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Colds, influenza -- the micro-organisms capable of producing catarrhal conditions of the nose and pharynx and most commonly isolated are b friedländer, m catarrhalis, staphylococcus, pneumococcus in infections beginning in the larynx, b influenza and streptococcus these organisms are found normally in the respiratory passages and acquire virulence only when resistance has been lowered through overwork, exposure to cold, etc “the results following the use of catarrhal vaccine combined in the non-epidemic forms and influenza mixed vaccine in the epidemic types have been very satisfactory, due to the great vascularity of the tissues acute attacks are aborted altogether or shortened in duration and the danger of complications greatly minimized ”no evidence was submitted which warrants the preceding claims noris the council aware of any reliable testimony to indicate that theadministration of the mixture here discussed is warranted or desirable on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that “catarrhal vaccine combined-lilly” and “influenzamixed vaccine-lilly” be not included in new and nonofficial remediesbecause satisfactory evidence of their value is wanting influenza serobacterin mixed-mulfordbecause of inquiry received, the council took up the considerationof “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford, ” and requested the mulfordcompany to present evidence to establish the admissibility of thepreparation to new and nonofficial remedies the mulford company sentspecimens of the serobacterin in question, an advertising circular anda letter by the director of its biologic laboratories according to the label on the package, the preparation is made fromthe following organisms. Bacillus influenzae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, pneumococcus and micrococcuscatarrhalis group this mixture is recommended by the manufacturer. “for the prophylaxis and treatment of common colds, mixed infections of the respiratory mucous membranes, acute and chronic catarrhal conditions of the nose, throat and respiratory passages ”no evidence is submitted for this recommendation except that in “coldsand bronchitis and the other common infections of the upper respiratorypassages five or six bacteria are very commonly present-- two ormore of them are nearly always present ” and the letter by thedirector of the mulford biologic laboratories expressing the beliefthat in his own case the use of the mixed vaccine has aborted orprevented colds as regards the use of this complex biologic preparation:first, the cause of common colds is, at the present time, quiteunknown one of the most striking things is that at the beginning ofa cold the organisms to be cultivated from the nasal mucous membraneare very few in number and there is no uniformity in the type oforganism found if essayone of the well-known organisms streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, influenzabacillus, etc were responsible, we should expect to find one of thempreponderating and in overwhelming numbers this is far from the case after the duration of the cold for a day or two with the increasedproduction of mucus and apparently with the infection of a mucousmembrane whose powers of resistance have been greatly lowered, bacteriaof all kinds are to be found in immense numbers there is considerablereason for believing that an ultramicroscopic organism is responsiblefor this condition see foster, journal of infectious diseases21:451 nov 1917 second, there is no acceptable clinical evidence that vaccination withthe influenza bacillus, the streptococcus, the pneumococcus or themicrococcus catarrhalis will influence the course of an infection dueto one or the other of these organisms it has been repeatedly foundthat a staphylococcus vaccine is of a certain degree of value when theinfection with the staphylococcus is localized, but it is well knownthat general systemic infections with the staphylococcus are not at allbenefited third, the letter submitted as evidence by the mulford company is notconvincing the council is not prepared to accept evidence of this sortunless it is in volume large enough to justify a definite conclusion holding that there is no evidence for the value of this mixture, thecouncil declared “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford” inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because its use is illogical sherman mixed vaccine no 40because of inquiry received the council decided to consider thispreparation and requested the manufacturer, g h sherman, detroit, mich , to submit evidence in support of the claims made for it this vaccine is said to be made from killed cultures of streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus, andstaphylococcus albus in the printed matter sent out by g h shermanthis vaccine is recommended for hay-fever, in which it is stated thatessay of the symptoms are due to bacterial invasion of the respiratorymucosa.

They are can someone do my assignment for me good also for otherinflammations. Yet it is not amiss to refrain from them in a fever, lest by their putrifying in the stomach they increase the fits theleaves and roots boiled in wine and water, and drank, do likewise coolthe liver and blood, and assuage all inflammations in the reins andbladder, provoke urine, and allay the heat and sharpness thereof thesame also being drank stays the bloody flux and women courses, andhelps the swelling of the spleen the water of the berries carefullydistilled, is a sovereign remedy and cordial in the panting and beatingof the heart, and is good for the yellow jaundice the juice droppedinto foul ulcers, or they washed therewith, or the decoction of theherb and root, doth wonderfully cleanse and help to cure them lotionsand gargles for sore mouths, or ulcers therein, or in the privy writingsor elsewhere, are made with the leaves and roots thereof. Which is alsogood to fasten loose teeth, and to heal spungy foul gums it helps alsoto stay catarrhs, or defluctions of rheum in the mouth, throat, teeth, or eyes the juice or water is singularly good for hot and red inflamedeyes, if dropped into them, or they bathed therewith it is also ofexcellent property for all pushes, wheals and other breakings forth ofhot and sharp humours in the face and hands, and other writings of thebody, to bathe them therewith, and to take away any redness in theface, or spots, or other deformities in the skin, and to make it clearand smooth essay use this medicine, take so thesis strawberries as youshall think fitting, and put them into a distillatory, or body of glassfit for them, which being well closed, set it in a bed of horse dungfor your use it is an excellent water for hot inflamed eyes, and totake away a film or skin that begins to grow over them, and for suchother defects in them as may be helped by any outward medicine succory, or chicory descript the garden succory hath long and narrower leaves than theendive, and more cut in or torn on the edges, and the root abides thesisyears it bears also blue flowers like endive, and the seed is hardlydistinguished from the seed of the smooth or ordinary endive the wild succory hath divers long leaves lying on the ground, very muchcut in or torn on the edges, on both sides, even to the middle rib, ending in a point. Essaytimes it hath a rib down to the middle