startling, that thesis are now shrinking from it in alarm, underthe impression that it destroys the argument from design, and almostamounts to the negation of a supreme intelligence but there can, i think, be little doubt that such fears are, for the most writing, unfounded that matter is governed by mind, that the contrivancesand elaborations of the universe are the products of intelligence, are propositions which are quite unshaken, whether we regard thesecontrivances as the result of a single momentary exercise of will, or of a slow, consistent, and regulated evolution the proofs of apervading and developing intelligence, and the proofs of a coordinatingand combining intelligence, are both untouched, nor can any conceivableprogress of science in this direction destroy them if the famoussuggestion, that all animal and vegetable life results from a singlevital germ, and that all the different animals and plants now existentwere developed by a natural process of evolution from that germ, werea demonstrated truth, we should still be able to point to the evidenceof intelligence displayed in the measured and progressive development, in those exquisite forms so different from what blind chance couldproduce, and in the manifest adaptation of surrounding circumstancesto the living creature, and of the living creature to surroundingcircumstances the argument from design would indeed be changed. Itwould require to be stated in a new form, but it would be fully ascogent as before indeed, it is, perhaps, not too much to say that themore fully this conception of universal evolution is grasped, the morefirmly a scientific doctrine of providence will be established, and thestronger will be the presumption of a future progress ”1 1 “history of the rise and influence of the spirit of rationalism in europe, ” vol i , chapter iii , pages 294-295 compare also magnus, “medicine and religion, ” page 24, sqq in such a manner, despite the fact that in teleology the point ofagreement between theistic and physico-mechanical medical thought hasbeen now found, theism, in the course of the history of our science, continually attempted new attacks upon the physical tendency inmedicine. And with each assault superstition in medicine, as well as inthe natural sciences, was most palpably exposed after having satisfied ourselves in this second chapter regardingtheism and its attitude with reference to the physico-mechanical theoryof life, we shall now enter upon the consideration of the variousforms of medical superstition, and it is our intention, as stated inthe first chapter, so to arrange the enormous material at hand as todiscuss medical superstition according to the sources from which it hassprung we shall begin by pointing out the intimate relations whichhave prevailed between the teachings of religion and superstition iiireligion the support of medical superstitionreligion undoubtedly plays the most conspicuous writing in the historyof medical superstition religious teaching, of whatever character, has fostered medical superstition more than any other factor ofcivilization not only has religion called forth and nourished medicalsuperstition, but it has also defended it with all the influence at itsdisposal indeed, it has not infrequently happened that those who werereluctant to believe in the blessings of a medical theory ridiculouslyperverted by religion were exposed to persecution by fire and sword and this not only from one or other religious denomination, for allreligious believers, without exception, had proved to be the mostassiduous promotors of medical superstition. So that we are probablynot wrong in designating priesthoods in general, whatever their creed, as the most prominent embodiment of medical superstition during certainperiods of the world history but the details will be learned fromthe following paragraphs:§ 1 priesthood the support of medical superstition - the principalreason for a not quite reputable activity in the chosen representativeof a deity is probably the fact that, with the appearance of aphysico-mechanical contemplation of the world, the theistic theory oflife, which until then had exclusive sway, was forced into a pitchedbattle with a newly formulated definition of nature this struggle wascarried on principally by the priesthood, who, as a matter of fact, had most to lose from the ascendency of a new theory of life whichonly reckoned with natural factors they indeed had been the means, until then, of procuring for the people the assistance of the godsin all bodily ailments, as they had been the exclusive depositoriesof physical knowledge and it could scarcely be expected that thepriesthood would at once willingly relinquish the extensive supremacyhitherto exercised by it as the oracle of divine guidance in allmedico-physical questions. For humanity has always considered thepossession of authority much more delightful than submission, and theruler has always objected most energetically to any attempt whichdisputes his rule this was precisely what was done by priests of allcreeds when the mechanico-physical theory of life began to supersedethe obsolete dreams of theistic medicine fair-minded persons willsurely allow that