History

Causal Essay


Each cubic centimeter isdeclared to contain 0 0025 gm arsenic, 0 005 gm mercury, 0 0016 gm copper, and 0 0032 gm sulphur the use of armervenol as advised by the hille laboratories is the sameas that of mervenol, and in addition its use in syphilis is emphasized the criticisms of this mixture are similar in every respect to thosedirected against mervenol-- the addition of arsenic introduces stillanother factor of uncertainty after investigating these claims, it was decided not to accept thispreparation on the ground 1 that the therapeutic claims are unprovedand unwarranted, conflicting with rule 6, and 2 that the mixture isan irrational one, conflicting with rule 10 -- from reports of councilon pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 82 normal phenol serum cano and methyl-phenol serum cano not accepted for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following statement declaring normal phenolserum cano and methyl-phenol serum cano ineligible to new andnonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary no statement of the composition of these preparations was submittedto the council and none appears on the labels of the trade packages however, the advertising circular contains statements such as. “ normal phenol serum-- phenol with methyl blue dissolved in anaphylactic serum ” “ a combination of human or horse serum with phenol and methylene-blue, thereby forming a new chemico-biologic product which he termed methyl-phenol serum or, chemically, chloride of phenol thionin tetramethylene-seric ” “methyl-phenol serum is a chemico-biological product in which phenol is the chief factor each ampule of 10 c c contains the therapeutic equivalent of 0 5 gm 7 5 grains of phenol ”from the foregoing it appears that both preparations contain phenol andmethylthionine chloride methylene blue and that the second does notcontain methyl phenol cresol as the name would indicate no definite evidence for the value of these preparations is broughtforward and even the manufacturer is constrained to caution, “we assumeno responsibility for the therapeutic action of the serum ” on theother hand there are a great thesis statements in the papers of cano andhis colleagues to which exception must be taken of these, from amongthesis similar, the following statements are to be cited and commented on. “accepting that the gonorrheal infection gives systemic toxemia from absorption of the toxins ”it is the general opinion that in the majority of instances there is nosystemic toxemia “the technique of intraprostatic injection, while less simple than that of the intravenous, is by no means so difficult or complicated as to place it exclusively in the category of the urologist ”this obviously is an attempt to encourage the general use of thesepreparations and to minimize the necessity for careful study andspecial skill in their employment it is most unwise for one to attemptintraprostatic injections unless he is specially trained in thetechnique of this procedure “this injection to be performed after the 5th or 6th intravenous injection of methyl-phenol serum ”intravenous injections have a place in sane therapy only when themedicament to be so administered is of known composition and whenevidence is available which gives assurance that definite results shallfollow its use in the absence of these conditions it is manifestlyunwise and even unexcusable to employ any medicament in this manner, and its repeated use is reprehensible “intravenous injection of methyl-phenol serum alternating with intravenous injections of mercury should be given every 48 hours until infection is under control ”this quotation further emphasizes that the treatment, as advised, carries with it a certain element of danger “methylene blue prevents the phenol from exerting its usual action upon the red blood corpuscles, and ensures rapid elimination through healthy kidneys it preserves the antiseptic power of the phenol and prevents the phenol from interfering with the chemico-biological function of the white and red blood cells the serum component favors chemotaxis, it strengthens bodily defense, it prevents anaphylaxis even in debilitated patients, and it replaces the resistance which has been impaired by the demands that have already been made upon it ”no evidence is submitted to substantiate these claims it seems strangethat phenol should lose its power and that this should be restored bythe methylene blue “it has a refractory chemico-biological