History

Career Aspirations Essay


Mars laid by career aspirations essay his sword, and comes to her. Sister moon, saidhe, this man hath angered thee, but i beseech thee take notice he isbut a fool. Prithee be patient, i will with my herb wormwood cure himof both infirmities by antipathy, for thou knowest thou and i cannotagree. With that the moon began to quarrel.

Nor taken out of state without permit laws, 1888, ch 39, secs 5-8 new mexico justice of the peace to hold inquest, etc comp laws, sec 443 etseq and bury the body comp laws, sec 447 body of one dying of a contagious disease shall not be carried in anopen coffin, or be exposed laws, 1889, ch 79, sec 8 body shall not be buried within fifty yards of running stream laws, 1891, ch 93 new york duty of burial, etc pen code, sec 305 et seq attempt at sexual intercourse with dead body is a crime against nature pen code, sec 303 transfer of body of one who died of a contagious or infectious diseaseshall be in hermetically sealed casket laws, 1893, ch 661, sec 23 bodies of those dying in, or in custody of managers, etc , of anyprison, asylum, morgue, hospital, or in possession of undertakers, shall be delivered to medical college of this state, etc , for purposeof medical study, unless claimed by relatives or friends, or friends orrelatives do not assent to such disposal, or deceased requested duringlast illness to be buried laws, 1893, ch 661, sec 207 in certain paper bodies of convicts, unless claimed, shall be deliveredto certain medical colleges r s , pt 4, ch 3, secs 132, 133 district attorney may cause body to be exhumed, examined, etc pen code, sec 308 north carolina coroner to hold inquest, etc code, sec 657 concealing birth of child, by burying dead body, is a misdemeanor opening grave without authority for purpose of taking body is a felony laws, 1885, ch 90 coroner may order a chemical analysis of remains laws, 1887, ch 269 dead body of convict, unclaimed by friends, shall be delivered tomedical college except such dying of contagious disease laws, 1891, ch 129 body of one dying of contagious disease must not be transported bycommon carrier until disinfected, nor shall permit for removal beissued until such disinfection laws, 1893, ch 214, sec 16 north dakota coroner to hold inquest, etc comp laws, sec 664 et seq and bury the body if not claimed by friends, etc comp laws, sec 676 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, orof child dying within two years after birth, is punishable comp laws, sec 6, 947 comp laws sec 6, 549 same as 305 n y p c ” 6, 550 ” 306 ” ” 6, 551 ” 307 ” ” 6, 552 ” 308 1-3 ” ” 6, 553 ” 309 ” ” 6, 554 ” 310 ” ” 6, 559 ” 311 ” ” 6, 560 ” 312 ” ” 6, 563 ” 314 ”duty of burial of married woman, on husband if not married woman, onnearest of kin who is an adult or has means sufficient comp laws, sec 6, 556 refusal to bury by one on whom duty is imposed by law, a misdemeanor comp laws, sec 6, 557 custody of body pertains to one whose duty it is to bury comp laws, sec 6, 558 when cemetery is by law changed to other place, duty is on relative tomove body comp laws, sec 6, 562 body of executed criminal, and those dying in state penitentiary orcounty jail under sentence, shall be delivered to medical college orany physician for dissection, unless deceased requested to be buried, career aspirations essay or friends ask to have it buried, or deceased was a stranger ortraveller laws, 1890, ch 92 ohio coroner to hold inquest, etc r l , sec 1, 221 et seq and bury body, etc r l , sec 1, 227 body of pauper or unknown, not an inmate of any penal, charitable, orreformatory institution, and not claimed by relative or delivered fordissection according to law, shall be buried at public expense laws, 1890, p 283 corpse shall not be conveyed to or from a city without a permit r l , sec 2, 119 bodies of those dying in city hospitals, city or county infirmaries, work-houses, asylums, charitable institutions, penitentiaries, orjails, which are required to be buried at public expense, shall bedelivered to medical college or society for study, etc , unless claimedby relative, or deceased was a stranger or traveller except tramps r l , sec 3, 763 removing body from grave without authority for dissection or receivingsuch body is punishable r l , sec 7, 034 body of executed criminal, if not claimed by relative or friends, maybe delivered for dissection, etc r l , sec 7, 343, 1 oklahoma coroner to hold inquest, etc stat , sec 1, 745 et seq and bury the body at public expense if not claimed by relatives stat , sec 1, 759 concealing birth of issue which, if born alive, etc , or dying withintwo years after birth, is punishable stat , sec 2, 179 2, 188-2, 190 same as 305-307 n y p c 2, 191 ” 308 ” except subd 4 2, 192-2, 193 ” 309-310 ” 2, 198 ” 311 ” ex punishment 2, 199 ” 312 ” 2, 202 ” 314 ”custody is in him whose duty it is to bury stat , secs 21, 97 duty of burial of married woman, on husband. If not married woman, onnearest of kin who is an adult and has sufficient means stat , sec 2, 195 refusal to bury by one on whom duty rests, is a misdemeanor stat , sec 2, 196 oregon coroner to hold inquest, etc crim code, sec 453 et seq and bury body if not claimed by friends crim code, sec 462 unmarried woman concealing birth of child so that it may not be knownwhether it was born alive or not, is punishable crim code, sec 649 bodies of criminals executed, those dying in hospitals, insane asylums, alms-houses, or penitentiaries, may be delivered to medical college orphysician for dissection, etc , unless they shall have been interred, or claimed by relatives, or relatives and friends do not consent, ordeceased expressed a wish to be buried. And they shall be used for suchpurpose only and in this state hill am laws, sec 3, 730 et seq removal of body without authority, etc , is punishable crim code, sec 656 pennsylvania coroner to hold inquest in philadelphia county only in case of aviolent death bright pen dig , 1536, sec 37 and may in berks and lancaster counties order a post mortem brightpen dig , 1536, sec 38 concealing death of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable