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Helps the spleen. Burned, and lyemade with the ashes, keeps the hair from falling off the head agrimonia agrimony galen eupatorium it is hot and dry inthe first degree, binding, it amends the infirmities of the liver, helps such as evacuate blood instead of water, helps inward wounds, opens obstructions outwardly applied it helps old sores, ulcers, &c inwardly, it helps the jaundice and the spleen take a dram of this orthat following, inwardly in white wine, or boil the herb in white wine, and drink the decoction galen, pliny, dioscorides, serapio ageretum hot and dry in the second degree, provokes urine and themenses, dries the brain, opens stoppings, helps the green sickness, andprofits such as have a cold, weak liver. Outwardly applied, it takesaway the hardness of the matrix, and fills hollow ulcers with flesh agnus castus, &c chast-tree the leaves are hot and dry in the thirddegree. Expel wind, consume the seed, cause chastity being only borneabout one.

The inner skin, that covers the nut, isof so binding a quality, that a scruple of it being taken by a man, orten grains by a child, soon stops any flux whatsoever. The whole nutbeing dried and beaten into powder, and a dram taken at a time, is agood remedy to stop the terms in women if you dry chesnuts, only thekernels i mean both the barks being taken away, beat them into powder, and make the powder up into an electuary with honey, so have you anadmirable remedy for the cough and spitting of blood earth chesnuts they are called earth-nuts, earth chesnuts, ground nuts, ciper-nuts, and in sussex pig-nuts a description of them were needless, for everychild knows them government and virtues they are essaything hot and dry in quality, under the dominion of venus, they provoke lust exceedingly, and stirup to those sports she is mistress of. The seed is excellent good toprovoke urine. And so also is the root, but it doth not perform itso forcibly as the seed doth the root being dried and beaten intopowder, and the powder made into an electuary, is as singular a remedyfor spitting and pissing of blood, as the former chesnut was for coughs chickweed it is so generally known to most people, that i shall not troubleyou with the description thereof, nor myself with setting forth theseveral kinds, since but only two or three are considerable for theirusefulness place they are usually found in moist and watery places, by woodsides, and elsewhere time they flower about june, and their seed is ripe in july government and virtues it is a fine soft pleasing herb under thedominion of the moon it is found to be effectual as purslain to allthe purposes whereunto it serves, except for meat only the herbbruised, or the juice applied with cloths or sponges dipped thereinto the region of the liver, and as they dry, to have it fresh applied, doth wonderfully temperate the heat of the liver, and is effectualfor all imposthumes and swellings whatsoever, for all redness in theface, wheals, pushes, itch, scabs. The juice either simply used, orboiled with hog grease and applied, helps cramps, convulsions, andpalsy the juice, or distilled water, is of much good use for all heatsand redness in the eyes, to drop essay thereof into them. As also intothe ears, to ease pains in them. And is of good effect to ease painsfrom the heat and sharpness of the blood in the piles, and generallyall pains in the body that arise of heat it is used also in hot andvirulent ulcers and sores in the privy writings of men and women, or onthe legs, or elsewhere the leaves boiled with marsh-mallows, and madeinto a poultice with fenugreek and linseed, applied to swellings orimposthumes, ripen and break them, or assuage the swellings and easethe pains it helps the sinews when they are shrunk by cramps, orotherwise, and to extend and make them pliable again by this medicine boil a handful of chickweed, and a handful of red rose leaves dried, ina quart of muscadine, until a fourth writing be consumed. Then put to thema pint of oil of trotters or sheep feet. Let them boil a good while, still stirring them well. Which being strained, anoint the grievedplace therewith, warm against the fire, rubbing it well with one hand:and bind also essay of the herb if you will to the place, and, withgod blessing, it will help it in three times dressing chick-pease, or cicers descript the garden sorts whether red, black, or white, bringforth stalks a yard long, whereon do grow thesis small and almost roundleaves, dented about the edges, set on both sides of a middle rib;at the joints come forth one or two flowers, upon sharp foot stalks, pease-fashion, either white or whitish, or purplish red, lighter ordeeper, according as the pease that follow will be, that are containedin small, thick, and short pods, wherein lie one or two pease, moreusually pointed at the lower end, and almost round at the head, yet alittle cornered or sharp.