action, and exercises no vicious effect on the red blood corpuscles in the circulation, but, on the contrary, by its inoffensive presence, it wholly preserves all of the physiological properties of the blood ”what “a refractory chemico-biologic action” is, is not clear, butthere is no evidence that this preparation has any action which mightbe defined as “refractory chemico-biological, ” that its presence isinoffensive or that it wholly preserves all the physiologic propertiesof the blood “the treatment of gonorrhea by cano theory is firmly based upon chemico-biological facts and accepted authoritative theories and bears the same relation to gonorrhea that intravenous injections of arsenicals bear to syphilis ”quite an exaggerated and unwarranted statement in the same way, objection is taken to the following quotations. “phenol administered intravenously in combination with methylene blue, to protect the red-blood globule, undergoes no change, and preserves all of its actual antiseptic effect on the gonococcus and its toxins as though employed in the test tube ” “when thus introduced into the human body its elimination is unique, effective, antiseptic, germicidal, being completely and exclusively thrown off through the kidneys in a period varying from one-half to twelve hours without local injury or disturbance to the general economy ” “combinations of phenol are unstable, but they do have the advantage of mitigating direct action on the cells and globules it is also known that ordinary phenol has a coagulant action on the albumins and an oxidizing power on the tissues, which power, if permanent, produces gangrene by virtue of this dual action it therefore acts as a modifier. By its oxidizing power on the germ it is germicidal, and prevents the growth of the gonococcus. And by its coagulant power on the toxins it relieves paragonococcal lesions mono- and poly-arthritides and affections of the serous organs endo- and pericarditis, meningitis, and essay definite systemic disturbances, the pathology of which is often confused with that of other infections ” “lymphocytosis is often persistent in essay individuals in whom the internal secretions and the processes of assimilation and disassimilation are deficient. And because of the lack of these the organic physiological ferments are insufficient for the mechanism of nutrition and the phenomena of hematopoiesis ”until proof is available showing that phenol, administeredintravenously in the quantities employed in cano normal phenol serumand cano methyl-phenol serum, acts as a germicide and methylthioninechloride “methylene blue” prevents the deleterious effects of phenolon the red blood corpuscles. That repeated intravenous injections ofphenol and mercury are without danger.

Of the second were resisting, crepitant, and quite œdematous no subpleural ecchymoses in either the experiments on animals by corin812 led him to conclude that pressure on the pneumogastrics caused increased frequency of the heart-beat and slowing of respiration pellier813 considers the subject quite fully it would appear that the pressure on the pneumogastrics disposes to stop the action of the heart and cause rapid, perhaps instant death the pressure on the carotids causes cerebral anæmia and is then only a secondary cause levy814 does not think the action of the pneumogastrics is sufficiently well known tidy states that a dog lived for three hours suspended by a rope placedabove an opening in the windpipe. And that smith815 mentions the caseof a criminal who was hung. Chovet tried to save the man by making anopening in the trachea before the execution and introducing a smalltube the man was alive forty-five minutes after the drop, but couldnot be resuscitated, although the surgeon bled him in a small proportion of paper of hanging, homicidal and judicial, death occurs by dislocation of the spine this is said to have beenfirst noticed by the celebrated louis, who states that the parisexecutioner was in the habit of giving a violent rotary movement tothe body of the convict as the trap was sprung, causing a dislocationof the odontoid process and compression of the cord and almost instantdeath taylor816 says that for dislocation the body must be heavy andthe fall long and sudden devergie817 found this to occur in abouttwo per cent of paper it is said that the paris hangman placed theslip-knot under the chin in front, which is as dr haughton suggests death may occur from secondary causes after apparent recovery.