such action was natural but they can not approve ofthe methods resorted to, unless they belong to those who feel boundalways to discern nothing but what is sacred in every action of aservant of heaven in order to wage war most effectively against the physico-mechanicaltheory of life, the priesthood at once claimed for themselves the powerof completely controlling nature they made the people believe thatthe celestials had bestowed upon them the faculty of dominating naturein the interests of the sick, and that all powers of the universe, theobvious ones as well as those mysteriously hidden in the depths ofnature, were obedient to sacerdotal suggestions the servant of heavenprofessed that he could regulate the eternal processes of matter, withits becoming, being, and passing away, quite as irresistibly as his eyewas able to survey the course of time in the past, present, and future equipped with these extensive powers, a priest necessarily appearedto the people not only as physician, but also as a miraculous beingcrowned with the halo of the supernatural and this was the rôle heactually played in thesis ancient religions with the peoples of italythe priest appeared at a period, indeed, which was previous to thebeginning of rome as physician, prophet, interpreter of dreams, raiser of tempests, etc he held exactly the same offices among theceltic tribes in gaul and britain his position was the same in theoriental world, and by the medians and the persians especially werepriests considered to be persons endowed with supernatural powers we may notice that members of a certain median tribe formed thesacerdotal caste, and bore the name of “magi ” however, this name, which originally was confined to the priestly order, obtained, in thecourse of time, a distinctly secular meaning very soon thesis cunningfellows arrived at the conclusion that the trade of a sacerdotalphysician and conjurer might bring a profitable livelihood to itsprofessor, even if this professor were not a priest but a layman thusthere arose a special profession of sorcerers, miracle workers, andmedicine-men, who protested with solemn emphasis that they were ableto cure all physical as well as psychical ailments of their fellowmen as thoroughly as the priests had done but in order to bestowthe required consecration upon this art, these gentlemen usurped thevenerable name of the above-mentioned median sacerdotal caste andcalled themselves “magi ” thus it happened that the name “magus” magician, which originally served to designate a distinct sacerdotalcaste, deteriorated into a designation of charlatans and swindlers this could never have occurred unless the priests had prostituted theirsublime profession and degraded it to various kinds of discreditablemedico-physical deceptions this alone is why priesthood is responsiblefor the rise of the magicians, of these worthless fakirs but if pliny book 30, chapter i , § 2 attempts to rank magic as an offshoot ofmedicine, he is justified in doing so only in so far as the priest, during the theistic period, was also the physician, as is well known only from this point of view is it possible to trace a genetic relationbetween medicine and magic but medicine in itself has not takenthe slightest writing in the promotion of magic and the success of itsunsavory reputation indeed, our science has suffered too much throughthe practise of magic to burden itself with the paternity of thisdisreputable child of civilization it appears that the name of the celtic priests “druids” had becomesubject to the same abuse as the name of the median priests ofsacerdotal caste thus we learn of female fortune-tellers of thethird century, a d , who call themselves “druidesses ” but it seemsthat this application of the word “druid” has remained a localone and strictly limited, whereas the expression “magician, ” quitegenerally employed, became, in the course of time, the designation ofcharlatans and medical impostors for these swindlers, who carried onmedico-physical hocuspocus, and who claimed to exercise supernaturalpowers, were called “magicians” during the entire period of classicantiquity, and we find the same use of the word in the middle ages, andessaytimes also in more modern times but this profession of magician, which sprang from priesthood, haslargely promoted superstition in medicine, and was writingicularlyinstrumental in bringing it into extraordinary repute it is ourintention to concern ourselves a little more minutely with magiciansand magic §2 the spread of the word “magic ” how and when magic wastransplanted from its oriental home to the occident can not bedetermined with certainty. For the greeks, as well as all antiquepeoples, probably all nations, had a belief in ghosts and demons, infortune-telling, and in sorcery but it appears, nevertheless, thatthe ancient civilized peoples of the orient, and writingicularly thepersians, cultivated the magic arts with especial devotion, and itis more than probable that it was from the east that the prevailingcult of magic had been imported into the west pliny, for one, tellsus book 30, chapter i , § 8 that magic was brought to europe bya certain osthanes, who accompanied king xerxes on his