And as it helpsthe deficiency of venus in one kind, so it spoils all her actions inanother i dare write no more of it the bay tree this is so well known that it needs no description. I shall thereforeonly write the virtues thereof, which are thesis government and virtues i shall but only add a word or two to whatmy friend has written, viz , that it is a tree of the sun, and underthe celestial sign leo, and resists witchcraft very potently, as alsoall the evils old saturn can do to the body of man, and they are nota few. For it is the speech of one, and i am mistaken if it were notmizaldus, that neither witch nor devil, thunder nor lightning, willhurt a man in the place where a bay-tree is galen said, that theleaves or bark do dry and heal very much, and the berries more than theleaves. The bark of the root is less sharp and hot, but more bitter, and hath essay astriction withal whereby it is effectual to break thestone, and good to open obstructions of the liver, spleen, and otherinward writings, which bring the jaundice, dropsy, &c the berries arevery effectual against all poison of venomous creatures, and the stingof wasps and bees. As also against the pestilence, or other infectiousdiseases, and therefore put into sundry treacles for that purpose. Theylikewise procure women courses, and seven of them given to woman insore travail of child-birth, do cause a speedy delivery, and expel theafter-birth, and therefore not to be taken by such as have not gone outtheir time, lest they procure abortion, or cause labour too soon theywonderfully help all cold and rheumatic distillations from the brainto the eyes, lungs or other writings. And being made into an electuarywith honey, do help the consumption, old coughs, shortness of breath, and thin rheums.

For the spleen being no waysaddicted to concoction, binding medicines do it harm, and not good 3 essaytimes the spleen is not only obstructed, but also hardened bymelancholy humours, and in such paper emolient medicines may be wellcalled splenicals, not such as are taken inwardly, for they operateupon the stomach and bowels, but such as are outwardly applied to theregion of the spleen and although essaytimes medicines, are outwardly applied to hardness ofthe liver, yet they differ from splenicals, because they are binding, so are not splenicals chapter vii of medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder the office of the reins is, to make a separation between the blood andthe urine. To receive this urine thus separated from the blood, is thebladder ordained, which is of a sufficient bigness to contain it both these writings of the body officiating about the urine, they are bothusually afflicted by the vices of the urine 1 by stones 2 by inflammation 3 by thick humours medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder are usually callednephriticals, and are threefold. Essay cool, others cut gross humours, and a third sort breaks the stone in the use of all these, take notice, that the constitution of thereins and bladder is such, that they abhor all binding medicinesbecause they cause stoppage of urine take notice, that the reins and bladder being subject to inflammationsendure not very hot medicines because the bladder is further remote from the centre of the body thanthe kidnies are, therefore it requires stronger medicines than thekidnies do, lest the strength of the medicine be spent before it become to the writing afflicted chapter viii of medicines appropriated to the womb these, physicians call hystericals, and to avoid multiplicity ofwords, take them in this discourse under that notion take notice that such medicines as provoke the menses, or stop themwhen they flow immoderately, are properly hystericals, but shall bespoken to by and by in a chapter by themselves as for the nature of the womb, it seems to be much like the nature ofthe brain and stomach, for experience teacheth that it is delightedwith sweet and aromatical medicines, and flies from their contraries for example. A woman being troubled with the fits of the mother, whichis drawing of the womb upward, apply sweet things, as civet, or thelike, to the place of conception, it draws it down again. But applystinking things to the nose, as assafœtida, or the like, it expels itfrom it, and sends it down to its proper place chapter ix of medicines appropriated to the joints the joints are usually troubled with cephalic diseases, and then are tobe cured by cephalic medicines medicines appropriated to the joints, are called by the namearthritical medicines the joints, seeing they are very nervous, require medicines which areof a heating and drying nature, with a gentle binding, and withal, suchas by peculiar virtue are appropriated to them, and add strength tothem it is true, most cephalics do so, yet because the joints are moreremote from the centre, they require stronger medicines for removing pains in the joints this is the method of proceeding pain is either taken away or eased, for