84 to 4 × causal essay 21. 105 5 × 21, etc the 49th year of life and the 56th year of life weresaid to be still more dangerous than these years obtained from theperiod of three hebdomads it is true, the cause of the danger is quiteobvious in the case of the 49th year. It was the ominous 7 × 7 whichhere gave rise to forebodings and it was not quite comprehensible whatcaused the bad reputation of innocent 56. Rantzau fails to give us asufficient explanation but the most dangerous climacteric year was the 63d, for this was madeup of 7 × 9 it was, therefore, an annus hebdomaticus and, at thesame time, also an annus enneaticus, for it belonged both to theclass of those climacteric years which were formed by the multiplier 7, as also to that which were obtained by the multiplier 9 it was mostnatural, therefore, that a period of life which from two sides wasfraught with danger, like the unfortunate 63d year of life, was boundto appear equally suspicious to the healthy and to the sick it isprobable that this year was, therefore, called androdas, because, asrantzau believes, it debilitates and breaks vitality it would appear, moreover, that the climacteric years enjoyed generalconsideration in ancient times as well as in the middle ages, forrantzau names a number of celebrated men who were said to haveexpressed themselves regarding the significance of these years, such asplato, censorinus, gellius, philo judæus, macrobius, cicero, boëtius, st ambrose, st augustine, bede, georgius valla, and others notsatisfied with this statement, rantzau also mentions in his cataloga multitude of prominent men who all dewritinged this life in their 63dyear, and thus, as he believes, had established the dangerousness ofthis year by their death it is probable, therefore, that the 63d birthday was celebrated withgreat apprehension during the entire middle ages, and the respectiveindividual did not draw an easy breath until after the ominous year hadbeen successfully passed however, the stars knew not only how to tell writingiculars regardingthe probable course and possible complications of diseases, but theyalso gave information regarding very special forms of affections itwas possible, thus, to learn from them at what time diseases of theeye were to be feared, when mental diseases were threatening, whenhemorrhages were to be expected, etc the astrologically trainedphysician was able to obtain prompt information from the starsregarding contingent surgical accidents. For there existed variousconjunctions of the celestial bodies, according to ptolemy, whichsurely pointed to wounds, fractures of bones, burns, concussions, andother lesions in fact, it was possible to see in advance, from thecelestial phenomena, what limbs would be exposed to forcible injury;thus, certain conjunctions of the planets were said to prognosticatewith certainty wounds of the head. Others, of the face. Others, again, of the hands and feet, of the fingers and toes, of the arms and legs, of the trunk and neck astrology, moreover, was not satisfied with theprognostic and diagnostic activity which we have just mentioned, but italso interfered in therapy, internal as well as external regarding, in the first place, internal medicinal treatment, theastrologer knew how to give positive information about the same. Forall terrestrial beings, of an organic as well as of an inorganicnature, were under the influence of the sun, the moon, of the planets, and of the signs of the zodiac the stars imwritinged certain powers tothe planets, to animals, and to all structures of the inorganic world if, therefore, it were known what stars happened to appear in thevault of heaven at the beginning of the disease or of its treatment, it was only necessary seriously to consider the organic and inorganicstructures under their supervision, and the remedies required for asuccessful control of the disease were presently at hand but if thehealer wished to be absolutely certain what medicaments to choose, thephases of the moon and the condition of the sun were also to be takeninto consideration essay remedies could be administered only when themoon was in a writingicular relation to certain planets or stars of thezodiac these remedies were principally emetics and purges similarly to the internal clinician, so also in surgery, the healerwas entirely dependent upon the conjunction of the stars the primevalbabylonian directed that the body must not be touched with iron duringcertain conjunctions of the stars, and this was also prescribed inall paper of astrologica medica it appears, however, that thisdirection obtained less general surgical recognition, but referredprincipally to blood-letting even to this limited extent it implieda high-handed interference with the art of the ancient as well as ofthe medieval physician. For venesection occupied an entirely differentposition among therapeutic measures during that period than it doesto-day whereas modern medicine does not consider blood-lettingnecessary, except in the rarest paper, ancient as well as medievalprofessors of medicine believed that they could under no circumstancesdispense with it. In fact, it is probable that until the seventeenthcentury there was scarcely any form of disease the treatment of whichwould have been possible without withdrawal of blood an actualsystem of blood-letting had been elaborated under the influence ofhumoro-pathological opinions every vein that could be reached withthe lancet was acted upon, and the school of medicine of the periodwas punctiliously careful in teaching which vessel presented the