History

Cancer Essay


Otherwise there may be at once, and almostalways will be after a time, more or less urgent dyspnœa diminution ofthe necessary oxygen may cause convulsions, apoplexy, and other brainsymptoms acute emphysema of the portion of lung not obstructed mayfollow its forcible distention the local effect of the foreign body isan irritation which causes spasm and cough it may be carried upward bythe expirations and downward again by each inspiration inflammationis likely to appear eventually and may involve the lung if theobstruction is not complete there may follow periods of alternation ofgood and bad health, ending perhaps in recovery the foreign body maybe expelled after a greater or lesser interval on the other hand deathmay result from secondary causes in the absence of correct historythe symptoms may lead to a wrong diagnosis and inappropriate treatment;as where a patient whose symptoms resulted from the presence of a pieceof bone in the larynx, was treated for syphilis a foreign body may becoughed up from the lung into the trachea and fall backward into theopposite lung writingial closure of the larynx, most likely caused by a flat orirregular substance, rather than globular, may cause gradual asphyxiawith symptoms of apoplexy, making the diagnosis difficult when a foreign body remains a long time in the larynx, spasmodic coughand croupy breathing usually ensue, expectoration tinged with blood, hoarseness, or complete aphonia, pain, dyspnœa, possibly crepitationand dulness over the lungs the case may end suddenly in death fromclosure of the glottis, or the foreign body may pass into the tracheaand set up a new train of symptoms, or it may be expelled the frequency with which foreign bodies in the pharynx or œsophagusobstruct respiration, and the facility with which they may usually beremoved, suggest a careful examination otherwise the patient may betreated indefinitely for supposed obstruction in the air-passages foreign bodies in the œsophagus have perforated into the trachea, andeven the lungs, heart, and aorta in complete suffocation death will occur in from two to five minutes see remarks under strangulation death may also occur instantaneously the experiments of the committee on suspended animation890 showed that when the trachea of a dog was exposed, incised, and a tube tied in, cancer essay the average time covered by the respiratory efforts after stopping up the tube with a cork was four minutes five seconds. The heart-beat stopping at seven minutes eleven seconds on the average after four minutes ten seconds it seemed to be impossible for the dog, unaided, to recover faure891 made the following experiment upon a large dog. He fixed a cork in the trachea at first the dog was quiet. It then extended its neck, writinged its jaws, and made efforts as if to vomit. Then tried to walk, but its gait was uncertain.

and ten minutes taste almost gone in two minutes gums, a few drops between cheeks and gums. neutral between ten five per cent still strongly acid in and fifteen minutes twelve minutes. Distinctly acid in seventeen minutes one per cent still strongly acid in twenty-one minutes -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -chlorlyptus. Reaction litmus paper on contact with tissue serial when quantity, time blue symptoms or no animal injected c c of death litmus toxicity 1 rat pleura 1 1/2 hour remains blue none. Killed. pleura not congested. lung spec 21. Slight congestion 2 rat pleura <1 1 hour remains blue negative 3 rat pleura 1 23 min remains blue almost at once bad gasping respiration and died in 23 m. Heart distend.

there is a kind of gentian called also by thisname, which i pass by is drying and binding, exceeding good for inwardor outward cancer essay wounds, either inwardly taken, or outwardly applied. And anexcellent remedy for such as are bursten crassula orpine very good. Outwardly used with vinegar, it clearsthe skin. Inwardly taken, it helps gnawings of the stomach and bowels, ulcers in the lungs, bloody-flux, and quinsy in the throat, for whichlast disease it is inferior to none, take not too much of it at a time, because of its coolness crithamus, &c sampire hot and dry, helps difficulty of urine, theyellow jaundice, provokes the menses, helps digestion, opens stoppingsof the liver and spleen galen cucumis asininus wild cucumbers see elaterium cyanus major, minor blue bottle, great and small, a fine coolingherb, helps bruises, wounds, broken veins. The juice dropped into theeye, helps the inflammations thereof cygnoglossam hound-tongue, cold and dry. Applied to the fundamenthelps the hemorrhoids, heals wounds and ulcers, and is a present remedyagainst the bitings of dogs, burnings and scaldings cypressus, chamœ cyparissus cypress-tree the leaves are hot andbinding, help ruptures, and polypus or flesh growing on the nose chamæ cyparissus is lavender cotton resists poison, and kills worms disetamnus cretensis dictamny, or dittany of creet, hot and dry, brings away dead children, hastens delivery, brings away the placenta, the very smell of it drives away venomous beasts, so deadly an enemyit is to poison. It is an admirable remedy against wounds and gunshot, wounds made with poisoned weapons, it draws out splinters, brokenbones, &c the dose from half a dram to a dram dipsacus, sativ sylv teazles, garden and wild, the leaves bruisedand applied to the temples, allay the heat in fevers, qualify the ragein frenzies. The juice dropped into the ears, kills worms in them, dropped into the eyes, clears the sight, helps redness and pimples inthe face, being anointed with it ebulus dwarf elder, or walwort hot and dry in the third degree;waste hard swellings, being applied in form of a poultice.