the true cure is to take awaythe cause of the pain, essaytimes the vehemency of the pain is so greatthat you must be forced to use anodines for so physicians call suchmedicines as ease pain before you can meddle with the cause, andthis is usually when the writing pained is inflamed, for those medicineswhich take away the cause of pain being very hot, if there be anyinflammation in the writing pained, you must abstain from them till theinflammation be taken away section iii of the propriety or operation of medicines chapter i of emolient medicines the various mixtures of heat, cold, dryness, and moisture in simples, must of necessity produce variety of faculties, and operations in them, which now we come to treat of, beginning first at emolients what is hard, and what is soft, most men know, but few are able toexpress phylosophers define that to be hard which yields not totouching, and soft to be the contrary an emolient, or softeningmedicine is one which reduceth a hard substance to its propertemperature but to leave phylosophy, and keep to physic. Physicians describehardness to be two-fold 1 a distention or stretching of a writing by too much fulness 2 thick humours which are destitute of heat, growing hard in that writingof the body into which they flow so thesis properties then ought emolient medicines to have, viz tomoisten what is dry, to discuss what is stretched, to warm what iscongealed by cold. Yet properly, that only is said to mollify whichreduceth a hard substance to its proper temperature dryness and thickness of humours being the cause of hardness, emolientmedicines must of necessity be hot and moist. And although you mayperadventure find essay of them dry in the second or third degrees, yetmust this dryness be tempered and qualified with heat and moisture, forreason will tell you that dry medicines make hard writings harder mollifying medicines are known, 1 by their taste, 2 by their feeling 1 in taste, they are near unto sweat, but fat and oily. They areneither sharp, nor austere, nor sour, nor salt, neither do theymanifest either binding, or vehement heat, or cold to be in them 2 in feeling you can perceive no roughness, neither do they stick toyour fingers like birdlime, for they ought to penetrate the writings tobe mollified, and therefore thesis times if occasion be, are cuttingmedicines mixed with them chapter ii of hardening medicines galen in lib 5 de simple, med facult cap 10 determineshardening medicines to be cold and moist, and he brings essay argumentsto prove it, against which other physicians contest i shall not here stand to quote the dispute, only take notice, thatif softening medicines be hot and moist as we shewed even now thenhardening medicines must needs be cold and dry, because they arecontrary to them the universal course of nature will prove it, for dryness and moistureare passive qualities, neither can extremeties consist in moisture asyou may know, if you do but consider that dryness is not attributed tothe air, nor water, but to the fire, and earth 2 the thing to be congealed must needs be moist, therefore themedicine congealing must of necessity be dry, for if cold be joinedwith dryness, it contracts the pores, that so the humours cannot bescattered yet you must observe a difference between medicines drying, makingthick, hardening, and congealing, of which differences, a few wordswill not do amiss 1 such medicines are said to dry, which draw out, or drink up themoisture, as a spunge drinks up water 2 such medicines are said to make thick, as do not consume themoisture, but add dryness to it, as you make syrups into a thickelectuary by adding powders to them 3 such as congeal, neither draw out the moisture, nor make it thickby adding dryness to it, but contract it by vehement cold, as water isfrozen into ice 4 hardness differs from all these, for the writings of the body swell, and are filled with flegmatic humours, or melancholy blood, which atlast grows hard that you may clearly understand this, observe but these two things 1 what it is which worketh 2 what it worketh upon that which worketh is outwardly cold that which is wrought upon, is acertain thickness and dryness, of humours, for if the humour were fluidas water is, it might properly be said to be congealed by cold, but notso properly hardened thus you see cold and dryness to be the cause ofhardening this hardening being so far from being useful, that it isobnoxious to the body of man i pass it without more words i supposewhen galen wrote of hardening medicines, he intended such as makethick, and therefore amongst them he reckons up fleawort, purslain, houseleek, and the like, which assuage the heat of the humours inswellings, and stops subtil and sharp defluxions upon the lungs. But ofthese more anon chapter iii of loosening medicines by loosening here, i do not mean purging, nor that which is oppositeto astringency. But that which is opposite to stretching. I knewnot suddenly what fitter english name to give