bright pen dig , 431, sec 158 removal of body from grave without authority is a misdemeanor brightpen dig , 229, sec 11 bodies of those dying in alms-house, hospital, prison, or publicinstitution, or those in morgue, which are required to be buried atpublic expense, shall be delivered to medical college, physician, etc , to be used for scientific purposes only, unless claimed by relativesor deceased was a traveller, and trafficking in such bodies is amisdemeanor bright pen dig , p 9, sec 1 et seq rhode island concealing death of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, sothat it may not be known, etc , is punishable pub stat , ch 244, sec 8 seizing dead body under execution is punishable pub stat , ch 223, sec 2 bodies of those dying in jail shall, if not claimed by relatives, beburied at public expense pub stat , ch 201, sec 30 medical examiner to make autopsy pub stat , 1884, ch 420 and bury body of stranger at state expense if necessary pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 24 coroner to hold inquest if, in opinion of medical examiner, death wascaused by act of essay one other than deceased pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 17 south carolina coroner to hold inquest, etc r l , secs 711, 2, 664 et seq and may have body disinterred for inquisition r l , sec 2, 687 tennessee coroner to hold inquest, etc code, sec 6, 139 et seq and may order a chemical analysis of remains, etc code, sec 6, 150 body to be buried, if not claimed by relatives, etc , at public expenseif necessary code, sec 6, 160 wilfully and improperly exposing or abandoning a dead body is amisdemeanor code, sec 5, 658 removing or purchasing dead bodies without authority is a misdemeanor code, secs 5, 659, 5, 660 body of deceased convict to be buried unless claimed by friends code, sec 6, 402 texas justice of the peace to hold inquest, etc code crim p , art 988 etseq and may disinter the body for such inquisition code crim p , art 989 removal, etc , of dead body from grave without authority is punishable code, art 345 bodies of convicts to be buried rev c stat , art 3, 561 vermont justice of the peace to hold inquest, etc rev laws, sec 3, 934 etseq removal, etc , of dead body without authority, is punishable rev laws, secs 4, 194, 4, 196 bodies of those dying in poor-house or other public institution, whichare required to be buried at public expense, may be delivered to anyphysician for dissection, etc , unless deceased requested to be buried, or friends or relations request burial, or deceased was a stranger ortraveller such body shall not be removed from state, and shall be usedfor scientific purposes only laws, 1884, ch 85 virginia coroner to hold inquest, etc code, sec 3, 938 et seq and to bury the body at public expense code, sec 3, 946 removal, etc , of dead body from grave without authority, is punishable code, sec 3, 794 bodies of those dying on vessels in state, shall be buried by master onthe shore above high-water mark code, sec 2, 002 bodies of those dying in alms-house, prison, morgue, hospital, jail, or other public institution, which are required to be buried at publicexpense, and bodies of criminals executed for crime shall be deliveredto medical college, etc , and physician or surgeon for anatomicalstudy, unless except criminals relatives and friends claim the bodyor deceased was a stranger or traveller. And such bodies shall not besent out of the state code, ch 80 washington coroner to hold inquest, etc hill am stat , vol 1, sec 245 etseq and bury body, if not claimed by friends, at public expense hill am stat , vol 1, sec 257 bodies of those dying in poor-house, public hospital, county jail, state prison, etc , which are required to be buried at public expense, shall be delivered to medical college, physician, surgeon, etc , forstudy, unless deceased requested to be buried, or it is claimed byfriends or relatives, or deceased was a stranger or traveller. And suchbody shall be used only in the state hill am stat , vol 1, sec 2, 428 et seq removal, etc , of body from the grave without authority is punishable pen code, sec 208 west virginia coroner to hold inquest, etc code, ch 154 and bury the body at public expense, or if of a stranger, may forwardit to its destination or bury it code, ch 154, sec 8 removal, etc , of a body from grave is punishable code, ch 149, sec 13 wisconsin justice of the peace or coroner to hold inquest, etc s & b am stat , ch 200 and shall cause the body to be buried at public expense s & b am stat , ch 200, sec 4, 877 dead body of convict shall, if not claimed by relatives or friends, beburied s & b am stat , sec 4, 926 removal, etc , of body from grave without authority is punishable s &b am stat , sec 4, 592 concealing death of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable s & b am stat , sec 4, 585 a public officer having in his charge a body required to be buried atpublic expense, shall deliver same to member of state or county medicalsociety, etc , for anatomical study, unless claimed by relatives, orthey consent to such disposal, or deceased requested to be buried, orwas a stranger or traveller s & b am stat , sec 1, 437 the powers and duties of coroners and medical examiners by august becker, of the buffalo n y bar the powers and duties of coroners and medical examiners by august becker, of the buffalo n y bar powers and duties of coroners and medical examiners i the coroner and his court coroner an ancient officer - the office of coroner is one of themost important and ancient known to the common law a coroner, orcoronator, was so called because he had principally to do withthe pleas of the crown, or suit wherein the king was immediatelyconcerned 507 the office is first mentioned in a charter granted inthe year 925 by king athelstan, to the authorities of beverley theoffice as at present constituted was not clearly established untilafter the norman conquest under this head come the lord chief justice and puisne justices of theking bench, who are supreme and sovereign coroners respectively 508the duties of the office of coroner involve questions