militaryexpedition against greece this man osthanes, as pliny reports further, is said to have disseminated the seeds of this supernatural art velutsemina artis portentosæ insparsit wherever he went, and with suchsuccess that the hellenic peoples were actually mad after it, andprominent men traveled through writings of the orient, there to acquirepersonally and thoroughly these magic arts, thus, as was the case withpythagoras, empedocles, democritus, and plato in fact, it is said ofdemocritus that he opened the tomb of a celebrated magician dardanus ofphœnicia that he might restore to publicity the mysterious writings ofthe latter it appears, moreover, that alexander the great entertainedan implicit belief in magic at least, pliny reports that during hiswars he was always accompanied by a celebrated magician magic arts were likewise in favor among the romans even nero attemptedto master the secrets of magic, altho unsuccessfully pliny, book 30, chapter ii , § 5 a writingicular impetus was given to magic toward theend of the last century before christ and during the first centuryof the christian era, when the rise of thesis fantastic philosophicalsystems greatly promoted and supported the belief in the supernaturalpowers of magic subsequently, in the middle ages, magic experienced anaccepted and systematic development these conditions, however, will bemore explicitly referred to later on the treatment of the sick through supernatural agencies assumedquite astonishing dimensions under the roman emperors the beliefin magicians was so generally disseminated that even the emperorsthemselves and the imperial authorities were almost completely devotedto it thus, for instance, the emperor hadrian 117-138, a d causedhimself to be treated by physicians who claimed miraculous powers, and he is said to have written a book on theurgy in fact, suidas 62julianus reports that hadrian, on account of a severe outbreak ofpestilence in rome, sent for the son of the chaldean, julian, who, simply by the power of his miracles, arrested the progress of thedisease under antoninus pius official proclamations were made in theforum, directing the attention of the people to the importance ofmagicians philostratus, 43, and the emperor marcus aurelius evenrelates that, when in caieta, the gods in a dream prescribed a remedyfor the hemorrhagic cough and vertigo from which he was suffering “marcus aurelius, ” chapter i , § 17, page 11 but it appears that the magicians finally went too far with theirtricks, and endangered human life by their treatment.

She had expressly declinedto testify concerning causes of world war 1 essay communications except as to his prescriptionfor her injury, and without asking him to disprove her assertionsthe trial court permitted him to say that he had found no evidenceof injury. This was held to be error it has also been held that thetaking of a physician deposition and filing it, for the purposeof breaking the force of his testimony in a deposition taken by theopposite writingy, is no consent in itself to the reading of the otherwritingy deposition 318 but when, in an action against a physician formalpractice, the patient testifies as to the manner of treatment, thephysician is then at liberty to introduce the testimony of himself oranother physician as to the facts thus put in issue by the patient 319in iowa it has been held that the testimony of a patient regarding thecondition of his health is not a waiver of privilege, so as to allowhis opponent to introduce the testimony of his physician to contradicthim 320in michigan a physician has been allowed to contradict his patient asto the time when her trouble commenced, but on the ground that it hadnot been shown that the information was necessary to enable him toprescribe 321 but it has been held that waiver as to one physician isnot waiver as to another regarding a different time 322in missouri, the calling of a physician by the patient as a witnessto testify as to information acquired while attending, is awaiver 323 but offering one physician as a witness is not a waiverof the privilege with reference to another 324 an applicant forinsurance may, by an express waiver in his application, make anefficient waiver, binding upon any one claiming under the contract ofinsurance 325in nevada a waiver has been implied from the testimony of the patientand her mother, where the patient was an infant seven years ofage 326 and it was said that the parents of such an infant may makethe waiver in new york it has been held that reference to a family physicianwhen answering questions on an application for insurance, is not awaiver;327 nor is the presence of a third person, in aid of thepatient;328 nor is the bringing of an action for damages for aninjury;329 nor is the examination of the physician in a former trialby the opposing writingy;330 but where the ban of secrecy is onceremoved in an action and the information once lawfully made public, atthe instance of the patient, it cannot be restored, and the disclosuremay then be compelled in any subsequent action;331 it would seem, too, that a physician who becomes a witness to his patient lastwill and testament at the patient request is then