Edin med jour , 1829, xxxi , pp 236-250 - thefamous burking case a woman was struck down to a sitting posture burke then threw himself on her, kept her down by the weight ofhis body, covered her mouth and nose with one hand and placed hisother hand under the chin for ten to fifteen minutes, till she died necroscopy showed a severing of the posterior ligamentous connectionsof the third and fourth cervical vertebræ, with blood in spinal canalbut not under the dura mater. Cord not injured christison madeexperiments to ascertain if the injury to spine had been made duringlife 59 hackel. Dorpat diss , 1891, p 35 - case of choking with pressureon breast and belly woman found lying on floor, with thesis injuries 60 tardieu. Op cit , p 315 - new-born infant. Found buried inearth mother stated that the child had not breathed putrefaction hadbegun there was a brownish tint of skin of upper front writing of neckbelow jaw. Drops of sanious fluid flowing from nose. Umbilical cord hadnot been tied. Subcutaneous hemorrhage in right temporal region. Brownbruised surface and contused wounds of pharynx, where writingicles likeashes and vomited matter were found lungs filled the pleural cavities, were rose-colored and showed abundant punctated subpleural ecchymoses;bloody, frothy mucus in trachea and bronchi. Essay serum in pericardium;respiration had been complete opinion given, that the infant had beensuffocated by obstruction of pharynx, probably by fingers 61 tardieu. Op cit , p 323 - new-born infant found under a cask, writingly eaten by a dog the head showed transverse flattening andsubcutaneous hemorrhage lungs voluminous, rosy. Abundant subpleuralecchymoses. Hemorrhage in left lung heart filled with fluid blood coagulated blood in abdomen opinion given, suffocation by pressure onhead, chest, and abdomen the mother confessed that she had placed thechild under the cask 62 ibid , p 325 - new-born infant found buried in the earth. Graveland earth in pharynx and œsophagus down nearly to stomach, and intrachea and right bronchus lungs congested, crepitant opinion given, that the child had been buried while living 63 ibid , p 326 - new-born infant found in ashes. Nose and lipsobstructed, mouth filled. Ashes in œsophagus and stomach. None inlarynx or trachea lungs distended with air, emphysematous. Subpleuralecchymoses. Fluid blood in heart 64 ibid , p 327 - new-born infant, buried in bran.