mostsuitable point of attack for the hand of the physician in this or thatform of disease the therapeutic subtleties which were thus brought tolight are beyond description thus, a withdrawal of blood from veins onthe right side of the body was said to yield an essentially differenteffect from left-sided venesection, and each individual vein of thebody promised a special advantage which was peculiar to this one vein the physician of that period surely had enough to do to bear in mindall the numerous therapeutic effects which he was to achieve by theopening of the various veins to facilitate this difficult art to acertain degree special figures were designed so-called venesectionmanikins, in which the numerous points for bleeding were most carefullyannotated fig 5 page 175 shows such a picture it indicates no lessthan 53 different localities for venesection, and as each and everyone of them again implied four or five, or possibly even more, methodsof blood-letting, we may consider that there were thesis hundreds ofdifferent possibilities for phlebotomy if it was easy to become lostin the labyrinth of this blood-thirsty therapy, the difficulty of amethodical application of venesection was very materially increased byastrology. For astrology differentiated between, first, favorable, thendoubtful, and, finally, unfavorable days for venesection, basing thisopinion upon certain positions between sun, moon, and planets then thevarious ages of life had also different days for venesection. Days, forinstance, which promised to be exceptionally successful for venesectionin the young, offered very unfavorable prospects to the aged thus, for instance, the period from the first quadrature of the moon tothe opposition was said to be excellent for bleeding in adolescence, whereas this period was by no means inviting for phlebotomy in thosewho had reached the senile period the chances for venesection becamerather intricate in their different aspects thus, for instance, stöffler taught. {the sun prohibits venesection two {days before and one day after conjunction of { the moon with { }prohibits venesection one {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after quadrature of {sun }prohibits venesection the moon with {saturn }twelve hours before and {mars }twelve hours after opposition of {sun }prohibits venesection one the moon with {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after we see, therefore, that the physician of that time was compelled tobe well-versed in astronomy unless he meant to commit grave mistakesagainst the doctrines of medicina astrologica such sins couldeventually become rather dangerous to the physician, for the code ofhammurabi about 2200, b c , ruler of babylon threatens the operator, for not quite unobjectionable surgical procedures, with the loss of hishands winckler, page 33, § 218 in order to satisfy the astrological requirement of the physician mostthoroughly, there arose in the middle ages a very peculiar literature under the name of an almanac or calendarium, thick folio volumesappeared, which enumerated, in long tables, the various positions ofthe planets and of the signs of the zodiac, so that the astrologer wasenabled to note the fate of mankind rapidly and easily the contentsof such calendaria are beyond description awriting from remarks whichreferred to all occurrences of civil life, was stated the exact periodwhen to have the hair cut, when venesection was to be performed, whento draw teeth, when to take a bath, etc even the proper time forprayer was indicated by such a calendarium according to the experienceof peter of abano, the conjunction of the moon with jupiter in thedragon was sure to effect an answer to prayer hieronymus cardanushad discovered, with the aid of astrology, that a request was sure tobe complied with if a prayer was offered to the virgin mary on thefirst day of april, at 8 a m möhsen, vol ii , page 423 physiciansexcelled in the compilation of such calendaria, especially during thefifteenth and sixteenth centuries professors, forensic physicians, surgeons in fact, all representatives of medical art were equallyintent upon instructing the public by calendaria in regard to the mostvarious branches of medicina astrologica. Thus, for instance, davidherliz, physician at prenzlau, supplied pomerania, mecklenburg, andthe margravate of brandenburg with calendars for fifty years, from theyear 1584 the marburg professor of medicine, victorinus schönfelder, played a similar rôle during the same period for western gerthesis thephysician, as almanac-maker, is probably one of the most wonderfulresults of medical superstition, and this aberration of medicine clungso firmly to the people that, even in the eighteenth and nineteenthcenturies, certain days of the year were considered as especiallyfavorable for venesection, and the calendars took writingicular pains tocall the attention of the public most emphatically to good days forblood-letting illustration. Fig 5 venesection in its astronomical connectionexplanation of fig 5 a the astronomic signs which are noted on the different writings of the body indicate the signs of the zodiac, under the special influence of which the respective members of the body are said to be b the numerals which are found at the most varied writings of the body refer to indications for venesection, as stated below in these localities, which are characterized by figures, blood was drawn for the most various affections, namely in. 1 pains of the eyes and head. Affections of the face, including eruptions 2 affections of the head.