of theleaves, from among which rises up a hard, round, woody stalk, spreadinginto thesis branches, set with smaller and less divided leaves on them upto the tops, where stand the flowers, which are like the garden kind, and the seed is also only take notice that the flowers of the gardenkind are gone in on a sunny day, they being so cold, that they are notable to endure the beams of the sun, and therefore more delight in theshade the root is white, but more hard and woody than the garden kind the whole plant is exceedingly bitter place this grows in thesis places of our land in waste untilled andbarren fields the other only in gardens government and virtues it is an herb of jupiter garden succory, as it is more dry and less cold than endive, so it opens more anhandful of the leaves, or roots boiled in wine or water, and a draughtthereof drank fasting, drives forth choleric and phlegmatic humours, opens obstructions of the liver, gall and spleen. Helps the yellowjaundice, the heat of the reins, and of the urine. The dropsy also;and those that have an evil disposition in their bodies, by reasonof long sickness, evil diet, &c which the greeks call cachexia adecoction thereof made with wine, and drank, is very effectual againstlong lingering agues. And a dram of the seed in powder, drank in wine, before the fit of the ague, helps to drive it away the distilled waterof the herb and flowers if you can take them in time hath the likeproperties, and is especially good for hot stomachs, and in agues, either pestilential or of long continuance. For swoonings and passionsof the heart, for the heat and head-ache in children, and for the bloodand liver the said water, or the juice, or the bruised leaves appliedoutwardly, allay swellings, inflammations, st anthony fire, pushes, wheals, and pimples, especially used with a little vinegar. As also towash pestiferous sores the said water is very effectual for sore eyesthat are inflamed with redness, for nurses’ breasts that are pained bythe abundance of milk the wild succory, as it is more bitter, so it is more strengthening tothe stomach and liver stone-crop, prick-madam, or small-houseleek descript it grows with divers trailing branches upon the ground, set with thesis thick, flat, roundish, whitish green leaves, pointed atthe ends the flowers stand thesis of them together, essaywhat loosely the roots are small, and run creeping under ground place it grows upon the stone walls and mud walls, upon the tilesof houses and pent-houses, and amongst rubbish, and in other gravellyplaces time it flowers in june and july, and the leaves are green all thewinter government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon, cold in quality, and essaything binding, and therefore very good tostay defluctions, especially such as fall upon the eyes it stopsbleeding, both inward and outward, helps cankers, and all frettingsores and ulcers.

Late health commissioner, rochester, n y. Etc , etc death by heat and cold temperature of the body the production and regulation of heat in the body is a problem byno means elucidated we consider heat production to be of internalorigin, by a complex process involving tissue metamorphosis, chemicalchanges in nutrient elements, muscular movements, etc heat regulationis accomplished, not only by variation in the loss of heat by thebody, but by what is more important, variations in the amount of heatgenerated it is an accepted physiological conclusion that there existsin the body a thermotaxic nervous mechanism which controls its normal, as well as its abnormal, manifestations of heat the average temperature of the body in health is 37° c 98 6° f , inthe axilla taken in the vagina or rectum, 9° c 1 3° f higher isnoted the daily average range of variation is about 1° c 1 8° f in disease or injury considerable variations occur. Very high, as wellas very low, temperatures are met in severe neuroses and essay forms ofmalarial disease a temperature of 42 2° c 115° f has been recorded, and after an injury 71° c 122° f 688very low temperatures are reported in several paper of acutealcoholism, accompanied by exposure to cold, where a temperature of28 8° c 75° f in the rectum was noted, recovery following 689such extreme temperatures, though authentic, are exceptional very high temperatures in febrile conditions are borne becauseremitting. And low temperatures, subject to periods of elevation, are met in wasting and other conditions very high and very lowtemperatures are also noted, just before death, in acute diseases andconditions specially involving the nervous system the degree to which the temperature may be raised without destroyinglife has been investigated by berger, bernard, chossat, and others 690their experiments show that if an elevation of temperature of the body7 20° c 13° f be maintained for any length of time in warm-bloodedanimals, death ensues depression of the temperature of warm-bloodedanimals 12° c 20° f , or even less than these degrees below thenormal, results fatally portions of the body may be frozen and yet, under appropriate treatment, recover but freezing of the whole bodymust necessarily prove fatal great differences in ability to endure extremes of heat and coldappear among different nations and in different individuals the veryyoung and the very old are unable to bear exposure to extreme cold in both, the capacity for heat production is low and the vital powersare soon enfeebled to a critical degree the healthy adult can, withproper precautions, safely endure great extremes of heat and cold the experience of arctic explorers in the expeditions of kane, nares, greely, and others has demonstrated the power of endurance, for aconsiderable period, of a temperature from 90° to 100° f below thefreezing-point on the other hand, laborers employed in pottery andother establishments, using ovens raised to 148° to 315° c 300° to600° f or higher, are often exposed for essay time without injury totemperatures approaching these intense figures effects of extreme cold legal inquiry into the conditions of death from cold occurs almostentirely in paper of unintentional exposure cold has been employed, however, with homicidal intent the depressing influence of continuedlow temperatures is observed in the death-rates of cities, in wintersof protracted severity, where the proportionate mortality amonginfants, the aged and enfeebled shows marked increase while age is aprominent predisposing and contributing factor, other causes exist exhaustion from severe and prolonged exertion, deprivation of food, intoxication, former illness, and other conditions of depression lessenthe powers of the body to resist cold thus an exposure which might besafely borne in perfect health might result fatally in the same personin conditions of depression just referred to case 1 investigation may be demanded in case of the death ofa young children b the injured c the insane a in young children - this may be in the new-born or older children in the new-born exposure to cold soon causes death, as warmth isessential to the life of the young being the length of time necessaryto a fatal issue is modified by several conditions in the immature orprematurely born infant the resisting power is much less than in thechild born at full term and otherwise healthy in paper of suspectedinfanticide by exposure the question of the maturity of the child atbirth is to be