of the greatestinterest to society, to government, and to the rights and privilegesof the individual citizen the office has lost much of the honor andrespect which formerly appertained to it its character and importancehave been much diminished in latter times, making striking contrastwith the high estimation it was held in by our ancestors in days whennone but the gentry and knights of the shire were deemed eligible in fact so great was the dignity of this office in ancient times, thatit was never presumed that coroners would condescend to be paid fortheir services 509 they were chosen by all the freeholders of thecounty court for life or good behavior, and were liable to be removedfor cause by the writ de coronatore exonerando there were threekinds of coroners at common law. Virtute officii. Virtute cartæ sivecommissionis. And virtute electionis 510 the office of coronerwas brought to america by the colonists along with the institutions ofthe common law, and may be said to exist in the several states with allthe common-law incidents, except so far as they may have been modifiedby statute the present defined powers of coroners in great britain andthe united states, unless modified by british statutes and americanacts, are derived from the english stat de officio coronatoris, 4edward i , s 2 coroners virtute officii and virtute cartæ sivecommissionis are unknown to our institutions here the office ofcoroner may be classed under the head of coroners virtute electionis generally speaking the coroner is a county officer coroner duties both judicial and ministerial by the common law his powers and duties are both judicial andministerial in his ministerial capacity he is merely a substitute forthe sheriff, as when the sheriff is a writingy 511 his powers and dutiesthereunder it is not the present purpose to state and define hisjudicial authority relates to inquiries into paper of sudden death, bya jury of inquest, super visum corporis, or, as it is more commonlydefined, an inquisition, with the assistance of a jury, over the bodyof any person who may have come to a sudden or violent death, or whomay have died in prison 512 it is not necessary that the death shouldbe both violent and sudden, and that both these circumstances mustconcur to give the coroner jurisdiction it is sufficient to give thecoroner jurisdiction if the death occurs from any violence done toa person by another, although such violence may not have terminatedthe life of a writingy suddenly, and it is still the duty of the coronerto hold an inquest 513 indeed the presumption is that he has actedin good faith and on sufficient cause 514 and so when severalpersons have been suddenly killed by the same violent cause, undercircumstances proper to be inquired of by a coroner inquest, it isproper and necessary for the coroner, acting in good faith, to hold aseparate inquest over each body 515 a coroner inquest is a judicialinvestigation the coroner cannot delegate his authority to any one neither can he appoint a deputy under the common law he must act inperson as any other judicial officer. And it may safely be said that acoroner has no power to appoint a deputy coroner, except where specialprovision is made therefor by statute 516 in england, a coronercourt is a court of record, and it has accordingly been held thattrespass cannot be maintained for turning a person out of a room wherethe coroner is about to take an inquisition 517 but in this country, it may safely be said that a coroner court is not one of record, but of inferior jurisdiction 518 the performance of the functionsof a coroner are judicial in their character. So judicial that he isprotected under the principles which protect judicial officers fromresponsibility in a civil action brought by a private person hisproceedings amount to entries concerning matters of public interest, made under the sanction of an official oath, and in compliance orpresumed compliance of the law 519of his authority to hold an inquest - his authority to hold aninquest is not confined to the body of a person who may have diedwithin his territorial jurisdiction, but extends to all bodiesbrought within his jurisdiction, no matter where death may have takenplace 520 so in any case where, after burial, an inquest becomesnecessary to determine the manner of the death of a person who, dyingin one, is buried in another county, the coroner of the latter countyis the proper officer to hold the inquest 521 a coroner cannot holda second inquest while the first is existing as we have seen, inholding an inquest the coroner performs a judicial duty, and he isfunctus officio as soon as the verdict has been returned he can holdno second inquest in the same case unless the first has been quashedby a court of competent jurisdiction, and a new inquiry ordered hecannot set aside or quash his own inquest if he were allowed to holdtwo inquests, not only might the greatest inconvenience arise from theinconsistent findings of the respective juries, but such a practicewould be liable to great abuse, and as the object of the proceeding ismerely preliminary, the main purpose being to ascertain whether it isprobable that a crime has been committed, and to examine the facts andcircumstances and preserve the evidence, all the ends of this inquiryare answered by one inquisition, super visum corporis we believe noreported case is to be found in this country where a second inquisitionhas been held, the first remaining undischarged, nor is any suchpractice known to or recognized by our laws 522the inquest must be held upon view of the body the coroner can in no case hold an inquest except upon view of thebody this is jurisdictional and cannot be waived by any one he isnot bound to hold an inquest before burial of the body takes place when it has been buried, and he believes an inquest necessary, heis vested with authority to have the body disinterred and hold hisinquest, and if necessary direct a post-mortem examination to bemade, but after having done so, he must cause it to be reburied 523deep interests are involved in the proper discharge of the duties ofcoroners.