subject to athorough examination on all points involving the patient testamentarycapacity 332where the patient testified herself and called an attending physicianto prove her physical condition, this was not a consent to theexamination of another attending physician, and it was said that theopposite writingy by tactics on cross-examination could not compel thepatient to abandon a privilege which she refused to waive 333 fish, j , in delivering the opinion of the court in the last-mentioned case, said of the operation of the statute, that it allows the patient touse the testimony of the attending physician if he thinks his evidencewill benefit his case, and to object and exclude it in case he thinksit will not benefit him. He may call to his aid the testimony of anyone whose views he approves and exclude that of another whose testimonymight tend to controvert that given with the consent of the patient;that in this case the excluded witness was the best witness and couldtell nothing else than the patient had disclosed if she had told thetruth and it would relate solely to what she and the other physicianhad described, but that the court could not consider whether thestatute tended to promote the cause of justice, and he distinguishedmckinney v grand street railroad company, 334 on the ground thatthere the consent had been that the same physician should disclose whathe knew, while here the waiver of the excluded physician testimonyhad been constantly withheld a decision which seems to be at variance with record v village ofsaratoga springs is treanor v manhattan railway company, 335 whereit was said that the patient cannot promulgate and uncover his maladiesand infirmities in court and keep his physician under obligations tosilence, and that he cannot, to mulct another in damages, inflame ajury with a false or exaggerated story of his injuries and sufferingsand preclude the physician from making a truthful statement of the case but where the patient testifies as to what passed between him and hisphysician, the physician may testify on the same subject, as a waiveris inferred from the circumstances. For the reason, that the patient, having gone into the privileged domain to get evidence on his ownbehalf, cannot prevent the other writingy from assailing such evidenceby the only testimony available, and the rule is no longer applicablewhen the patient himself pretends to give the circumstances of theprivileged interview 336 the requirement that a physician file witha board of health a certificate of the cause of death does not abrogatethe privilege in a judicial proceeding 337the evidence excluded “information ” in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, northdakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin theprivileged matter is characterized as information 338in arkansas it seems that the information must be a confidentialcommunication;339 but in the other states where it has beennecessary to construe the word it has received a broader interpretation in michigan information is not confined to confidentialcommunications made by the patient, but includes whatever in order toenable a physician to prescribe was disclosed to any of his senses andwhich in any way was brought to his knowledge for that purpose;340it covers a letter written to a physician, 341 and matters observedby him;342 but it does not include information acquired by a thirdperson. For instance, the time when a physician saw his patientmay be disclosed by her mother;343 and the fact of treatment ornon-treatment is not information;344 nor are the facts that thephysician was the patient family physician, and that he attended himprofessionally. Nor are statements of the dates of such attendance andthe number of such visits;345 nor the facts that the physician hasbeen called upon to examine and prescribe for a person and that hispatient had told him that she would want him to testify for her in alawsuit 346in missouri the statute protects information received from thepatient. But this is not confined to oral communications, and includesknowledge gained by inspection of the patient person 347 in lunzv massachusetts mutual life insurance company protection was said notto extend to information of this sort apparent on casual inspection, which any one might make, nor to symptoms which are obvious beforethe patient submits himself to any examination, such as an inflamedface, a bloodshot eye, alcoholic fumes, or delirium. Nor to factsso superficial that in regard to them no confidence could have beenreposed but this distinction between hidden and patent facts isdisapproved in kling v city of kansas, 348 and the statement ismade that the law does not rest on the confidence imposed knowledgeor communications concerning the cause of a patient condition andthe extent of his injuries have also been held to be included in theterm information, because the disclosure of these matters involvedthe indirect disclosure of the condition;349 but it was said thatthe physician may testify as to knowledge acquired independent ofcommunications from the patient and of examination or inspectionmade by the witness for the purpose of treatment 350 as divulgingprivileged