decided careful examination of the place in which thebody was discovered should be made as to its lack of warmth. And thedegree of external cold at the time of probable exposure should berecorded the circumstances as to whether the exposure was inadvertentor accidental, as in paper of premature or unexpected delivery, orwhether from intentional and deliberate purpose or from culpableneglect, should be carefully considered the post-mortem examinationshould decide whether the appearances and conditions of the body arethose peculiar to death from cold case 2 death may occur from culpably careless exposure to cold, as acontributory if not as a direct cause, in such conditions ofenfeeblement criminal neglect to provide medical attendance, food, andother essentials has been proven in essay paper of the so-called “faithcure” or “prayer cure ” exposure may be resorted to with deliberatehomicidal intent it may, in essay paper of death, become an importantlegal question to decide whether a studied and persistent neglect ofthis nature may not have been followed, with the purpose of getting ridof a troubleessay care paper 2 and 3 b exposure of the injured or wounded, thereby inducing essaygrave condition or complication which under proper care would havebeen avoided, may raise an important question in injuries inflictedby another, with or without criminal intent it is undeniable thatserious or fatal results may follow a slight wound, otherwise trivial, where the injured person was subjected, accidentally or intentionally, to extreme cold for a considerable period while such paper arecomparatively rare, they may demand investigation c exposure of the insane - while it must be admitted that theinsane subject is usually indifferent to matters of temperature, deathfrom exposure to cold may call for special examination carelessness, incompetence, or wilful neglect on the writing of nurses or keepers ofinsane hospitals, or deliberate criminal intent in such or othershaving the care of or an interest in the death of an insane person maylead to a judicial inquiry sudden death has been reported as occurring, in several paper, afterthe ingestion of large quantities of cold water when the person wasgreatly heated it is essaywhat difficult to explain all such paperreported on a single line of causation essay observers have attributeddeath to syncope or asthenia by the shock produced, in the suddeneffect of the cold upon the sympathetic nervous system inducing heartfailure this seems the most natural explanation others consider the causative factor to be the formation of thrombosesin the capillaries of the brain, lungs, and other organs, inducingactive and obstructive congestions causing death by apnœa or coma others regard these paper as similar to “heat apoplexy ”symptoms under the influence of external cold, the vessels of the skin arecontracted and the internal splanchnic areas dilated thus the surfaceof the body contains less blood and the internal organs a largerproportion this vascular change is one of the important factors inmaintaining the uniform temperature of the body the thermometer, placed in the mouth, in such conditions frequently indicates a rise oftemperature this is probably due, not only to the increased volumeof blood collected in the internal organs, but also to an increasedproduction of heat through a thermogenic action in exposure for a time to severe cold the nose, ears, cheeks, hands, feet, and other portions of the body, after the first appearance ofdusky lividity, become bloodless and white, lose sensation, and becomecongealed. A condition known as “frost-bite ” from this, recoverywithout injury is possible under appropriate treatment, by which thetemperature is gradually raised and the circulation restored wherethe latter result is not secured, the writing becomes gangrenous and isultimately removed by a process of inflammation and sloughing if the application of cold be protracted and the temperatureextreme, the loss of heat becomes rapid and symptoms of depressionof the heart action appear painful sensations of the surface andother portions of the body are experienced, succeeded by impairedsensation and anæsthesia the skin acquires a dusky, reddish, andlivid appearance, with the formation occasionally of vesicles orblisters with the lessened sensation stiffness of the limbs appears, due to failing muscular contractility the congestion of the centralportions of the nervous system induces a condition of advancing stupor, resulting in complete coma with ultimate suspension of respiration andthe heart action death from exposure to cold may be rapid or slow in paper of recoverythe period of reaction is a critical one the depression of the heartis apt to continue, and gangrene of writings of the body is likely tooccur ulcers and sores healing with difficulty develop in essay paper treatment in the treatment of those who are suffering from the effects of extremecold, the restoration of the congealed or “frost-bitten” portions ofthe body should be gradually accomplished raising the temperaturerapidly is liable to induce the death and destruction of the affectedwritings ice or snow should, at first, be rubbed upon the frozen writing, to be succeeded later by cold water the patient should be placed ina cool room and distant from the fire or source of heat as soon aswarmth begins to return the writing should be enveloped in wool, cotton, or essay substance of poor conducting powers if the whole body bechilled, frictions of the surface with stimulating lotions are ofbenefit, wrapping the person in woollen or fur coverings or garmentsafterward hot coffee or alcoholic stimulants are of value as restoratives, butthe latter are to be avoided during an exposure to cold post-mortem appearances the appearances indicative of death from cold are sufficiently markedto enable one to decide whether exposure to cold was the chiefdetermining cause of death, provided that a careful consideration ofthe circumstances of season, temperature, place, and other conditionsbe also had in the examination of a body in a case of apparent death from cold, thelimbs and internal organs may be found frozen it must be rememberedthat this occurs after, not before, death. And the frozen conditionmust not be mistaken for “rigor mortis ”in paper where a body is found, in freezing conditions of atmosphere, showing commencing putrefaction, the death must not be hastilyattributed to cold, which prevents putrefaction it is evident that ifcold was the cause of death the temperature of the body had been raisedsince that event, or, more probably, death occurred from other causesand the body remained essay time before becoming frozen the finding of a body in the snow or frozen in severe weather must notpreclude the search for other causes of death, such as apoplexy, etc , which may have occurred anterior to the freezing observers generally have agreed upon the presence of certainpost-mortem conditions in paper of death from cold externally - upon the skin are found dusky reddish patches, irregularin outline, which are in sharp contrast with the general pallor of thesurface krajewskey, 691 ogston, 692 dieberg, 693 and others, in theseveral series of paper reported by them, all describe this condition the skin otherwise is pale internally - the viscera, including the brain, are congested the heartcontains a large quantity of blood in the cavities