S 6, 312 exceptions - the act is not applicable to a person in an emergencyprescribing or giving advice in medicine or surgery, in a townshipwhere no physician resides within convenient distance, nor to thosewho have practised medicine or surgery in this state for ten yearspreceding the passage of this act, nor to persons prescribing in theirown families, nor to midwifery in places where no physician resideswithin convenient distance 1, 298 e. As amended by act offebruary 7th, 1889 fees - no special fees are enumerated in the statute the countyrecorder fees for services are prescribed in rev stats , 1887, s 2, 128 illinois qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in any ofits dewritingments unless he possesses the qualifications required if agraduate in medicine, he must present his diploma to the state boardof health for verification as to its genuineness if the diploma isfound genuine, and from a legally chartered medical institution in goodstanding, and if the person named therein be the person claiming andpresenting the same, the board must issue a certificate conclusive asto his right to practise medicine if not a graduate, the person mustpresent himself before the said board and submit to examination, andif the examination is satisfactory the board must issue certificate laws 1887, p 225, s 1 the verification of a diploma consists in the affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the person therein named the affidavit may betaken before any person authorized to administer oaths, and attestedunder the hand and official seal of such officer if he have a seal swearing falsely is perjury graduates may present their diplomas andaffidavits by letter or proxy 3 all examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates are made bythe board. And certificates authorize their possessor to practisemedicine and, surgery 4 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the clerk of thecounty in which the holder resides within three months from its date, and the date of recording indorsed until recorded, the holder cannotlawfully exercise the rights and privileges conferred a personremoving to another county to practise must record his certificate inthe county to which he removes 5 examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing and shall be ofelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 8 the board may refuse to issue a certificate to a person guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes the applicant in case of a refusal or revocation may appeal to thegovernor and his decision will be final 9 definition - “practising medicine” is defined as treating, operatingon, or prescribing for any physical ailment of another the actdoes not prohibit services in case of emergency, nor the domesticadministration of family remedies, and does not apply to commissionedsurgeons of the united states army, navy, or marine hospital service inthe discharge of official duty 10 itinerant vender - an itinerant vender of drug, nostrum, ointment, orappliance intended for treatment of disease or injury, or professingby writing, printing, or other method to cure or treat disease ordeformity by drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, must paya license fee of $100 per month into the treasury of the board theboard may issue such license selling without a license is punishableby fine of from $100 to $200 for each offence the board may for causerefuse a license 11 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without a certificate ispunishable by a forfeiture of $100 for the first offence, and $200 foreach subsequent offence. Filing or attempting to file as his own thecertificate of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony, punishable as forgery exceptions - the act saves for six months after its passage the rightof persons who have practised continuously for ten years in the stateprior to its passage, to receive a certificate under former act butall persons holding a certificate on account of ten years’ practice aresubject to all requirements and discipline of this act in regard totheir future conduct. All persons not having applied for or receivedcertificates within said six months, and all persons whose applicationshave for the causes named been rejected, or their certificates revoked, shall, if they practise medicine, be deemed guilty of practising inviolation of law 12 penalty - on conviction of the offence mentioned in the act, the courtmust, as a writing of the judgment, order the defendant to be committed tothe county jail until the fine and costs are paid 13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for each certificate to agraduate or licentiate, $5 2 for graduates or licentiates in midwifery, $2 2 to county clerk, usual fees for making record to treasury of board, for examination of non-graduates. $20, inmedicine and surgery. $10, in midwifery only if the applicant fails to pass, the fees are returned if he passes, acertificate issues without further charge 7 indiana qualification - it is unlawful to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics without a license act april 11th, 1885, s 1 the license is procured from the clerk of the circuit court of thecounty where the person resides or desires to locate to practise. Itauthorizes him to practise anywhere within the state. The applicantmust file with the clerk his affidavit stating that he has regularlygraduated in essay reputable medical college, and must exhibit to theclerk the diploma held by him, his affidavit, and the affidavit of tworeputable freeholders or householders of the county stating that theapplicant has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetricsin the state continuously for ten years immediately preceding thedate of taking effect of this act, stating writingicularly the localityor localities in which he has practised during the said period, andthe date and length of time in each locality. Or his affidavit andthe affidavit of two reputable freeholders or householders of thecounty, stating that he has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in the state continuously for three years immediatelypreceding the taking effect of this act, and stating writingicularly thelocalities in which he practised during the said period, and the dateand length