information, a physician has not been allowed to answerwhat his patient hurts were, why he left a hospital, or whetherhe required longer treatment;351 and it has also been held that aphysician cannot give his opinion as to the mental condition of hispatient based upon privileged knowledge 352in new york information comprehends all knowledge acquired by thephysician by communication, observation, or inspection;353 ithas been said to extend to all facts which necessarily come to theknowledge of the physician in a given professional case;354 and itincludes as well the opinion of the physician based upon his knowledgeas the knowledge itself 355the physician cannot disclose the nature of his patient disease, whether he learned it by observation or examination or from what hispatient told him;356 nor can he testify as to what he told hispatient 357 in edington v ætna life insurance company358 itwas said by judge earl that the statute was aimed at confidentialcommunications and secret ailments, and that it did not extend tomatters superficially apparent, such as a fever, a fractured legor skull, or raving mania apparent to all;359 but this view wasdisapproved expressly in the later case of renihan v dennin 360the privileged information has been said to include knowledge acquiredthrough the statements of others surrounding the patient 361 butit would seem that the fact that a third person was present during aphysician visit may be shown by the physician, as well as what passedbetween the patient and the third person, if it was such informationas a layman would have gathered 362 the information from the thirdperson regarding the patient is protected even though the patient beabsent;363 but not if the third person does not employ the physician, and the information thus acquired is not necessary to enable thephysician to act in a professional capacity 364 it is suggested inone case, but not determined, that it would be improper for a physicianto state the value of the services of a nurse in attendance upon hispatient, as that would involve a consideration of the condition of hispatient;365 but it has been held that a physician can testify to thefact of a nurse services 366but it is information regarding the patient that is privileged, andtherefore a physician may disclose what his patient told him aboutanother, even though the subject of inquiry be the attitude of thepatient toward the other;367 and likewise the physician may disclosewhat he told his patient about a third person;368 so also thephysician may testify as to family events in no way connected withphysical complaints 369 it has been held, too, that admissionsmade by a patient to his physician, tending to show contributorynegligence on the writing of the patient, at a time when the communicationcould not well have been made to enable the physician to prescribe, namely, on the physician third and last visit, may be proven by thephysician 370the physician may properly testify that he did attend asphysician, 371 and that the patient was sick, and he can state whenand how often he attended him, 372 and whether his knowledge wasacquired while in professional attendance, 373 but it is open to thecourt to determine from the evidence whether it was so acquired 374“matter committed ” in indiana the protection covers mattercommitted it would seem that the use of the word committedimplies confidence and that the protected matter is only confidentialcommunications. But an earlier statute in that state applied to“matters confided, ” and it was held to cover matters learned byobservation or examination, or by communication from the patient, whether learned under an injunction of secrecy, express or implied, or not;375 and it has been held that the present law forbids thedisclosure of matters learned in a sick-room, no matter how theknowledge may have been acquired 376“confidential communications ” the laws of iowa and nebraska protectconfidential communications properly intrusted the constructionput upon the word confided in indiana has been shown in iowa ithas been said that a confidential inquiry for advice to facilitatethe commission of a crime or the infraction of law, is not properlyintrusted and is not privileged;377 but where the advice is soughtfor a purpose which may or may not be lawful, the presumption is thatit is lawful, and the communication is privileged 378 it has beensaid that whether or not a physician treated a person for a writingiculardisease, is not a confidential communication 379the word confidential is not narrowly construed, for a physician hasbeen prevented from disclosing whether his patient said that a carwas in motion when he was injured, because the injury would be moresevere if in motion;380 and the fact that the physician writingner waspresent does not remove the seal of secrecy, or permit the writingner totestify 381“communications ” in ohio and wyoming communications areprivileged. And in kansas and oklahoma communications with referenceto a physical or supposed physical disease and any knowledge obtainedby a personal examination of a patient it does not appear whether anarrower construction would be given to the term communications thanto the term information.