of both sides, andthe large vessels leading from it are also full the color of the bloodis a bright red, resembling its arterial hue this condition has beengenerally noted and described. But essay excellent observers have notreferred to it effects of extreme heat the application of moderate heat to the surface of the body causesdilatation of the cutaneous capillaries in such application theexhalant and perspiratory function of the skin is increased, by whichmeans a rise in general body temperature is prevented if, however, severe physical exertion accompany the exposure, a more pronouncedresult is induced and a depressing effect upon the nervous systembecomes manifest if the degree of heat be raised and the exertionincreased and prolonged, marked depression ensues under circumstancesof quiet and rest a high degree of temperature is borne by man withoutdepression or discomfort, but with continued and severe muscular effortthe rise in animal temperature is productive of distress and depressingconditions in the turkish or russian baths, in the healthy subject, a temperature of 48 8° to 54 4° c 120° to 130° f produces profuseperspiration but no depression, and a plunge in or affusion of coldwater is not only borne with impunity but is acceptable in conditionsof heat accompanied by physical exhaustion, such sudden exposure tocold would prove extremely dangerous in the condition of rest, exposed to external heat, the tendency toelevation of body temperature arises from the external causes alone, which in no way specially modify the nutritive functions but in thesecond condition the internal processes of nutrition, which have beensubject to great stimulation, are suddenly embarrassed by suppressionof the compensating activity of the cutaneous surface, and severeorganic and nervous derangements follow in the summer season the temperature rises to 32 3° c 90° f andeven much higher in certain localities during the prevalence of suchheat, the mortality among young children, the aged and enfeebled isvery marked. These two periods of life being very susceptible to thedepressing effects of heat a high temperature is easily borne if theair be pure and the atmosphere be not saturated with moisture telluricelectric conditions also have a modifying influence, undoubted thoughobscure in certain occupations an intensely heated atmosphere is endured withimpunity for a considerable time, provided the air be maintained in acondition of purity and water be supplied to the person exposed thestokers upon ocean steam-ships, where a forced draught is employed, aresubjected to extreme heat, essaytimes reaching 60° c 140° f resortto forced and continuous ventilation of the stoke-rooms, with shorthours of duty, renders tolerance of the high temperatures possible sunstroke the terms “sunstroke, ” “insolation, ” “coup de soleil, ” areapplied to conditions induced, not alone by exposure to the rays ofthe sun, but rather by a combination of great heat with other excitingcauses they are used to designate attacks occurring in very hotweather after exposure to solar or other sources of extreme heat the striking and usual phenomena are exhaustion, unconsciousness, stertorous respiration, and death, occurring by syncope, within afew moments or hours in a number of paper the symptoms of cerebralapoplexy with death by coma are present in others, the condition seems one of complete exhaustion the majorityof paper seem to be a combination of these several conditions, withdeath resulting from syncope the ordinary phenomena of the attack are pain in the head, hurriedrespiration essaytimes stertorous, violent beating of the heart withfailing of its power, oppression within the chest and, occasionally, nausea and vomiting the pupils are essaytimes dilated and essaytimescontracted, but in all paper exhibit lessened sensitiveness to light the suddenness of the attack modifies the symptoms developed pathological conditions these are exhaustion with syncopic tendency and a rapid rise in thetemperature of the body to a point destructive to the activity of thenervous centres this is accompanied by an abnormal condition of theblood, resulting from loss of its watery portions, with retention ofeffete products and impaired aeration a tendency to general stasis, specially marked by congestions of the lungs and brain, is present the change in the blood is a very important factor in essay paper, notfatal at the outset, this induces a septic condition the greatly elevated temperature of the body undoubtedly producescertain modifications which type it, in essay respects, as a febriledisease. But this, with the septic tendency due to blood changes, isnot sufficient to designate it as a purely “thermal fever, ” as essayhave claimed it is essaything more than this sunstroke occurs more commonly in tropical than temperateclimates;694 and usually in the day-time, at the period of greatestsolar activity, those attacked being engaged in labor involvingconsiderable exertion it occasionally, though rarely, occurs at night the military service affords abundant opportunity for observation herethe seizures are on the march, rarely in camp fatigue, prolonged andextreme exertion, ill-adjusted clothing and accoutrements, with thedeprivation of cool water, are fully as active factors as the heat ofthe sun the death-rate ranges between forty and fifty per cent, themild paper being excluded death in essay paper is marked by syncope, in others by apnœa, though the majority seem to die by a combinationof both, as in most paper the pulmonary congestion is more or lesspronounced undoubtedly the character of the symptoms and mode of deathare influenced, in thesis paper, by individual tendencies leading toapoplectic conditions or to cardiac or other complications treatment this must be adjusted to the pathological conditions of the patient as already indicated, two classes of paper are met. One marked byexhaustion, with tendency to death by syncope. The other, a state ofor tendency to cerebral congestion or apoplectic conditions exactlyopposite methods of treatment are demanded in the first, frequencyand feebleness of the heart action, with faintness of the heartsounds and embarrassment of respiration, indicate the tendency todeath by nervous exhaustion, and must be met by placing the patientin a condition of absolute rest and quiet in a cool place stimulantsmust be promptly administered, though cautiously on account of thetendency to nausea and vomiting hypodermic injections of alcohol orether, or rectal enemata of turpentine, alcohol, or other stimulants, afford means of securing speedy effects when the stomach is irritable carbonate of ammonia and other cardiac stimulants are recommended depleting agents, or such as prove depressing, are to be avoided inessay paper, hypodermic injections of small doses of morphine provebeneficial individual paper must modify therapeutic procedures in the second class of paper the tendency to cerebral congestionindicates sedative and depleting procedures blood-letting has beenrecommended by essay authors, if employed with extreme judgment anddiscrimination 695 cold applied to the head and also to the wholebody by rubbing with ice696 or by effusion and the wet sheet, orother means, is indicated if the temperature is high 104° to 105° f active catharsis, by promptly acting purgative enemata, is also to beresorted to in most paper the