of time in each locality, and that he, prior to said date, attended one full course of lectures in essay reputable medical college the clerk must record the license and the name of the college in whichthe applicant graduated, and the date of his diploma 2, asamended by act march 9th, 1891 a license issued to a person who has not complied with the requirementsof sec 2, or one procured by any false affidavit, is void act april11, 1885, s 3 penalty - practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics without a licenseis a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $200 s 4 no cause of action lies in favor of any person as a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician who has not prior to the service procured a license;and money paid or property paid for such services to a person not solicensed, or the value thereof, may be recovered back 5 exemptions - women practising obstetrics are exempted from theprovisions of the act 4 fees - to clerk, for license, $1 50 act april 11th, 1885, as amendedact march 9th, 1891 registration - it is the duty of all physicians and accoucheurs toregister their name and post-office address with the clerk of thecircuit court of the county in which they reside act 1881, p 37, s 10 fees - to the clerk, for registration, 10 cents 11 iowa qualification - every person practising medicine, surgery, orobstetrics, in any of their dewritingments, if a graduate in medicine, must present his diploma to the state board of examiners forverification as to its genuineness if the diploma is found genuine, and is by a medical school legally organized and of good standing, which the board determines, and if the person presenting be theperson to whom it was originally granted, then the board must issuea certificate signed by not less than five physicians thereof, representing one or more physicians of the schools on the board sic, and such certificate is conclusive if not a graduate, aperson practising medicine or surgery, unless in continuous practice inthis state for not less than five years, of which he must present tothe board satisfactory evidence in the form of affidavits, must appearbefore the board for examination all examinations are in writing;all examination papers with the reports and action of examiners arepreserved as records of the board for five years the subjects ofexamination are anatomy, physiology, general chemistry, pathology, therapeutics, and the principles and practice of medicine, surgery, andobstetrics each applicant, upon receiving from the secretary of theboard an order for examination, receives also a confidential number, which he must place upon his examination papers so that, when thepapers are passed upon, the examiners may not know by what applicantthey were prepared upon each day of examination all candidates aregiven the same set or sets of questions the examination papersare marked on a scale of 100 the applicant must attain an averagedetermined by the board. If such examination is satisfactory to atleast five physicians of the board, representing the different schoolsof medicine on the board, the board must issue a certificate, whichentitles the lawful holder to all the rights and privileges in the actprovided laws 1886, c 104, s 1 the board receives applications through its secretary five physiciansof the board may act as an examining board in the absence of the fullboard. Provided that one or more members of the different schoolsof medicine represented in the state board of health shall also berepresented in the board of examiners 2 the affidavit of the applicant and holder of a diploma that he is theperson therein named, and is the lawful possessor thereof, is necessaryto verify the same, with such other testimony as the board may require diplomas and accompanying affidavits may be presented in person or byproxy if a diploma is found genuine and in possession of the person towhom it was issued, the board, on payment of the fee to its secretary, must issue a certificate if a diploma is found fraudulent or notlawfully in possession of the holder or owner, the person presentingit, or holding or claiming possession, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from $20 to $100 3 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the county recorderin the county wherein the holder resides, within sixty days after itsdate should he remove from one county to another to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, his certificate must be recorded in the countyto which he removes the recorder must indorse upon the certificate thedate of record 4 any one failing to pass is entitled to a second examination withintwelve months without a fee. Any applicant for examination, by noticein writing to the secretary of the board, is entitled to examinationwithin three months from the time of notice, and the failure togive such opportunity entitles such applicant to practise without acertificate until the next regular meeting of the board the boardmay issue certificates to persons who, upon application, present acertificate of having passed a satisfactory examination before anyother state board of medical examiners, upon the payment of the feeprovided in sec 3 6, as amended c 66, laws 1888, 22 gen assembly the board may refuse a certificate to a person who has been convictedof felony committed in the practice of his profession, or in connectiontherewith. Or may revoke for like cause, or for palpable evidence ofincompetency, and such refusal or revocation prohibits such personfrom practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, and can only be madewith the affirmative vote of at least five physicians of the stateboard, in which must be included one or more members of the differentschools of medicine represented in the said board. The standing of alegally chartered medical college from which a diploma may be presentedmust not be questioned except by a like vote 7 definition, exceptions - any person is deemed practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to be a physician, who publicly professesto be a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician, and assumes the duties, or who makes a practice of prescribing, or prescribing and furnishingmedicine for the sick, or who publicly professes to cure or heal by anymeans whatsoever.