it, than loosening orlaxation, which latter is scarce english the members are distended or stretched divers ways, and ought to beloosened by as thesis, for they are stretched essaytimes by dryness, essaytimes by cold, essaytimes by repletion or fullness, essaytimes byswellings, and essaytimes by essay of these joined together i avoidterms of art as much as i can, because it would profit my countrybut little, to give them the rules of physic in such english as theyunderstand not i confess the opinion of ancient physicians hath been various aboutthese loosening medicines galen opinion was, that they might bereferred either to moistening, or heating, or mollifying, or evacuatingmedicines, and therefore ought not to be referred to a chapter bythemselves it is likely they may, and so may all other medicines be referred toheat, or coldness, or dryness, or moisture. But we speak not here ofthe writingicular properties of medicines, but of their joined properties, as they heat and moisten others, they question how they can be distinguished from such asmollify, seeing such as are loosening, and such as are emolient, areboth of them hot and moist to that, thus. Stretching and loosening are ascribed to the moveablewritings of the body, as to the muscles and their tendons, to theligaments and membranæ. But softness and hardness to such writingsof the body as may be felt with the hand. I shall make clear by asimilitude, wax is softened, being hard, but fiddle-strings areloosened being stretched and if you say that the difference lying onlyin the writings of the body is no true difference, then take notice, thatsuch medicines which loosen, are less hot, and more moistening, thansuch as soften, for they operate most by heat, these by moisture the truth is, i am of opinion the difference is not much, nay, scarcesensible, between emolient and loosening medicines.

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The fruit round, and essaytimes as big as a reasonable pippin, others smaller, as can you help me do my homework also differing in colour and taste, as russet, red, or yellow, waterish or firm, with a frize or cotton all over, with acleft therein like an apricot, and a rugged, furrowed, great stonewithin it, and a bitter kernel within the stone it sooner waxes old, and decays, than the apricot, by much place they are nursed in gardens and orchards through this land time they flower in the spring, and fructify in autumn government and virtues lady venus owns this tree, and by it opposesthe ill effects of mars, and indeed for children and young people, nothing is better to purge choler and the jaundice, than the leaves orflowers of this tree being made into a syrup or conserve let such asdelight to please their lust regard the fruit. But such as have losttheir health, and their children, let them regard what i say, theymay safely give two spoonfuls of the syrup at a time. It is as gentleas venus herself the leaves of peaches bruised and laid on the belly, kill worms, and so they do also being boiled in ale and drank, andopen the belly likewise. And, being dried, is a far safer medicine todiscuss humours the powder of them strewed upon fresh bleeding woundsstays their bleeding, and closes them up the flowers steeped allnight in a little wine standing warm, strained forth in the morning, and drank fasting, doth gently open the belly, and move it downward asyrup made of them, as the syrup of roses is made, works more forciblythan that of roses, for it provokes vomiting, and spends waterish andhydropic humours by the continuance thereof the flowers made into aconserve, work the same effect the liquor that dropped from the tree, being wounded, is given in the decoction of coltsfoot, to those thatare troubled with a cough or shortness of breath, by adding thereuntoessay sweet wine, and putting essay saffron also therein it is good forthose that are hoarse, or have lost their voice. Helps all defectsof the lungs, and those that vomit and spit blood two drams hereofgiven in the juice of lemons, or of radish, is good for them that aretroubled with the stone, the kernels of the stones do wonderfully easethe pains and wringings of the belly through wind or sharp humours, andhelp to make an excellent medicine for the stone upon all occasions, in this manner. I take fifty kernels of peach-stones, and one hundredof the kernels of cherry-stones, a handful of elder flowers fresh ordried, and three pints of muscadel. Set them in a close pot into a bedof horse-dung for ten days, after which distil in a glass with a gentlefire, and keep it for your use. You may drink upon occasion three orfour ounces at a time the milk or cream of these kernels being drawnforth with essay vervain water and applied to the forehead and temples, doth much help to procure rest and sleep to sick persons wanting it the oil drawn from the kernels, the temples being therewith anointed, doth the like the said oil put into clysters, eases the pains of thewind cholic.