They take causes of world war 1 essay away cold aches in the jointsapplied to them. Boiled, the liquor absolutely and speedily cures scabsand itch. Neither is there any better salve in the world for woundsthan may be made of it. For it cleanses, fetches out the filth thoughit lie in the bones, brings up the flesh from the bottom, and all thisit doth speedily. It cures wounds made with poisoned weapons, and forthis clusius brings thesis experiences too tedious here to relate it is an admirable thing for carbuncles and plague-sores, inferiorto none. Green wounds ’twill cure in a trice. Ulcers and gangreensvery speedily, not only in men, but also in beasts, therefore theindians dedicated it to their god taken in a pipe, it hath almost asthesis virtues. It easeth weariness, takes away the sense of hunger andthirst, provokes to stool. He saith, the indians will travel four dayswithout either meat or drink, by only chewing a little of this in theirmouths. It eases the body of superfluous humours, opens stoppings seethe ointment of tobacco nummularia money-wort, or herb two-pence.

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Pediatrics 25:430, 1913. New york m j 118:315, 1913. Arch f verdauungskr 20:577, 1914 physiologic considerationsthroughout its clinical use, secretin has been given by mouth. Butits direct introduction into the intestine of a dog under anesthesiain even enormous quantities is without effect this fact, firstobserved by bayliss and starling, 32 was confirmed by fleig, 81 andmatuso, 36 and our personal experiments have convinced us of itstruth matuso found that ordinary secretin and that obtained fromintestinal lumen gave equally negative results large quantities ofactive secretin, moreover, acidified to 0 2 per cent hydrochloricacid, and left in the ileum for fifteen minutes, were still negative wertheimer and duvillier, 82 in a previous paper on this subject, had likewise found that acid solutions of secretin which might beconsidered more normal for the intestine than when neutral, whenintroduced into the ileum gave negative or inconstant results theyconclude that it is more likely that the pancreas does not respond tosuch minimal stimuli, than that the secretin is not absorbed 81 flieg. Arch gén de méd 191:1482, 1903 82 wertheimer and duvillier. Compt rend soc de biol 68:535, 1910 the destructive action of the digestive enzymes leads us to believethat it is in inactive form that secretin is absorbed likeepinephrin, it cannot pass through the digestive tract bayliss andstarling state that it is destroyed by one hour tryptic digestion lalou62 worked with the action on secretin of pepsin, dog gastricjuice, pancreatic juice, succus entericus and erepsin, and found ineach case a destructive effect, even almost after mixing. And afterfive minutes over 75 per cent of the activity had disappeared matuso36 introduced 30 c c of active secretin into the intestine, removed it five minutes later, and found that no activity remained other methods of administration have been tried subcutaneousinjections are practically negative matuso, 36 hallion83and intrapleural injections are likewise negligible bayliss andstarling55 83 hallion. Presse méd 20:433, 1912 starling63 finds that continued intravenous injections of secretin ina healthy dog produces after a time severe symptoms of collapse, which, he believes, are due to change in the intestinal mucous membrane causedby the entry and non-neutralization of the strongly alkaline pancreaticjuice intestinal digestion seems little affected in achylia gastrica stockton, 84 ehrman and lederer, 85 bayliss and starling32 thismay be due to other secretin stimulants as fats, or to the action ofthe nervous mechanisms meltzer86 84 stockton.