“gentlemen:-- i have read with great interest your editorial regarding the publicity given my work in metabolism, and gland implantation “your pseudo, expose, and distinctly libelous insinuations are unjust, and they lead me to believe that you are going to be called to account at a very early date “my profession is the practice of medicine, and the policy of my practice is not controlled by the editorial dewritingment of the journal i am progressive, and a firm believer that legitiment medicine and surgery can not be practiced if the physician be governed by a set of medical clerks, who disdainfully boast that they control, and govern the healing art through out the breadth of the land, with a sceptre that is biased and steeped in the unadulterated commercialism of a certain medical clique “aside from the fact that i am an associate editor on a medical publication, it is disgraceful, as well as unjust that you have written such an editorial with out first investigating the career aspirations essay therapeutic value of my serum, and implantation operation “the psychology of your editorial, only reflects on your editorial dewritingment, and will tend to belittle essay of the greatest surgeons in the country “it may be to your advantage to know, that this very afternoon, i was on the program with the following men “dr lewis gregory cole-- new york “dr charles h mayo-- rochester, minn “dr john b deaver-- philadelphia “dr charles peck-- new york “my paper was entitled-- senility, its etiology and treatment by gland implantation i am sure the above mentioned gentlemen are thoroughly ashamed of your actions in the matter, as well as thoroughly disgusted with the baby like attitude you have displayed you have no sense of fair play, and if it is with in my power to undue the wrong which you have wrought me, i shall endeavor to vindicate myself in the eyes of the clear thinking members of the profession “i sincerely trust you will publish this communication, in order that my brethren shall understand and appreciate that your thrust has not gone unnoticed “it is my hope that the various medical societies through out the country, will call upon me to read a paper on my work, so that i may be able to offer substantial evidence to the fact that you have done me an injustice “very truly yours, twe/ael signed “thomas webster edgar, m d ”dr edgar statement that he had been on the program with drs cole, mayo, deaver and peck was sufficiently startling to prompt furtherinvestigation it was found that the program in question was that ofthe annual meeting of the new york and new england association ofrailway surgeons it was further found that edgar name did appear onessay of the printed programs but not on others it was rather naturallyassumed that the name had been put on the program before the officersof this organization had seen the crude publicity to which the journalrecently called attention it was found, however, that after severalhundred programs had been printed about 150 more were needed and “inthe meantime, dr edgar had come into the limelight” in his ring-tailedmonkey gland transplantation rôle and “was invited to read a paper onthe subject ” while he accepted this invitation the secretary of theorganization tells us that edgar did not read his paper but, when thepaper was called, declined, saying it was time for him to be in hisoffice!. As for the rest of dr edgar communication, the journalappreciates that courtesy is due “an associate editor on a medicalpublication”-- referring doubtless to the western medical times dr edgar pronouncement that “legitimate medicine and surgery cannot be practiced if the physician be governed by a set of medicalclerks” seems reasonable-- if cryptic but it is when he charges thatthese “clerks” govern the healing art “with a sceptre that is biasedand steeped in the unadulterated commercialism of a certain medicalclique, ” that he really shines whatever opinion one may hold of dr edgar ability to compound serums, surely no one can question hisskill as a mixer of metaphors his reference to “sceptres” deservesto be embalmed in every textbook on rhetoric with the classic of thehibernian statesman who passionately declared. “i smell a rat!. i seeit floating in the air!. but, mark you, sir, i shall nip it in thebud!. ”-- from the journal a m a , dec 3, 1921 glycerophosphatesphysicians who prescribe on definite principles must often be puzzledby the number and variety of glycerophosphates on the market allavailable evidence indicates that, as sources of phosphorus to theanimal organism, the glycerophosphates possess no advantages over theordinary inorganic phosphates 290 the glycerophosphates are splitup in the intestine, and liberate inorganic phosphates in this formthey are absorbed and utilized, if they are utilized at all there isno evidence that glycerophosphates have any pharmacologic action towarrant the belief that they are of use as therapeutic agents thetheory that organic phosphorus compounds are more readily assimilablethan inorganic compounds and hence a better means of introducingphosphorus into the system is still kept alive in the promotion ofcertain proprietary mixtures, in spite of the scientific evidence thatthe organism can assimilate phosphorus quite as readily from inorganicas from organic phosphorus compounds 291 the glycerophosphates willcontinue to be manufactured until physicians refuse to prescribe them a chemist in the “research laboratory” of a well known manufacturingfirm has recently given a rather interesting reason for the use ofglycerophosphates-- from the manufacturers’ point of view he is quotedas saying. “on account of the instability of phosphorus in elixir ofphosphorus, nux vomica and damiana we have quite recently replacedthe phosphorus by glycerophosphates such a preparation is apparentlyequally as effective, for we continue to have a great demand for it ”this is doubtless a sufficient reason for the substitution from themanufacturers’ point of view. But how about the patient, who, afterall, is the one to be considered?. is it not a matter of considerableimportance to the