convulsions occurring in essay paper aresuccessfully modified and controlled by inhalations of small quantitiesof chloroform post-mortem appearances these, though not clearly characteristic, are pronounced in essay paperno distinct conditions are found 697 local congestions are present innearly all paper upon the skin are found petechial and livid spots, pallor being occasionally noted ecchymoses and subserous hemorrhagesare also common these conditions have been described as resemblingthose of spotted typhus levick rigor mortis is marked and occurs early, putrefaction beginning soonafter death the lungs are highly congested and often œdematous, andeffusions of serum are frequently found in the pleural cavities 698the heart is usually changed in color and consistence, with the leftventricle contracted and the aorta empty, while the right ventricleand pulmonary arteries are dilated and engorged the blood is fluidand dark 699 the large vessels of the pia and dura are full ofdark blood congestion of the cerebral mass is not always noted theventricles contain serum. And extravasations of blood into the cervicalsympathetic ganglia and vagus are essaytimes found the kidneys areusually moist and œdematous. The liver and spleen congested and dry burns and scalds for all purposes of practice it is unnecessary to draw any distinctionbetween a burn and a scald, for in reality none exists, except asregards the nature of the causative agent in essay paper requiringinvestigation, this may prove to be a matter of much importance definition - a burn is an injury produced by the application to thebody of a heated substance, flame or radiant heat a scald is an injury produced by the application of a liquid at ornear its boiling-point appearances as indicating origin a hot body may produce a burn of any intensity, ranging betweenreddening of the skin and complete charring of the tissues, accordingas its temperature is elevated and the period of contact prolonged. Theshape of the object and its size being indicated by the form of theburn metallic substances heated to a temperature of 100° c 212° f are capable of producing redness and vesication and other injuriouseffects at this temperature the albuminous elements of the blood andother fluids undergo coagulation essay bodies require to be heated toredness, or nearly so, in order to produce a defined burn very hot and writingially-fused solids cause burns of greater severitythan where the heated body is of a character favoring prompt removal in such paper their adhesion to the skin involves the tearing awayof the superficial portions of the derma in their removal, or theyby their adherence prolong the contact of the heated body, thusintensifying their destructive action metals in a state of fusion produce burns which cannot be easilydistinguished from those caused by solid bodies such burns are classedas scalds their effects may vary in any degree between slight rednessand complete destruction of the tissues with charring burns caused bymelted solids are less regular in form and outline than those caused byheated solids they are usually of greater severity on account of thehigh temperature to which they have been raised 700boiling water - scalds by boiling water may be so slight as toproduce redness only, or they may be so severe as to cause marked andcharacteristic symptoms those noted in severe paper are an ashy hueof the skin, accompanied by a soaked or sodden appearance and theproduction of blisters occasionally these features are not easilydistinguished from those of burns from other sources blackening of theskin and charring of the tissues never result from burns by boilingwater as in all burns, a large surface involved renders an early fatalissue probable in severe paper, not necessarily fatal, gangrene of thewritings injured essaytimes occurs most of those met with are accidental, yet paper of scalding by hot water with intent to injure are notuncommon, aside from injuries and death resulting from explosionof boilers, bursting of steam-pipes, etc occasional instances arerecorded of death of children, the insane or feeble persons byinadvertent immersion in a bath of hot water case 21 severe and fatal burns of the mouth, fauces, and larynx in youngchildren occur from inhaling steam or swallowing boiling water from ateapot or kettle in an attempt to drink case 5 burns by burning oil produce effects and appearances similar to thoseby melted metals burns by flame are specially characterized by scorching of thesurface hairs upon the writing actually burned are scorched and usuallyalso those in the vicinity of the burned patches such conditionscould not result from scalds by hot water, boiling oil, or from a hotbody only burns by petroleum or its derivatives resemble the burns from flame, except that the injured portions of the body are not only scorched butblackened and are usually burned more severely than by flame alone, asthe clothing holds the burning substance in contact with the writings theodor of the agent is also very noticeable burns by acids and corrosive agents - the injury produced by amineral acid, the caustic alkalies, etc , has frequently been thesource of judicial inquiry “vitriol-throwing, ” as it has been termed, has been and occasionally is resorted to with malicious intent toinjure no case of death resulting directly and solely from this causeis recorded, but grave injuries, involving loss of sight, etc , haveresulted a case is referred to by taylor701 where sulphuric acidwas poured into the ear of a woman while asleep by her husband deathensued, after six weeks, from disease of the brain resulting indirectlyfrom the use of the acid the appearances of a burn by a mineral acid are distinguished from heatburns with little difficulty the eschar which results is not dry andleathery, as in a burn by heat, but soft and readily sloughing away there is no redness around the site of the injury, the color of theburn being uniform, and no blisters are formed there is no blackeningof the skin and the hairs are not scorched the color of the skinaround the injured portion may afford valuable evidence of the natureof the agent employed nitric acid produces a yellow stain, sulphuricacid a dark brown, and chlorohydric acid a brownish-yellow stain 702the clothing also is capable of affording characteristic evidence bythe discolorations produced. And the destructive agent employed may bedetermined by a chemical analysis of the fabric 703it is not possible to distinguish a post-mortem from an ante-mortemburn by an acid when no vital reaction has taken place the classification of burns a classification of burns according to the severity of the injuryinflicted is the most practical course upon this plan, burns may bedivided into four general classes:i burns in which the skin or subcutaneous cellular tissues only areinjured ii burns which involve the muscles, nerves, and blood-vessels iii burns involving the internal organs and bones iv burns in which the other three classes are variously mixed class i - the skin in paper such as may occur from a brief contact witha hot body or water near the boiling-point shows a slight redness orscorching with no enduring mark pain is considerable class ii - in the mildest paper the cutis is destroyed in its wholethickness, and the writings injured are occupied by eschars of ayellowish-gray or brownish color the surrounding skin is