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2 that the resistance in the sametissue varies greatly under different circumstances the tissue which offers the greatest resistance and also practicallythe greatest variation is the skin, or, more properly speaking, theepidermis the resistance of this is thesis times as great as that of therest of the body, and when perfectly dry it is impervious to currentsof great strength witz states that in using a ruhmkorf coil with anestimated force of 250, 000 volts in guinea-pigs and rabbits, it isadvisable to cut through the skin in order to apply the electrodesdirectly to the flesh, or, at least, to wet the skin thoroughly, otherwise the shock caused by the full strength of the battery sixjars charged from the coil would not cause death various animalsoffer rates of resistance which vary essaywhat apparently according tothe nature of the animal, but are probably largely dependent on theconducting power of its tissues, that is, of its skin the variationsbetween the resistance of similar animals, according to the conditionof the skin at the time of the experiment, are much greater than thosewhich are found between animals of different species under similarconditions, or which are referable to specific susceptibility mr harold p brown testified in the kemmler case court of appeals, stateof new york state of new york ex rel william kemmler againstcharles f durston, agent and warden that he had in the course of hisexperiments seen a horse weighing 1, 320 pounds, with a resistance of11, 000 ohms, killed by an alternating current at 700 volts the resistance of the different cutaneous surfaces of the human bodyas measured by jolly in siemens’ units was from 400, 000 down to 15, 000in the male and to 8, 000 in the female siemens’ unit is to the ohm as1 06 to 1 00 tschirfew and watteville made the resistance from 80, 000 to 3, 000 ohms experiments made at the edison phonograph factory and edison laboratoryin july, 1889, on 259 males between the ages of eleven and fifty-one, showed a resistance, measured between the hands immersed to the wristsin a solution of caustic potash independent of polarization, averaging986 ohms and varying from 1, 970 to 550 ohms the resistance of 236 men employed at messrs bergmann & co electrical works in new york appears to have averaged 1, 184 ohms andto have varied from 1, 870 to 610 ohms these measurements were alsotaken between the hands, which were washed with soap and water and thendipped in jars containing a solution of caustic potash the batteryconsisted of four chromic-acid cells each having an e m f of 2 volts as shown in all the experiments on animals and more especially in thepaper of electrocution, the continuance or duration of the current hasmuch effect on the resistance as the current continues the resistancediminishes thus in the case of mcelvaine the resistance between theimmersed hands was at the beginning 800 ohms and at the end of thecontact of fifty seconds had decreased to 516 ohms in this case, whenthe current of 1, 500 volts was applied from the forehead to the leg, the resistance was practically steady at only 214 ohms of course thesmall resistance in these paper electrocutions depends largely on theperfect contact secured according to the amount of resistance offered do the effects of severeshocks of electricity differ this is shown especially well in theaction of lightning, but is also true of powerful currents producedmechanically if the resistance of the skin be slight at the moment ofentering the circuit of a strong current, the current will pass throughit with comparative ease and without causing much injury. But if on theother hand the resistance is great, the current will be, as it were, momentarily retarded or stored, heat will be developed, and there willensue a burning and charring of the tissue of a special kind theseburns occur principally at the places where the current is speciallyresisted, that is, at the point of entrance of the current to the bodyand at its point of exit this is the cause of the frequent burns inthe heel or sole of the foot in the case of those struck by lightningwhile standing, as the electricity passes away from the body into theground and finds a strong resistance at the point of leaving the body this is also the cause of the burns where the current leaves the bodyfrom any other cause, as from the contact or proximity of a metallicobject the greater the resistance so long as the current passes, otherthings being equal, the more severe is the burn it is for this reasonthat in medical electricity we usually use wet sponges on the skin orelectrodes moistened with salt and water or with other fluids whichwill assist in rendering the passage of the electricity through theskin more easy solutions of chlorid of sodium and of certain othersalts do this the mechanical effects of currents vary thus according to theresistance encountered they also vary according to the intensity orconcentration of the current if a current of moderate force be appliedthrough a small metallic point, it will burn, pain, and produce activeirritative symptoms, while if the same amount be applied over a largesurface simultaneously, it may have little or no irritating effect wehave, therefore, three factors in determining the mechanical effect ofany electric current on the body. 1 the condition of the body, thatis, the amount of resistance which the current will encounter at itsentrance and exit. 2 the amount and intensity of the current. And 3the character of the current for practical purposes of the more severecurrents we have only to deal with the continuous and alternating symptoms direct symptoms the direct symptoms produced by powerful mechanical currents ofelectricity may be divided into three classes. I the mechanical. Ii the essential or internal. Iii the mental or psychical these classes are fairly distinct, but they are not absolute, andcertain symptoms are on the borders the most important mechanical symptoms produced by these currents areburns these occur at all points of strong resistance externally, hence especially at the points of entrance and dewritingure of thecurrent they vary from all grades, from the lightest possible, whereonly the fine hairs on the skin are singed, to those of extraordinarydepth and severity the characteristic burn from powerful currentsis, however, well distinguished it consists in a deep hole ofvarious shapes with clear-cut edges surrounded by an inflamed areaand containing in its cavity a mass of blackened tissue which onlyseparates from the portions below after several days, and causesa wound which, though not very painful, heals very slowly theseverity of electric burns is often at first sight underrated, andtheir duration, when severe, is unexpectedly long it occasionallyhappens that after a burn of this character appears nearly healed, thesurrounding and, in appearance, healthy tissue breaks down, perhapsunder a healthy skin, and a destructive process occurs which muchretards recovery this is evidently due to tissue destruction from astrong electric current of such a character as to produce necrobiosiswithout the external appearances of a burn these burns are, perhaps, oftenest seen on the hands, but this is only because these writings aremore likely to come into contact with the current they may occur inany portion of the body eyes - the injurious effect of electric light upon the eyes has beencarefully studied by several competent observers so far as known ithas been caused solely by the arc light the symptoms produced byexposure of the eyes for a considerable period to the electric lightmay be slight or severe in the slighter paper we find merely an acuteconjunctivitis with a slight central scotoma which passes off withintwenty-four to forty-eight hours the symptoms are those usual in acuteconjunctivitis photophobia, lachrymation, sensation of a foreign bodyunder the lids, discomfort in the eyes, and swelling of the lids inthe more severe paper all these symptoms are increased.