As also those ulcers causal essay that happen in the mouth. Orused with hog grease, it helps the swellings and pains of the secretwritings in man or woman, also for the piles or hæmorrhoids. Applied withessay oil of roses and vinegar unto the forehead and temples, it easesthe inveterate pains and ache of the head, and is good for those thatare frantic the leaves bruised, or the juice of them mixed with essayvinegar, doth wonderfully cleanse the skin, and takes away morphew, freckles, fistulas, and other such like inflamations and deformitiesof the skin in any writings of the body the distilled water of the herbwhen it is in full strength, dropped into the eyes, cleanses themfrom films, clouds, or mists, that darken the sight, and wonderfullystrengthens the optic nerves the said water is very powerful in allthe diseases aforesaid, either inward or outward, whether they be oldcorroding sores, or green wounds the dried root, and peeled, is knownto be excellently good against all scrophulous and scorbutic habitsof body, by being tied to the pit of the stomach, by a piece of whiteribband round the neck the vine the leaves of the english vine i do not mean to send you to thecanaries for a medicine being boiled, makes a good lotion for soremouths. Being boiled with barley meal into a poultice, it coolsinflammations of wounds. The dropping of the vine, when it is cut inthe spring, which country people call tears, being boiled in a syrup, with sugar, and taken inwardly, is excellent to stay women longingsafter every thing they see, which is a disease thesis women with childare subject to the decoction of vine leaves in white wine doth thelike also the tears of the vine, drank two or three spoonfuls at atime, breaks the stone in the bladder this is a very good remedy, andit is discreetly done, to kill a vine to cure a man, but the salt ofthe leaves are held to be better the ashes of the burnt branches willmake teeth that are as black as a coal, to be as white as snow, if youbut every morning rub them with it it is a most gallant tree of thesun, very sympathetical with the body of men, and that is the reasonspirit of wine is the greatest cordial among all vegetables violets both the tame and the wild are so well known, that they need nodescription time they flower until the end of july, but are best in march, andthe beginning of april government and virtues they are a fine pleasing plant of venus, of a mild nature, no way harmful all the violets are cold and moistwhile they are fresh and green, and are used to cool any heat, or distemperature of the body, either inwardly or outwardly, asinflammations in the eyes, in the matrix or fundament, in imposthumesalso, and hot swellings, to drink the decoction of the leaves andflowers made with water in wine, or to apply them poultice-wise to thegrieved places. It likewise eases pains in the head, caused throughwant of sleep. Or any other pains arising of heat, being applied inthe same manner, or with oil of roses a dram weight of the driedleaves or flower of violets, but the leaves more strongly, doth purgethe body of choleric humours, and assuages the heat, being taken in adraught of wine, or any other drink. The powder of the purple leavesof the flowers, only picked and dried and drank in water, is said tohelp the quinsy, and the falling-sickness in children, especially inthe beginning of the disease the flowers of the white violets ripenand dissolve swellings the herb or flowers, while they are fresh, orthe flowers when they are dry, are effectual in the pleurisy, and alldiseases of the lungs, to lenify the sharpness in hot rheums, and thehoarseness of the throat, the heat also and sharpness of urine, andall the pains of the back or reins, and bladder it is good also forthe liver and the jaundice, and all hot agues, to cool the heat, andquench the thirst. But the syrup of violets is of most use, and ofbetter effect, being taken in essay convenient liquor. And if a littleof the juice or syrup of lemons be put to it, or a few drops of theoil of vitriol, it is made thereby the more powerful to cool the heat, and quench the thirst, and gives to the drink a claret wine colour, and a fine tart relish, pleasing to the taste violets taken, or madeup with honey, do more cleanse and cool, and with sugar contrary-wise the dried flower of violets are accounted amongst the cordial drinks, powders, and other medicines, especially