reddened, and the formation of blisters occurs either immediately or after aninterval of a few hours in these paper a shining cicatrix remainsafter the healing, without contraction of surrounding writings in theseverer paper the subcutaneous cellular tissue and underlying musclesand nerves are destroyed the blackish eschars formed are insensibleand separate by suppurative process, leaving a granulating surfacebelow extensive redness of surrounding tissues, with more or lessvesication, is usually noted the resulting cicatrices, together withthe skin and adjoining structures, are prone to contraction, resultingin considerable deformity, according to location and extent so greatis the deformity in injuries of the extremities, or even essay writings ofthe head and trunk, that extensive surgical operations become necessaryto relieve it class iii - burns of this class are so severe that an immediatelyfatal issue is usually the result such instances involve a prolongedexposure to flame or to a source of intense heat the appearancesdescribed as belonging to the preceding class are in writing found herewith the addition of charring or carbonizing the writings destroyed effects of burns the effects of burns may be considered as i , local, and ii , constitutional local effects - in different instances the effects vary in accordancewith the extent and severity of the burn redness, blisters, destruction of the cuticle and of the subcutaneous cellular tissue, blackening of the skin, scorching of the hair, and roasting of portionsof the body are met with in varying degrees in essay severe paper allthese are found upon a single body the redness produced varies inintensity and extent, according to the nature of the agent producingthe burn, its form, and the length of time the writing was exposed very soon after the infliction of the burn a special line of rednessappears between the burned writings and the uninjured skin this red lineof demarcation is formed by intensely injected vessels and becomes avery important medico-legal sign in essay paper the vesication may besingle or multiple, consisting of one or two large and full blistersor a number of large and small ones, scattered over the portionsburned, essay unbroken and still holding their contents, others brokenand denuded of cuticle or with breaks from which their serum hasescaped upon the surrounding writings in essay paper of burning cracksor fissures in the skin occur, due to the effect of the heat, makingit dry and brittle and causing it to rupture by the movements of thepatient case 8 these fissures are most frequently noted in proximityto the joints 704 they resemble wounds, and it occurs occasionallythat it is important to accurately distinguish their character inessay paper the skin only is fissured. In others the subjacent tissuesare also involved this difference depends upon the depth of the burn in the first condition the skin splits, leaving the subcutaneous fatexposed, which in essay instances is writingially melted by the heat andflows out over the edge of the crack upon the surrounding skin paper8, 13 the blood-vessels in such paper usually are not burned and, owing to their elasticity, remain stretching across the fissure case14 the smaller may be seen by careful examination with a lens:they should always be looked for in the second class of injuriesthe vessels are involved in the burn and break with the cracking ofthe skin the importance of careful observation of these fissures isemphasized in paper of apparent wounds associated with burning it maybe necessary to decide whether the wounds are the result of the actionof heat as above described or were caused by essay sharp instrument orweapon careful inspection of the edges of the wounds will show whetherthey are ragged, as the result of fissure, or clean-cut by essay sharpinstrument the absence of evidences indicating hemorrhage upon thesurrounding writings and the detection of uncut blood-vessels extendingacross the fissure will establish the differential diagnosis wounds ofthe above character resulting from the action of fire may exist on thesame body with wounds of actual violence it is important, therefore, in all paper to examine each wound with special care and record itsposition, shape, depth, and other characteristics constitutional effects - as in all sudden and violent injuries, theeffect of a severe burn upon the nervous system is very marked thisis manifest in the symptoms of “shock, ” with pallor and coldness ofthe surface of the body, a feeble pulse, chills or shivering, and atendency to collapse in other paper, proving immediately fatal, thesesymptoms are followed by obstructed respiration with death from comasucceeding in other paper convulsions precede death, while in such asare not immediately fatal a reaction more or less imperfect ensues uponthe first constitutional symptoms death from cerebral congestion or effusion may result before anydefinite evidence of reaction appears in essay instances pulmonarycongestion or œdema occurs, with or without pleural effusion, terminating in death before reaction this period usually coversthe first two days in essay paper immediate death results fromthe depression produced by the severity of the pain during thesubsequent two weeks a period of inflammatory reaction succeeds, wheninflammations of the thoracic and abdominal viscera, with ulcerativeprocesses in essay organs, are developed and induce a fatal termination paper 10, 11, 16 causes of death the causes of death are due to several conditions this factis explained in writing by the relation which exists between thecerebro-spinal and sympathetic nervous systems, and of the nervoussupply of the surface to that of the internal organs, which in paperof extensive injury proportionately modify the conditions of thevisceral organs as death in burning results from various causes, it isconvenient to consider them under two classes:1st those immediately fatal 2d those fatal after an interval the first division would include paper in which the deprivation offresh air and the presence of asphyxiating products of combustion carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were the immediate causes of deathby suffocation or asphyxia paper 9, 18 accidents in endeavoring to escape or injuries by falling wallsor timbers may cause death immediately, and burning the body occursubsequently immediate death may result from syncope or collapse from theviolence of the shock to the nervous system by the pain resulting fromthe burns the second division includes those conditions where death may resultearly, from a series of causes less immediate than those just mentioned cerebral congestion and effusion, resulting in death from coma, is not unusual case 15 in this connection taylor705 cites a caseof alleged poisoning by opium, in the treatment of a burn, in a childdying comatose, and emphasizes the undesirability of administeringopium or its preparations to children in paper of burns of anyseverity the danger claimed to exist is hardly to be considered in the case referred to, abernethy, who was a witness in the case, ascribed death to coma induced by the effect of the burn thepowerfully depressing influence of the pain in sensitive organizationsand liability to death from shock therefrom must be remembered inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract or organs arecommon results.