patient whether he receives phosphorus, one ofthe most powerful drugs known, or the inert glycerophosphates?. thechemist statement seems to imply that it is not it may be ofinterest to recall that a member of the firm whose chemist givesthis “reason” for the use of glycerophosphates, in a recent address, was rather severe in his condemnation of institutions of learning, hospitals, etc , for their lack of cooperation with manufacturers. Hesaid that “they should welcome an opportunity to let any manufacturertry out or test his products in their clinics, laboratories, etc ”a test as to whether there is a difference between the action ofglycerophosphates and ordinary poisonous yellow phosphorus, especiallywhen the former are mixed with extracts of nux vomica and damiana, would not be likely to appeal to thesis hospitals and laboratories asa very promising field of research at this day since, as has beenstated, the scientific evidence at present available does not furnishany warrant for the therapeutic use of glycerophosphates -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , april 15, 1916 290 organic phosphoruscompounds, editorial, j a m a 40. 1958 june 21 1913 marshall, e k. The therapeutic value of organic phosphorus compounds, j a m a 44. 573 feb 13 1915 291 marshall, e k. The therapeutic value of organic phosphoruscompounds, j a m a 44. 573 feb 13 1915 influenza vaccineswith the appearance of the epidemic of influenza, reports began toappear, chiefly in newspapers, as to new serums, vaccines, drugs andother methods for checking and even for curing the disease a fewsamples of such as have come to the journal appear in our tonicsand sedatives dewritingment this week in massachusetts, commissionere r kelly appointed two committees to investigate the value ofinfluenza vaccines as a preventive agent and as a treatment ofthe disease the first committee, a special board for scientificinvestigation, consisting of dr m j rosenau, chairman, and frederickp gay and george w mccoy, was appointed to consider the evidenceavailable on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of vaccines againstinfluenza this committee presented the following conclusions. 1 the evidence at hand affords no trustworthy basis for regarding prophylactic vaccination against influenza as of value in preventing the spread of the disease, or of reducing its severity the evidence from the present epidemic, though meager, suggests that the incidence of the disease among the vaccinated is smaller than among the nonvaccinated the board, therefore, concludes that further experimental evidence should be collected 2 the evidence at hand convinces the board that the vaccines we have considered have no specific value in the treatment of influenza 3 there is evidence that no unfavorable results have followed the use of the vaccines the second committee, known as the special board of statisticalinvestigation, consisted of dr george c whipple, chairman, william h davis and f c crum this committee reported. 1 the weight of such statistical evidence as we have been able to accumulate indicates that the use of the influenza vaccine which we have investigated is without therapeutic benefit exceptional paper where apparent benefit has resulted from the use of the vaccine can be matched by other paper where similar recoveries have been made without vaccination 2 the statistical evidence, as far as it goes, indicates a probability that the use of this influenza vaccine has essay prophylactic value 3 there is also essay evidence to the effect that other methods of protection, such as open-air treatment and the use of proper masks, are effective in protecting exposed attendants, and the use of vaccine should not be taken as an excuse for omitting such safeguards as a result, the following recommendations were made.

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He is career aspirations essay also “editor” ofits journal ottofy, according to our records, was born in 1865 atbudapest, hungary, and was graduated in 1888 by the homeopathic medicalcollege of missouri in polk medical directories for 1914 and 1917, ottofy has those extended notices which any physician can obtain whocares to pay for them according to these notices, ottofy is, or hasbeen, affiliated with the following “societies”. President of the international cancer research society ex-president of the st louis society of medical research second vice president of the missouri institute of homeopathy general secretary of the american association of progressive medicine chairman of the board of censors of the missouri institute of homeopathy member of the american institute of homeopathy member of the southern homeopathic association member of the american association of orificial surgeons member of the southern homeopathic medical society member of the kansas city society of medical research honorary member of the chicago society of medical research in december, 1911, numerous newspaper clippings show that dr ottofy was obtaining much publicity relative to his antivaccinationactivities at that time the papers reported that ottofy was suing thest louis board of education for $25, 000 damages, because the boardwould not admit to the schools of the city a child he had “internally”vaccinated in november, 1913, the st louis republic reported thatottofy had claimed to have discovered a serum for the cure of cancer, and quoted ottofy as claiming “a record of 72 per cent of cures” in“selected paper ” in february, 1914, the newspapers reported thatottofy was making a trip east “on the trail of radium for use in hispractice in the cure of cancer” and quoted him as stating, “i havelearned on good authority that there is radium in missouri, and justwhere i refuse to divulge at this time ” in january, 1915, the st louis republic reported that ottofy, at a meeting of the “st louissociety of medical research, ” had announced that he had perfected aserum treatment for cancer, which “is curing patients who have beenpronounced incurable by so-called ‘cancer experts ’” in january, 1916, the st louis star reported that ottofy had