where cooling cordials arenecessary the green leaves are used with other herbs to make plaistersand poultices to inflammations and swellings, and to ease all painswhatsoever, arising of heat, and for the piles also, being fried withyolks of eggs, and applied thereto viper bugloss descript this hath thesis long rough leaves lying on the ground, from among which rises up divers hard round stalks, very rough, as ifthey were thick set with prickles or hairs, whereon are set such likerough, hairy, or prickly sad green leaves, essaywhat narrow. The middlerib for the most writing being white the flowers stand at the top of thestalk, branched forth in thesis long spiked leaves of flowers bowing orturning like the turnsole, all opening for the most writing on the oneside, which are long and hollow, turning up the brims a little, of apurplish violet colour in them that are fully blown, but more reddishwhile they are in the bud, as also upon their decay and withering. Butin essay places of a paler purplish colour, with a long pointel in themiddle, feathered or writinged at the top after the flowers are fallen, the seeds growing to be ripe, are blackish, cornered and pointedessaywhat like the head of a viper the root is essaywhat great andblackish, and woolly, when it grows toward seed-time, and perishes inthe winter there is another sort, little differing from the former, only in this, that it bears white flowers place the first grows wild almost every where that with whiteflowers about the castle-walls at lewis in sussex time they flower in summer, and their seed is ripe quickly after government and virtues it is a most gallant herb of the sun. Itis a pity it is no more in use than it is it is an especial remedyagainst the biting of the viper, and all other venomous beasts, orserpents. As also against poison, or poisonous herbs dioscorides andothers say, that whosoever shall take of the herb or root before theybe bitten, shall not be hurt by the poison of any serpent the root orseed is thought to be most effectual to comfort the heart, and expelsadness, or causeless melancholy.

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For suchdiseases you may make up your physic with whey outwardly it cleansesthe skin of such deformities as come through choler or melancholy, asscabs, itch, morphew, leprosies, &c honey is of a gallant cleansing quality, exceeding profitable in allinward ulcers in what writing of the body soever. It opens the veins, cleanses the reins and bladder i know no vices belonging to it, butonly it is soon converted into choler wax, softens, heats, and meanly fills sores with flesh, it suffersnot the milk to curdle in women breasts. Inwardly it is given tengrains at a time against bloody-fluxes raw-silk, heats and dries, cheers the heart, drives away sadness, comforts all the spirits, both natural, vital and animal belonging to the sea sperma cœti, is well applied outwardly to eating ulcers, the markswhich the small pox leaves behind them. It clears the sight, provokessweat. Inwardly it troubles the stomach and belly, helps bruises, and stretching of the nerves, and therefore is good for women newlydelivered amber-grease, heats and dries, strengthens the brain and nervesexceedingly, if the infirmity of them come of cold, resists pestilence sea-sand, a man that hath the dropsy, being set up to the middle init, it draws out all the water red coral, is cold, dry and binding, stops the immoderate flowing ofthe menses, bloody-fluxes, the running of the reins, and the fluoralbus, helps such as spit blood, it is an approved remedy for thefalling sickness also if ten grains of red coral be given to a childin a little breast-milk so soon as it is born, before it take any otherfood, it will never have the falling-sickness, nor convulsions thecommon dose is from ten grains to thirty pearls, are a wonderful strengthener to the heart, encrease milkin nurses, and amend it being naught, they restore such as are inconsumptions. Both they and the red coral preserve the body in health, and resist fevers the dose is ten grains or fewer. More, i suppose, because it is dear, than because it would do harm amber, viz yellow amber heats and dries, therefore prevailsagainst moist diseases of the head. It helps violent coughs, helpsconsumption of the lungs, spitting of blood, the fluor albus. It stopsbleeding at the nose, helps difficulty of urine.