I desire my book should be beneficial, not hurtful to the vulgar, but myrobalans of all sorts, especiallychebs, bellericks and emblicks, purge flegm very gently, and withoutdanger of all these give me leave to commend only one to you as of specialconcernment which is juniper berries seeds college sorrel, agnus castus, marsh-mallows, bishop weed trueand common, amomus, dill, angellica, annis, rose-seed, smallage, columbines, sparagus, arach, oats, oranges, burdocks, bazil, barberries, cotton, bruscus or knee-holly, hemp, cardamoms greater andlesser, carduus benedictus, our lady thistles, bastard, saffron, caraway, spurge greater and lesser, coleworts, onions, the kernels ofcherry stones, chervil, succory, hemlock, citrons, citruls, gardenscurvy-grass, colocynthis, coriander, samphire, cucumbers gardenand wild, gourds, quinces, cummin, cynosbatus, date-stones, carrotsenglish, and cretish, dwarf-elder, endive, rocket, hedge mustard, orobus, beans, fennel, fenugreek, ash-tree keys, fumitory, brooms, grains of paradise, pomegranates, wild rue, alexanders, barley, whitehenbane, st john wort, hyssop, lettice, sharp-pointed-dock, spurge, laurel, lentils, lovage, lemons, ash-tree-keys, linseed, or flaxweed, gromwell, darnel, sweet trefoil, lupines, masterwort, marjoram, mallows, mandrakes, melons, medlars, mezereon, gromwell, sweet navew, nigella, the kernels of cherries, apricots, and peaches, bazil, orobus, rice, panick, poppies white and black, parsnips garden and wild, thorough wax, parsley, english and macedonian, burnet, pease, plantain, peony, leeks, purslain, fleawort, turnips, radishes, sumach, spurge, roses, rue, garden and wild, wormseed, saxifrage, succory, sesami, hartwort, common and cretish, mustard-seed, alexanders, nightshade, steves ager, sumach, treacle, mustard, sweet trefoil, wheat, both thefine flour and the bran, and that which starch is made of, vetches ortares, violets, nettles, common and roman, the stones of grapes, greekwheat, or spelt wheat culpeper that you may receive a little more benefit by these, thanthe bare reading of them, which doth at the most but tell you what theyare. The following method may instruct you what they are good for seeds are hot in the first degree linseed, fenugreek, coriander, rice, gromwell, lupines in the second dill, smallage, orobus, rocket, bazil, nettles in the third bishop weed, annis, amomus, carraway, fennel, andso i believe smallage too, let authors say what they will, for if theherb of smallage be essaywhat hotter than parsley. I know little reasonwhy the seed should not be so hot cardamoms, parsley, cummin, carrots, nigella, navew, hartwort, staves ager in the fourth water-cresses, mustard-seed cold in the first degree barley, &c in the second endive, lettice, purslain, succory, gourds, cucumbers, melons, citruls, pompions, sorrel, nightshade in the third henbane, hemlock, poppies white and black moist in the first degree mallows, &c dry in the first degree beans, fennel, fenugreek, barley, wheat, &c in the second orobus, lentils, rice, poppies, nightshade, and thelike in the third dill, smallages, bishop weed, annis, caraway, cummin, coriander, nigella, gromwell, parsley appropriated to the body of man, and so theyheat the head fennel, marjoram, peony, &c the breast nettles the heart bazil, rue, &c mustard seed, &c the stomach annis, bishop weed, amomus, smallage, cummin, cardamoms, cubebs, grains of paradise the liver annis, fennel, bishop weed, amomus, smallage, sparagus, cummin, caraway, carrots the spleen annis, caraway, water-cresses the reins and bladder cicers, rocket, saxifrage, nettles, gromwell the womb peony, rue the joints water-cresses, rue, mustard-seed cool the head lettice, purslain, white poppies the breast white poppies, violets the heart orange, lemon, citron and sorrel seeds lastly, the four greater and four lesser cold seeds, which you may findin the beginning of the compositions, as also the seed of white andblack poppies cool the liver and spleen, reins and bladder, womb andjoints according to operation essay seedsbind, as rose-seeds, barberries, shepherd purse, purslain, &c discuss dill, carrots, linseeds, fenugreek, nigella, &c cleanse beans, orobus, barley, lupines, nettles, &c mollify linseed, or flax seed, fenugreek seed, mallows, nigella harden purslain seed, &c suppure linseed, fenugreek seed, darnel, barley husked, commonlycalled french barley glutinate orobus, lupines, darnel, &c expel wind annis, dill, smallage, caraway, cummin, carrots, fennel, nigella, parsley, hartwort, wormseed breed seed rocket, beans, cicers, ash tree keys provoke the menses amomus, sparagus, annis, fennel, bishop weed, cicers, carrots, smallage, parsley, lovage, hartwort break the stone mallows, marsh-mallows, gromwell, &c stop the terms rose seeds, cummin, burdock, &c resist poison bishop weed, annis, smallage, cardamoms, oranges, lemons, citrons, fennel, &c ease pain dill, amomus, cardamoms, cummin, carrots, orobus, fenugreek, linseed, gromwell, parsley, panick assuage swellings linseed, fenugreek seeds, marsh-mallows, mallows, coriander, barley, lupines, darnel, &c * * * * *the college tells you a tale that there are such things in rerumnatura, as these, gums, rozins, balsams, and juices made thick, viz college juices of wormwood and maudlin, acacia, aloes, lees of oil, assafœtida, balsam of peru and india. Bdellium, benzoin, camphire, caranna, colophonia, juice of maudlin, euphorbium, lees of wine, leesof oil, gums of galbanum, amoniacum, anime, arabick, cherry trees, copal, elemy, juniper, ivy, plumb trees, cambuge, hypocystis, labdanum, lacca, liquid amber, manna, mastich, myrrh, olibanum, opium, opopanax, pice-bitumen, pitch of the cedar of greece, liquid and dry rozins offir-tree, larch-tree, pine tree, pine-fruit, mastich venice and cyprusturpentine sugar, white, red, and christaline, or sugar candy whiteand red, sagapen, juniper, gum, sanguis draconis, sarcocolla, scamony, styrax, liquid and calamitis, tacha, mahacca, tartar, frankincense, olibanum, tragaganth, birdlime culpeper that my country may receive more benefit than ever thecollege of physicians intended them from these, i shall treat of themseverally 1 of the juices 2 of the gums and rosins concrete juices, or juices made thick, are eithertemperate, as, juice of liquorice, white starch hot in the first degree sugar in the second labdanum in the third benzoin, assafœtida cold in the third degree sanguis draconis, acacia in the third hypocistis in the fourth opium, and yet essay authors think opium is hot becauseof its bitter taste aloes and manna purge choler gently. And scamony doth purge cholerviolently, that it is no ways fit for a vulgar man use, for itcorrodes the bowels opopoanax purges flegm very gently white starch gently levigates or makes smooth such writings as arerough, syrup of violets being made thick with it and so taken