sought an injunctionagainst the board of education of st louis to restrain it from usingits funds for “the maintenance of a board of hygiene ” in july, 1916, st louis papers recorded that ottofy, who was then running forcoroner, had been cited to appear before the prosecuting attorney toexplain a charge of passing out, at a political meeting, a card allegedto have borne an indecent drawing of president wilson the prosecutingattorney was said to have instructed ottofy to bring the plates fromwhich the cards were printed to his office two days later the papersstated that ottofy had sent the cards and plates by messenger to theprosecuting attorney office n la doit johnson, m d , chicago -- dr johnson name appears as the“first vice-president” of the allied medical associations of america a few years ago, dr johnson name also appeared as the “dean of thefaculty” of the “american post graduate school ” this “school” wasa mail-order concern which, according to the “annual announcement, ”would grant diplomas and confer degrees as follows. “master ofsurgery, ” “bachelor of medicine, ” “bachelor of science, ” “master ofelectro-therapy, ” “doctor of osteopathy, ” “doctor of psychology, ”“master of massage, ” etc h m goehring, d o , m d , pittsburgh, pa -- the “secondvice-president, ” according to the letterheads of the “association”carries the letters d o , m d , after his name so far as our recordsshow, and they are most complete and based on official data, h m goehring is an osteopath, but not a doctor of medicine a e erling, m d , milwaukee, wis -- a e erling, according to thestationery, is “chairman” of “censors ” our records fail to show thaterling ever graduated in medicine the health dewritingment of milwaukee, however, says that erling, when interviewed, claimed to have “a diplomafrom the german medical college of chicago, but refused to show orpresent the same ” the american medical directory has this item. German medical college, chicago chartered dec 28, 1891, by johann malok fraudulent extinct a few years ago erling was in la crosse, wis. And in 1908 a circularletter bearing his name and picture was sent out from which thefollowing extracts are taken capitalization as in the original. “dear friend:-- permit me to call your attention to the fact that dr a e erling, the eminent specialist, after thesis years of travel, practice and medical research, has given up his extensive road practice and severed his connection with the several medical institutes which have heretofore occupied considerable of his attention dr erling success in the treatment of all chronic diseases is truly remarkable nervousness, all blood diseases, rheumatism, diseases peculiar to women, catarrh, deafness, chronic constipation appendicitis piles, stomach troubles, writingial paralysis, etc , give way as if by magic under his skillful method of treatment understand please, that dr erling does not accept a case for treatment unless he can promise a speedy and positively permanent cure ”the journal also has in its files advertisements vintage of 1915, from essay wisconsin country newspapers, which notify the afflicted that“drs erling and karass, the expert german specialists, ” could be seenin their offices in the “schlegel hotel, ” the “schlitz hotel, ” etc , asthe case might be whether one of these “german specialists” was dr arnold e erling, the journal does not know official medical recordsfail to show, at least, that there is any other erling in the state ofwisconsin w w fritz, m d , philadelphia -- another of the “censors ” thispresumably is w wallace fritz, m d , d d s , n d , d o , d c , whowas the “dean” of the “american college of neuropathy, ” and “professorof neuropathy” at the same institution according to newspaper reportspublished when the “dean” of the american college of neuropathy wascalled into court to testify regarding the “school, ” fritz admittedthat when he became dean of this “college, ” the “college” had threestudents and thirty “faculty members”!. fritz, it should be mentioned inpassing, is a member of the philadelphia county medical society and byvirtue of this membership he has qualified as a fellow of the americanmedical association!. recently fritz name appeared in connection withthe formation of a new organization, founded, it appears, for thelaudable purpose of fighting the “medical trust ” fritz, according tothe newspaper reports, is treasurer of this new organization, which hasadopted the inspiring title, “constitutional liberty league of america”and seems to be a later edition of the mushroom “national league formedical freedom ” quoting from the newspaper report. “dr w wallace fritz, a member of the american medical association, created a profound impression when he said that all health laws were written by agents of, or members of, the american medical association, and that this organization was at once the most powerful and the most baneful of all the american trusts dr fritz then went on to say. ‘most of the drugs administered are worthless most of the doctors who prescribe them are incompetent, but both the injurious drug and the ignorant prescriber are protected, in and out of court, by the american medical association, which trust is now raising a vast fund with which to drive all drugless healers out of the profession medicine is the camouflage used to conceal the most alert, the most rapacious and the least patriotic of all the trusts milking the american people the tyranny of the medical trust is unbelievable it is also un-american ’”the philadelphia sunday transcript of may 4, 1919, had a five columnarticle under the name of w wallace fritz it is a most vituperativeaffair, and reeks with fire and brimstone it is directed chieflyagainst the american medical association, and physicians are dubbed“prescription writing drug peddlers who prosper through monopolisticlaws rather than by the practice of an exact science ” in the course ofthis diatribe we read. “the members of the american medical association are manifesting an unwarranted interest in the dear people, who, in their assumption, need quinin and mercurial guardian.