on thepoint of a knife, helps coughs, roughness of the throat, wheezing, excoriations of the bowels, the bloody-flux juice of liquorice helps roughness of the trachea arteria, whichis in plain english called the windpipe, the roughness of which causescoughs and hoarseness, difficulty of breathing, &c it allays the heatof the stomach and liver, eases pains, soreness and roughness of thereins and bladder, it quencheth thirst, and strengthens the stomachexceedingly. It may easily be carried about in one pocket, and eat alittle now and then sugar cleanses and digests, takes away roughness of the tongue, itstrengthens the reins and bladder, being weakened. Being beaten intofine powder and put into the eyes, it takes away films that grow overthe sight labdanum is in operation, thickening, heating and mollifying, itopens the passage of the veins, and keeps the hair from falling off;the use of it is usually external. Being mixed with wine, myrrh, andoil of mirtles, and applied like a plaister, it takes away filthyscars, and the deformity the small pox leaves behind them. Being mixedwith oil of roses, and dropped into the ears, it helps pains there;being used as a pessary, it provokes the menses, and helps hardness orstiffness of the womb it is essaytimes used inwardly in such medicinesas ease pains and help the cough. If you mix a little of it with oldwhite wine and drink it, it both provokes urine and stops looseness orfluxes dragons blood, cools, binds, and repels acasia, and hyposistis, do the like the juice of maudlin, or, for want of it costmary, which is the samein effect, and better known to the vulgar, the juice is made thick forthe better keeping of it. First clarify the juice before you boil it toits due thickness, which is essaything thicker than honey it is appropriated to the liver, and the quantity of a dram takenevery morning, helps the cachexia, or evil disposition of thebody proceeding from coldness of the liver. It helps the ricketsand worms in children, provokes urine, and gently without purgingdisburdens the body of choler and flegm. It succours the lungs, opensobstructions, and resists putrifaction of blood gums are either temperate, as, lacca, elemi, tragacanth, &c intemperate, and so are hot in the first degree, as bdellium, gumof ivy in the second, galbanum, myrrh, mastich, frankincense, olibanum, pitch, rozin, styrax in the third amoniacum in the fourth euphorbium gum arabick is cold colophonia and styrax soften gum arabick and tragacanth, sandarack or juniper gum, and sarcocollabind gum of cherry trees, breaks the stone styrax provokes the menses opopanax gently purges flegm from the prickly cedar when it is burned comes forth that which, withus, is usually known by the name of tar, and is excellently good forunction either for scabs, itch, or manginess, either in men or beasts, as also against the leprosy, tetters, ringworms, and scald heads all sorts of rozins fill up hollow ulcers, and relieve the body sorepressed with cold griefs the rozin of pitch-tree, is that which is commonly called burgundypitch, and is essaything hotter and sharper than the former, beingspread upon a cloth is excellently good for old aches coming of formerbruises or dislocations pitch mollifies hard swellings, and brings boils and sores tosuppuration, it breaks carbuncles, disperses aposthumes, cleansesulcers of corruption and fills them with flesh bdellium heats and mollifies, and that very temperately, being mixedwith any convenient ointment or plaister, it helps kernels in the neckand throat, scrophula, or that disease which was called the kingevil inwardly taken in any convenient medicine, it provokes themenses, and breaks the stone, it helps coughs and bitings of venomousbeasts. It helps windiness of the spleen, and pains in the sides thencecoming both outwardly applied to the place and inwardly taken, ithelps ruptures or such as are burst, it softens the hardness of thewomb, dries up the moisture thereof and expels the dead child bitumen jadaicum is a certain dry pitch which the dead sea, or lakeof sodom in india casts forth at certain times, the inhabitantsthereabouts pitch their ships with it it is of excellent use tomollify the hardness of swellings and discuss them, as also againstinflammations. The smoke of it burnt is excellently good for the fitsof the mother, and the falling-sickness. Inwardly taken in wineit provokes the menses, helps the bitings of venomous beasts, anddissolves congealed blood in the body ambergreese is hot and dry in the second degree, i will not disputewhether it be a gum or not. It strengthens nature much which waysoever it be taken, there are but few grains usually given of it at atime. Mixed with a little ointment of orange flowers, and the templesand forehead anointed with it, it eases the pains of the head andstrengthens the brain exceedingly. The same applied to the privities, helps the fits of the mother.

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And bestow it as freely as ibestow my studies upon them, or else let them look to answer it anotherday, when the lord shall come to make inquisition for blood archangel to put a gloss upon their practice, the physicians call a herb whichcountry people vulgarly know by the name of dead nettle archangel;whether they favour more of superstition or folly, i leave to thejudicious reader there is more curiosity than courtesy to mycountrymen used can someone do my assignment for me by others in the explanation as well of the names, asdiscription of this so well known herb. Which that i may not also beguilty of, take this short discription. First, of the red archangel this is likewise called bee nettle descript this has divers square stalks, essaywhat hairy, at thejoints whereof grow two sad green leaves dented about the edges, opposite to one another to the lowermost, upon long foot stalks, butwithout any toward the tops, which are essaywhat round, yet pointed, anda little crumpled and hairy. Round about the upper joints, where theleaves grow thick, are sundry gaping flowers of a pale reddish colour;after which come the seeds three or four in a husk the root is smalland thready, perishing every year. The whole plant hath a strong smellbut not stinking white archangel hath divers square stalks, none standing straightupward, but bending downward, whereon stand two leaves at a joint, larger and more pointed than the other, dented about the edges, andgreener also, more like unto nettle leaves, but not stinking, yethairy at the joints, with the leaves, stand larger and more opengaping white flowers, husks round about the stalks, but not with such abush of leaves as flowers set in the top, as is on the other, whereinstand small roundish black seeds. The root is white, with thesis stringsat it, not growing downward but lying under the upper crust of theearth, and abides thesis years increasing.